Publications by authors named "Thomas P Carpenter"

9 Publications

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Implicit associations related to physical disability among nursing students.

Disabil Health J 2021 10 8;14(4):101150. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Seattle Pacific University, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Negative beliefs about disability are associated with poorer outcomes for individuals with disabilities; understanding disability-related attitudes is critical for clinical care. Recently, interest in attitudes toward people with disabilities has increased; however, most studies focus on explicit attitudes. In contrast, the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT) is designed to evaluate respondents' underlying automatic preferences regarding physical ability.

Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to expand the literature on health professionals' implicit disability attitudes by analyzing the DA-IAT in a sample of nursing students.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was utilized with a sample of nursing students (n = 95; 88.7% female). Respondents completed the DA-IAT online before responding to some basic demographic questions.

Results: Participants associated able-bodied status with positive descriptors more quickly than disability related stimuli.

Conclusions: Most participants in this sample of nursing students (87%) mentally associated able-bodiedness with desirable traits in a more efficient manner than disability. Future research should focus on developing models to better understand the relationship between automatic processing, disability-related attitudes, and how this relationship informs clinician behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101150DOI Listing
October 2021

Implicit associations related to physical disability among nursing students.

Disabil Health J 2021 10 8;14(4):101150. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Seattle Pacific University, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Negative beliefs about disability are associated with poorer outcomes for individuals with disabilities; understanding disability-related attitudes is critical for clinical care. Recently, interest in attitudes toward people with disabilities has increased; however, most studies focus on explicit attitudes. In contrast, the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT) is designed to evaluate respondents' underlying automatic preferences regarding physical ability.

Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to expand the literature on health professionals' implicit disability attitudes by analyzing the DA-IAT in a sample of nursing students.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was utilized with a sample of nursing students (n = 95; 88.7% female). Respondents completed the DA-IAT online before responding to some basic demographic questions.

Results: Participants associated able-bodied status with positive descriptors more quickly than disability related stimuli.

Conclusions: Most participants in this sample of nursing students (87%) mentally associated able-bodiedness with desirable traits in a more efficient manner than disability. Future research should focus on developing models to better understand the relationship between automatic processing, disability-related attitudes, and how this relationship informs clinician behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101150DOI Listing
October 2021

A prospective study of firefighters' PTSD and depression symptoms: The first 3 years of service.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Jan;13(1):44-55

Warriors Research Institute, Baylor Scott & White Health.

Firefighters are an important sample of convenience to study traumatic exposure and symptom development. This study assessed trauma exposure inside and outside of fire service, diagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated disorders using clinical interviews and self-report measures, then tested the hypothesis that trauma exposure would predict distress in firefighters over the first 3 years in service. In total, 322 professional firefighter recruits were assessed during academy training and through their first 3 years of service. Diagnostic assessments were conducted by psychologists annually, and symptom checklists were completed by telephone every 4 months. Firefighter recruits were exposed to approximately nine potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in the first 3 years of fire service, with 66% of these events occurring in the line of duty. Very few (3%) developed diagnoses of PTSD, major depression, or generalized anxiety disorder. Models of distress supported a trait model of distress. Distress was stable within individuals over time, and although those reporting more distress also reported more trauma exposure, variation in distress over time was not predicted by trauma exposure. Professional firefighters experience frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events during their early careers. This exposure, although large, does not result in a large proportion of mental health diagnoses. Distress was consistent and low, which provides evidence of the resilient nature of those selecting a career in emergency service. Future work is needed to understand the disconnection between the current rigorously collected prospective data and the existing literature regarding the increased risk of PTSD and associated disorders in fire service. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000980DOI Listing
January 2021

Disordered eating among college students: The effects of parental attachment and the mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

J Am Coll Health 2020 Dec 1:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychology, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objectives: The current study explored the relationship between parental attachment and disordered eating among college students. This study also explored the potential mediating role of factors associated with emotion regulation. : One hundred sixty-seven undergraduates ( = 18.93 years,  = 1.02) participated in the current study. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire reporting their perceptions of their parental attachment relationships, emotional reactivity, difficulty regulating emotions, and disordered eating. Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that difficulty regulating emotions mediated the relationship between maternal attachment and disordered eating, but not between paternal attachment and disordered eating. Emotional reactivity did not emerge as a significant mediator. These findings suggest that maternal attachment relationships may be associated with difficulty regulating emotions in adulthood, which may in turn impact disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1846045DOI Listing
December 2020

Negative Emotionality Interacts with Trauma Exposure to Prospectively Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms During Firefighters' First 3 Years of Service.

J Trauma Stress 2021 04 28;34(2):333-344. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Warriors Research Institute at Baylor Scott & White Health, Waco, Texas, USA.

Firefighters (FFs) protect the public despite significant risks to their health and well-being stemming from frequent trauma exposure and other occupational stressors. A minority of FFs develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or related mental health problems, whereas most remain remarkably resilient despite enormous stress. This points toward substantial variability in responses to traumatic stress among FFs. Personality, particularly negative emotionality (NEM), has been shown to predict the development of PTSD in other trauma-exposed populations, yet has not been prospectively studied in relation to PTSD in FFs. The aim of this secondary analysis from a broader study of mental health in FFs was to test whether preemployment NEM predicted PTSD symptom severity over time by influencing how FFs respond to traumatic experiences. In this first prospective study of the development of PTSD symptoms in professional FFs, 322 FFs were recruited from seven urban fire academies across the United States and followed over their first 3 years of fire service. We assessed NEM during the fire academy as well as trauma exposure and both self-reported and clinician-rated PTSD symptoms at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups. Level of trauma exposure and NEM predicted PTSD symptoms over time, and NEM moderated the effect of trauma exposure on clinician-rated PTSD symptoms across both trauma exposure measures at 1- and 3-year follow-ups, f = .03-.10, but not at 2-year follow-up nor for self-reported PTSD symptoms. These findings indicate that NEM, assessed upon entry into a high-risk occupation, is useful in predicting PTSD symptom development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22632DOI Listing
April 2021

Survey-software implicit association tests: A methodological and empirical analysis.

Behav Res Methods 2019 10;51(5):2194-2208

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The implicit association test (IAT) is widely used in psychology. Unfortunately, the IAT cannot be run within online surveys, requiring researchers who conduct online surveys to rely on third-party tools. We introduce a novel method for constructing IATs using online survey software (Qualtrics); we then empirically assess its validity. Study 1 (student n = 239) revealed good psychometric properties, expected IAT effects, and expected correlations with explicit measures for survey-software IATs. Study 2 (MTurk n = 818) showed predicted IAT effects across four survey-software IATs (ds = 0.82 [Black-White IAT] to 2.13 [insect-flower IAT]). Study 3 (MTurk n = 270) compared survey-software IATs and IATs run via Inquisit, yielding nearly identical results and intercorrelations that would be expected for identical IATs. Survey-software IATs appear to be reliable and valid, offer numerous advantages, and make IATs accessible for researchers who use survey software to conduct online research. We present all the materials, links to tutorials, and an open-source tool that rapidly automates survey-software IAT construction and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-019-01293-3DOI Listing
October 2019

The Influence of Exposure to Natural Disasters on Depression and PTSD Symptoms among Firefighters.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2018 Feb 10;33(1):102-108. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

1Baylor Scott and White Health,Warriors Research Institute,Waco,TexasUSA.

Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts.

Methods: In a baseline interview, 35 male firefighter recruits from seven US cities reported lifetime exposure to natural disaster. These disaster-exposed male firefighter recruits were matched on age, city, and education with non-exposed recruits.

Results: A generalized linear mixed model revealed a significant exposure×time interaction (e coef =1.04; P<.001), such that depression symptoms increased with time for those with pre-employment disaster exposure only. This pattern persisted after controlling for social support from colleagues (e coefficient=1.05; P<.001), social support from families (e coefficient=1.04; P=.001), and on-the-job trauma exposure (coefficient=0.06; e coefficient=1.11; P<.001). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary significantly between exposure groups at baseline (P=.61).

Conclusion: Depression symptoms increased with time for those with pre-employment disaster exposure only, even after controlling for social support. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary between exposure groups. Pennington ML , Carpenter TP , Synett SJ , Torres VA , Teague J , Morissette SB , Knight J , Kamholz BW , Keane TM , Zimering RT , Gulliver SB . The influence of exposure to natural disasters on depression and PTSD symptoms among firefighters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):102-108.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X17007026DOI Listing
February 2018

The Influence of Exposure to Natural Disasters on Depression and PTSD Symptoms among Firefighters.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2018 Feb 10;33(1):102-108. Epub 2017 Dec 10.

1Baylor Scott and White Health,Warriors Research Institute,Waco,TexasUSA.

Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts.

Methods: In a baseline interview, 35 male firefighter recruits from seven US cities reported lifetime exposure to natural disaster. These disaster-exposed male firefighter recruits were matched on age, city, and education with non-exposed recruits.

Results: A generalized linear mixed model revealed a significant exposure×time interaction (e coef =1.04; P<.001), such that depression symptoms increased with time for those with pre-employment disaster exposure only. This pattern persisted after controlling for social support from colleagues (e coefficient=1.05; P<.001), social support from families (e coefficient=1.04; P=.001), and on-the-job trauma exposure (coefficient=0.06; e coefficient=1.11; P<.001). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary significantly between exposure groups at baseline (P=.61).

Conclusion: Depression symptoms increased with time for those with pre-employment disaster exposure only, even after controlling for social support. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary between exposure groups. Pennington ML , Carpenter TP , Synett SJ , Torres VA , Teague J , Morissette SB , Knight J , Kamholz BW , Keane TM , Zimering RT , Gulliver SB . The influence of exposure to natural disasters on depression and PTSD symptoms among firefighters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):102-108.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X17007026DOI Listing
February 2018

Experimental and modeling studies of B atom number density distributions in hot filament activated B2H6/H2 and B2H6/CH4/H2 gas mixtures.

J Phys Chem A 2006 Mar;110(9):2868-75

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K.

Experimental and modeling studies of the gas-phase chemistry occurring in dilute, hot filament (HF) activated B2H6/H2 and B2H6/CH4/H2 gas mixtures are reported. Spatially resolved relative number densities of B (and H) atoms have been measured by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization methods, as a function of process conditions (e.g. the HF material and its temperature, the B2H6/H2 mixing ratio, and the presence (or not) of added CH4). Three-dimensional modeling of the H/B chemistry prevailing in such HF activated gas mixtures using a simplified representation of the gas phase chemistry succeeds in reproducing all of the experimentally observed trends, and in illustrating the key role of the "H-shifting" reactions BHx + H <= => BHx-1 + H2 (x = 1-3) in enabling rapid interconversion between the various BHx (x = 0-3) species. CH4 addition, at partial pressures appropriate for growth of boron-doped diamond by chemical vapor deposition methods, leads to approximately 30% reduction in the measured B atom signal near the HF. The modeling suggests that this is mainly due to concomitant H atom depletion near the HF, but it also allows us a first assessment of the possible contributions from B/C coupling reactions upon CH4 addition to HF activated B2H6/H2 gas mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp053455pDOI Listing
March 2006
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