Publications by authors named "Thomas R Cochran"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pediatric cardiomyopathies: causes, epidemiology, clinical course, preventive strategies and therapies.

Future Cardiol 2013 Nov;9(6):817-48

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1601 NW 12th Avenue, 9th Floor, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Pediatric cardiomyopathies, which are rare but serious disorders of the muscles of the heart, affect at least one in every 100,000 children in the USA. Approximately 40% of children with symptomatic cardiomyopathy undergo heart transplantation or die from cardiac complications within 2 years. However, a significant number of children suffering from cardiomyopathy are surviving into adulthood, making it an important chronic illness for both pediatric and adult clinicians to understand. The natural history, risk factors, prevalence and incidence of this pediatric condition were not fully understood before the 1990s. Questions regarding optimal diagnostic, prognostic and treatment methods remain. Children require long-term follow-up into adulthood in order to identify the factors associated with best clinical practice including diagnostic approaches, as well as optimal treatment approaches. In this article, we comprehensively review current research on various presentations of this disease, along with current knowledge about their causes, treatments and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fca.13.66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3903430PMC
November 2013

Treatment-related cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood cancer.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2013 Dec 29;10(12):697-710. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Treatment advances and higher participation rates in clinical trials have rapidly increased the number of survivors of childhood cancer. However, chemotherapy and radiation treatments are cardiotoxic and can cause cardiomyopathy, conduction defects, myocardial infarction, hypertension, stroke, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance later in life. These cardiotoxic effects are often progressive and irreversible, emphasizing a need for effective prevention and treatment to reduce or avoid cardiotoxicity. Medical interventions, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and growth hormone therapy, might be used to treat cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors. Preventative strategies should include the use of dexrazoxane, which provides cardioprotection without reducing the oncological efficacy of doxorubicin chemotherapy; less-toxic anthracycline derivatives and the use of antioxidant nutritional supplements might also be beneficial. Continuous-infusion doxorubicin provides no benefit over bolus infusion in children. Identifying patient-related (for example, obesity and hypertension) and drug-related (for example, cumulative dose) risk factors for cardiotoxicity could help tailor treatments to individual patients. However, all survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity, suggesting that survivor screening recommendations for assessment of global risk of premature cardiovascular disease should apply to all survivors. Optimal, evidence-based monitoring strategies and multiagent preventative treatments still need to be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.195DOI Listing
December 2013

Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America.

J Int AIDS Soc 2013 Jun 18;16:18597. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Jackson Memorial Medical Center and the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Holtz Children's Hospital, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a primary cause of acquired heart disease, particularly of accelerated atherosclerosis, symptomatic heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiac complications often occur in late-stage HIV infections as prolonged viral infection is becoming more relevant as longevity improves. Thus, multi-agent HIV therapies that help sustain life may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events and accelerated atherosclerosis.

Discussion: Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the two-to-five-year incidence of symptomatic heart failure ranged from 4 to 28% in HIV patients. Patients both before and after HAART also frequently have asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiovascular structure. Echocardiographic measurements indicate left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in 18%, LV hypertrophy in 6.5%, and left atrial dilation in 40% of patients followed on HAART therapy. Diastolic dysfunction is also common in long-term survivors of HIV infection. Accelerated atherosclerosis has been found in HIV-infected young adults and children without traditional coronary risk factors. Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, has high mortality in late-stage AIDS patients with poor nutritional status and severely compromised immune systems. Although lymphomas have been found in HIV-infected children, the incidence is low and cardiac malignancy is rare. Rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations range from 5.6 to 8.9% in cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children with HIV-infected mothers. In non-HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers, foetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV dimension, LV mass, and septal wall thickness and with higher LV fractional shortening and contractility during the first two years of life.

Conclusions: Routine, systematic, and comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including a thorough history and directed laboratory assays, is essential for the care of HIV-infected adults and children as cardiovascular illness has become a part of care for long-term survivors of HIV infection. The history should include traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, prior opportunistic infections, environmental exposures, and therapeutic and illicit drug use. Laboratory tests should include a lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HIV viral load. Asymptomatic cardiac disease related to HIV can be fatal, and secondary effects of HIV infection often disguise cardiac symptoms, so systematic echocardiographic monitoring is warranted.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687072PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.16.1.18597DOI Listing
June 2013

Cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors: a problem with long-term consequences in need of early detection and prevention.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Sep 27;60(9):1395-6. Epub 2013 May 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24597DOI Listing
September 2013

An expert opinion on pharmacologic approaches to reducing the cardiotoxicity of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapies.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2013 Aug 27;14(11):1497-513. Epub 2013 May 27.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (D820), P.O. Box 016820, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in children. Treatment-related cardiac damage is progressive and often difficult to reverse. Strategies to minimize cardiotoxicity during treatment are crucial to prevent severe lasting effects on health and quality of life.

Areas Covered: This comprehensive review covers the pathophysiology and various presentations, both clinical and subclinical, of treatment-induced cardiotoxicity and characteristics associated with increased risk of cardiac dysfunction in childhood ALL survivors. Additionally, contemporary prevention strategies such as limiting cumulative anthracycline dose, altering drug administration schedule, the use of anthracycline structural analogs, liposomal encapsulated anthracyclines, cardioprotective agents and nutritional supplements are critically analyzed. Finally, this review covers the management options of chemotherapy-induced damage and other treatment-related cardiotoxicity.

Expert Opinion: Higher lifetime cumulative doses of anthracyclines, younger age at diagnosis, longer follow-up, female sex, higher dose rates and cranial irradiation are associated with more severe cardiotoxic effects. Long-term adverse effects of both anthracycline and non-anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents are becoming an increasing focus during treatment of childhood malignancies. There must be a careful balance between achieving remission of childhood ALL while avoiding the development of another often-fatal illness, heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2013.804911DOI Listing
August 2013

Sex-related differences in mast cell activity and doxorubicin toxicity: a study in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2014 26;42(2):361-75. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

1Division of Drug Safety Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Clinically, girls appear to be more sensitive than boys to the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, whereas the opposite may be true for adults. To identify and characterize potential sex-related differences, adult male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; some ovariectomized [OVX]) received 1 mg/kg of doxorubicin or saline iv weekly for 9, 10, or 12 weeks. Weight gain was slower in treated males. Serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides increased and those of albumin decreased in both sexes, but changes were more pronounced in treated males. Treated males had significantly more severe cardiomyopathy scores and higher serum levels of cTnT than females. The increased cardiotoxicity was accompanied by higher numbers of cardiac mast cells (MCs) and percentage of cardiac MCs undergoing degranulation. Doxorubicin-treated OVX animals had significantly increased numbers of cardiac MCs, more severe myocardial lesions, and elevated serum concentrations of cTnT compared to doxorubicin-treated normal female SHR. The severity of cardiac lesions in the OVX female was similar to that observed in doxorubicin-treated males. This study demonstrated the presence of sex-related differences in the cardiotoxic effects elicited by doxorubicin and identified variations in the level of cardiac MC activity as a factor which could possibly contribute to the male-female dissimilarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623313482778DOI Listing
September 2014