Publications by authors named "Thomas Olsen"

82 Publications

Oxygen Vacancies Nucleate Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectrics.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(11):117601

Computational Atomic-Scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

We study the influence of oxygen vacancies on the formation of charged 180° domain walls in ferroelectric BaTiO_{3} using first principles calculations. We show that it is favorable for vacancies to assemble in crystallographic planes, and that such clustering is accompanied by the formation of a charged domain wall. The domain wall has negative bound charge, which compensates the nominal positive charge of the vacancies and leads to a vanishing density of free charge at the wall. This is in contrast to the positively charged domain walls, which are nearly completely compensated by free charge from the bulk. The results thus explain the experimentally observed difference in electronic conductivity of the two types of domain walls, as well as the generic prevalence of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics. Moreover, the explicit demonstration of vacancy driven domain wall formation implies that specific charged domain wall configurations may be realized by bottom-up design for use in domain wall based information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.117601DOI Listing
September 2021

Rate of device-related infections using an antibacterial envelope in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy reoperations.

Europace 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Bvld. 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Aims : Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reoperations are associated with a particularly high risk of device-related infection (DRI). An antibacterial envelope reduces the occurrence of DRIs in a broad population of moderate-tohigh-risk patients. To investigate the efficacy of an antibacterial envelope in a very high-risk population of patients undergoing CRT reoperation.

Methods And Results: In this Danish two-centre, observational cohort study, we included consecutive patients who underwent a CRT pacemaker- or defibrillator reoperation procedure between January 2008 and November 2019. We obtained data from the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register and through systematic medical chart review. Follow-up was restricted to 2 years. A total of 1943 patients were included in the study of which 736 (38%) received an envelope. Envelope patients had more independent risk factors for infection than non-envelope patients. Sixty-seven (3.4%) patients met the primary endpoint of DRI requiring device system extraction; 50 in the non-envelope group and 17 in the envelope group [4.1% vs. 2.3%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.90; P = 0.021]. This difference persisted in propensity score analysis (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; P = 0.019).

Conclusion : Use of an antibacterial envelope was associated with a clinically and statistically significant reduction in DRIs in patients undergoing CRT reoperations. Our results were comparable to those recently reported from a large randomized controlled trial, which is suggestive of a proportional effect of the envelope even in very high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab207DOI Listing
August 2021

Use of an Intraoperative Limb Positioner for Adjustable Distraction in Acetabulum Fractures with Femoral Head Protrusion: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 07 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle WA.

Case: Anatomic reduction of acetabular fractures with femoral head protrusion requires lateralization of the medialized femoral head to facilitate reduction and definitive fixation. In this case of a 71-year-old man with an associated both column acetabular fracture with femoral head medialization after a fall from a 10 foot ladder, we present the successful use of a novel reduction technique involving a modified arthroscopic limb positioner to provide adjustable distraction and counteract the deforming force in this injury pattern.

Conclusion: A limb positioner can provide appropriate on-table traction in pelvis and acetabular surgery to neutralize deforming forces and facilitate reduction and fixation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00955DOI Listing
July 2021

Variable accuracy, precision, and consistency of compounded famciclovir formulated for management of feline herpesvirus-1 in cats.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Objective: To evaluate compounded famciclovir suspensions for accuracy, precision, and consistency in drug content.

Procedures: Two compounded famciclovir concentrations were evaluated (250 and 400 mg/mL, 30 preparations total from nine 503A compounding pharmacies) with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved famciclovir tablets as control. Drug quantification via high-performance liquid chromatography (with famciclovir reference standard and pramipexole internal standard) was performed at 0, 14, and 28 days with concentrations of 90%-110% of labeled dose considered acceptable (US Pharmacopoeia standards).

Results: FDA-approved tablets from three different manufacturers were found to be accurate and precise with acceptable drug content. A significantly greater mean deviation from labeled content was noted for 400 mg/mL suspensions (-52.9%) compared to 250 mg/mL suspensions (-18.0%). When assessing time points separately, 15/63 (24%) samples of 250 mg/mL and 0/27 (0%) samples of 400 mg/mL suspensions met the acceptance standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) in drug content among pharmacy batches ranged from 0.5% to 29%, with 5/10 formulations having significantly lower CV% compared to control (decreased precision). Similarly, drug content changed over time (0-28 days) in all compounded formulations, with both downward and upward trends observed (variable consistency).

Conclusions: Most compounded famciclovir formulations were inaccurate, imprecise, and inconsistent. FDA-approved famciclovir tablets may be preferred over compounded famciclovir formulations for the management of feline herpesvirus-1. If compounded famciclovir is used in practice, a concentration of 250 mg/mL is preferred over 400 mg/mL given the lower accuracy of the higher concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12910DOI Listing
June 2021

Food Sources Contributing to Intake of Choline and Individual Choline Forms in a Norwegian Cohort of Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

Front Nutr 2021 14;8:676026. Epub 2021 May 14.

Centre for Nutrition, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Choline is an essential nutrient involved in a wide range of physiological functions. It occurs in water- and lipid-soluble forms in the body and diet. Foods with a known high choline content are eggs, beef, chicken, milk, fish, and selected plant foods. An adequate intake has been set in the US and Europe, however, not yet in the Nordic countries. A higher intake of lipid-soluble choline forms has been associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, highlighting the need for knowledge about food sources of the individual choline forms. In general, little is known about the habitual intake and food sources of choline, and individual choline forms. Investigate foods contributing to the intake of total choline and individual choline forms. The study population consisted of 1,929 patients with stable angina pectoris from the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial. Dietary intake data was obtained through a 169-item food frequency questionnaire. Intake of total choline and individual choline forms was quantified using the USDA database, release 2. The geometric mean (95% prediction interval) total choline intake was 287 (182, 437) mg/d. Phosphatidylcholine accounted for 42.5% of total choline intake, followed by free choline (25.8%) and glycerophosphocholine (21.2%). Phosphocholine and sphingomyelin contributed 4.2 and 4.5%, respectively. The main dietary choline sources were eggs, milk, fresh vegetables, lean fish, and bread. In general, animal food sources were the most important contributors to choline intake. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to assess the intake of all choline forms and their dietary sources in a European population. Most choline was consumed in the form of phosphatidylcholine and animal food sources contributed most to choline intake. There is a need for accurate estimates of the dietary intake of this essential nutrient to issue appropriate dietary recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.676026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160433PMC
May 2021

Sulfur amino acid restriction, energy metabolism and obesity: a study protocol of an 8-week randomized controlled dietary intervention with whole foods and amino acid supplements.

J Transl Med 2021 04 15;19(1):153. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Sognsvannveien 9, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction is an established animal model for increasing lifespan and improving metabolic health. Data from human studies are limited. In the study outlined in this protocol, we will evaluate if dietary SAA restriction can reduce body weight and improve resting energy expenditure (REE) and parameters related to metabolic health.

Method/design: Men and women (calculated sample size = 60), aged 18-45 years, with body mass index of 27-35 kg/m will be included in a double-blind 8-week dietary intervention study. The participants will be randomized in a 1:1 manner to a diet with either low or high SAA. Both groups will receive an equal base diet consisting of low-SAA plant-based whole foods and an amino acid supplement free of SAA. Contrasting SAA contents will be achieved using capsules with or without methionine and cysteine (SAA, total diet SAA ~ 50-60 mg/kg body weight/day; SAA, total diet SAA ~ 15-25 mg/kg body weight/day). The primary outcome is body weight change. Data and material collection will also include body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), resting energy expenditure (whole-room indirect calorimetry) and samples of blood, urine, feces and adipose tissue at baseline, at 4 weeks and at study completion. Measures will be taken to promote and monitor diet adherence. Data will be analyzed using linear mixed model regression to account for the repeated measures design and within-subject correlation.

Discussion: The strength of this study is the randomized double-blind design. A limitation is the restrictive nature of the diet which may lead to poor compliance. If this study reveals a beneficial effect of the SAA diet on body composition and metabolic health, it opens up for new strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight, obesity and its associated disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04701346, Registration date: January 8th, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02824-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051033PMC
April 2021

The Association of Meat Intake With All-Cause Mortality and Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Age-Dependent in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

Front Nutr 2021 4;8:642612. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Science, Centre for Nutrition, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Red and processed meat intake have been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and a restricted intake is encouraged in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, evidence on the association between total meat intake and clinical outcomes in this patient group is lacking. To investigate the association between total meat intake and risk of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer in patients with stable angina pectoris. We also investigated whether age modified these associations. This prospective cohort study consisted of 1,929 patients (80% male, mean age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris from the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial. Dietary assessment was performed by the administration of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between a relative increase in total meat intake and the outcomes of interest. The association per 50 g/1,000 kcal higher intake of total meat with morbidity and mortality were generally inconclusive but indicated an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction [HR: 1.26 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.61)] and gastrointestinal cancer [1.23 (0.70, 2.16)]. However, we observed a clear effect modification by age, where total meat intake was associated with an increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction among younger individuals, but an attenuation, and even reversal of the risk association with increasing age. Our findings support the current dietary guidelines emphasizing a restricted meat intake in cardiovascular disease patients but highlights the need for further research on the association between meat intake and health outcomes in elderly populations. Future studies should investigate different types of meat separately in other CVD-cohorts, in different age-groups, as well as in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.642612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969515PMC
March 2021

β-blocker use and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: effect modification by serum vitamin A.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Mohn Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.

Aims : Blockade of β-adrenoceptors reduces sympathetic nervous system activity and improves survival in patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF); however, any improvement in longevity among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) but without HFrEF remains uncertain. Vitamin A has been linked to the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway. We investigated if vitamin A status modified the association of β-blocker use with the risk of all-cause mortality.

Methods And Results : A total of 4118 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris, of whom the majority had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were studied. Hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality comparing treatment vs. non-treatment of β-blockers according to the tertiles of serum vitamin A were explored in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 897 patients (21.8%) died. The overall LVEF was 65% and 283 (6.9%) had anamnestic HF. After multivariable adjustments for traditional risk factors, medical history, and drug therapies of cardiovascular disease, β-blocker treatment was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality [HR : 0.84; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.72-0.97]. However, the inverse association was generally stronger among patients in the upper serum vitamin A tertile (HR :0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86; Pinteraction = 0.012), which remained present after excluding patients with LVEF < 40%.

Conclusion : In patients with suspected CHD, β-blocker treatment was associated with improved survival primarily among patients with high serum vitamin A levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa158DOI Listing
March 2021

Intraosseous administration of hydroxocobalamin after enclosed structure fire cardiac arrest.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 10;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.

Smoke inhalation is the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning in the developed world. Hydroxocobalamin is an antidote for cyanide poisoning. There is little published about human intraosseous antidote administration. We present a case of intraosseous hydroxocobalamin administration in an adult smoke inhalation victim, found in cardiac arrest inside her burning manufactured home. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after 20 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Five grams of hydroxocobalamin were subsequently given intraosseously. On hospital arrival, patient was found to have a respiratory-metabolic acidosis. She had red-coloured urine without haematuria, a known sequela of hydroxocobalamin administration. Patient's neurological status deteriorated, and she died 4 days after admission. This case highlights that intraosseously administered hydroxocobalamin seems to adequately flow into the marrow cavity and enter the circulatory system despite the non-compressible glass antidote vial. This appears to be only the second reported human case of intraosseous hydroxocobalamin administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-239523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949448PMC
March 2021

Why we can probably trust public policy dietary guidelines for prevention.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Sep 30. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 9, 0372 Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa008DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of short-term methionine and cysteine restriction and enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids on oral glucose tolerance, plasma amino acids, fatty acids, lactate and pyruvate: results from a pilot study.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Feb 2;14(1):43. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Medical Biosciences, Domus Medica, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 9, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: In this 7-day pilot study we randomized healthy, normal-weight men and women to either a dietary intervention with methionine and cysteine restriction enriched in PUFA (Met/Cys + PUFA, n = 7) or with high contents of methionine, cysteine and SFA (Met/Cys + SFA, n = 7). The objective was to describe the short-term responses in oral glucose tolerance, amino acid profile, total fatty acid profile, pyruvate and lactate following a Met/Cys + PUFA diet vs. Met/Cys + SFA.

Results: The diet groups consisted of five women and two men, aged 20-38 years. After the 7-d intervention median pre- and post-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose concentrations were 5 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L respectively in the Met/Cys + PUFA group. In the Met/Cys + SFA group, median pre- and post-OGTT glucose concentrations were 4.8 mmol/L and 4.65 mmol/L after the 7-d intervention. The responses in the amino acid profiles were similar in both groups during the intervention with the exception of serine. Fatty acids decreased from baseline to day 7 in both groups. Plasma lactate and pyruvate were similar for both groups with an increase to day 3 before approaching baseline values at day 7.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02647970, registration date: January 6 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05463-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852127PMC
February 2021

Visualizing atomic structure and magnetism of 2D magnetic insulators via tunneling through graphene.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 4;12(1):70. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

The discovery of two-dimensional (2D) magnetism combined with van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure engineering offers unprecedented opportunities for creating artificial magnetic structures with non-trivial magnetic textures. Further progress hinges on deep understanding of electronic and magnetic properties of 2D magnets at the atomic scale. Although local electronic properties can be probed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), its application to investigate 2D magnetic insulators remains elusive due to absence of a conducting path and their extreme air sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that few-layer CrI (FL-CrI) covered by graphene can be characterized electronically and magnetically via STM by exploiting the transparency of graphene to tunneling electrons. STS reveals electronic structures of FL-CrI including flat bands responsible for its magnetic state. AFM-to-FM transition of FL-CrI can be visualized through the magnetic field dependent moiré contrast in the dI/dV maps due to a change of the electronic hybridization between graphene and spin-polarised CrI bands with different interlayer magnetic coupling. Our findings provide a general route to probe atomic-scale electronic and magnetic properties of 2D magnetic insulators for future spintronics and quantum technology applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20376-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782518PMC
January 2021

Exhaustive Exercise and Post-exercise Protein Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation Affect Plasma and Urine Concentrations of Sulfur Amino Acids, the Ratio of Methionine to Homocysteine and Glutathione in Elite Male Cyclists.

Front Physiol 2020 15;11:609335. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Plasma and tissue sulfur amino acid (SAA) availability are crucial for intracellular methylation reactions and cellular antioxidant defense, which are important processes during exercise and in recovery. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial among eight elite male cyclists, we explored the effect of exhaustive exercise and post-exercise supplementation with carbohydrates and protein (CHO+PROT) vs. carbohydrates (CHO) on plasma and urine SAAs, a potential new marker of methylation capacity (methionine/total homocysteine ratio [Met/tHcy]) and related metabolites. The purpose of the study was to further explore the role of SAAs in exercise and recovery. Athletes cycled to exhaustion and consumed supplements immediately after and in 30 min intervals for 120 min post-exercise. After ~18 h recovery, performance was tested in a time trial in which the CHO+PROT group cycled 8.5% faster compared to the CHO group (41:53 ± 1:51 vs. 45:26 ± 1:32 min, < 0.05). Plasma methionine decreased by ~23% during exhaustive exercise. Two h post-exercise, further decline in methionine had occured by ~55% in the CHO group vs. ~33% in the CHO+PROT group (p × < 0.001). The Met/tHcy ratio decreased by ~33% during exhaustive exercise, and by ~54% in the CHO group vs. ~27% in the CHO+PROT group (p × < 0.001) post-exercise. Plasma cystathionine increased by ~72% in the CHO group and ~282% in the CHO+PROT group post-exercise (p × < 0.001). Plasma total cysteine, taurine and total glutathione increased by 12% ( = 0.03), 85% ( < 0.001) and 17% ( = 0.02), respectively during exhaustive exercise. Using publicly available transcriptomic data, we report upregulated transcript levels of skeletal muscle (log fold-change: 0.45, FDR:1.8) and log fold-change: 0.38, FDR: 3.4) after acute exercise. Our results show that exercise acutely lowers plasma methionine and the Met/tHcy ratio. This response was attenuated in the CHO+PROT compared to the CHO group in the early recovery phase potentially affecting methylation capacity and contributing to improved recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.609335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769812PMC
December 2020

COVID Purpura (Toes) Case Series: A Chilblains-Like Vasculopathy.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Apr;43(4):e47-e50

Department of Pathology, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Fairborn, OH.

Abstract: Biopsies were taken from 4 patients who presented to their dermatologist with violaceous papules and plaques of the dorsal toes (COVID Toes) associated with varying degrees of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exposure and COVID-19 testing. Major histopathologic findings were lymphocytic eccrine inflammation and a spectrum of vasculopathic findings to include superficial and deep angiocentric-perivascular lymphocytic inflammation, lymphocytes in vessel walls (lymphocytic vasculitis), endothelial swelling, red blood cell extravasation, and focal deposits of fibrin in both vessel lumina, and vessel walls. Interface changes were observed to include vacuolopathy and apoptotic keratinocytes at the basement membrane. Immunostains showed a dominant T-cell lineage (positive for T-cell receptor beta, CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7). B-cells were rare and clusters of CD123-positive dermal plasmacytoid dendritic cells were observed surrounding eccrine clusters and some perivascular zones. The consistent perieccrine and vasculopathic features represent important pathologic findings in the diagnosis of COVID toes and are suggestive of pathogenetic mechanisms. Clinicopathologic correlation, the epidemiological backdrop, and the current worldwide COVID-19 pandemic favor a viral causation and should alert the physician to initiate a workup and the appropriate use of COVID-19 testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001829DOI Listing
April 2021

Branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and liver fat response to exercise training in sedentary dysglycaemic and normoglycaemic men.

Diabetologia 2021 02 29;64(2):410-423. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Aims/hypothesis: Obesity and insulin resistance may be associated with elevated plasma concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and impaired BCAA metabolism. However, it is unknown whether the insulin-sensitising effect of long-term exercise can be explained by concomitant change in BCAAs and their metabolism.

Methods: We included 26 sedentary overweight and normal-weight middle-aged men from the MyoGlu clinical trial, with or without dysglycaemia, for 12 weeks of supervised intensive exercise intervention, including two endurance and two resistance sessions weekly. Insulin sensitivity was measured as the glucose infusion rate (GIR) from a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. In addition, maximum oxygen uptake, upper and lower body strength and adipose tissue depots (using MRI and spectroscopy) were measured, and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ScWAT) and skeletal muscle (SkM) biopsies were harvested both before and after the 12 week intervention. In the present study we have measured plasma BCAAs and related metabolites using CG-MS/MS and HPLC-MS/MS, and performed global mRNA-sequencing pathway analysis on ScWAT and SkM.

Results: In MyoGlu, men with dysglycaemia displayed lower GIR, more fat mass and higher liver fat content than normoglycaemic men at baseline, and 12 weeks of exercise increased GIR, improved body composition and reduced liver fat content similarly for both groups. In our current study we observed higher plasma concentrations of BCAAs (14.4%, p = 0.01) and related metabolites, such as 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (19.4%, p = 0.034) in dysglycaemic vs normoglycaemic men at baseline. Baseline plasma BCAA levels correlated negatively to the change in GIR (ρ = -0.41, p = 0.037) and [Formula: see text] (ρ = -0.47, p = 0.015) after 12 weeks of exercise and positively to amounts of intraperitoneal fat (ρ = 0.40, p = 0.044) and liver fat (ρ = 0.58, p = 0.01). However, circulating BCAAs and related metabolites did not respond to 12 weeks of exercise, with the exception of isoleucine, which increased in normoglycaemic men (10 μmol/l, p = 0.01). Pathway analyses of mRNA-sequencing data implied reduced BCAA catabolism in both SkM and ScWAT in men with dysglycaemia compared with men with normoglycaemia at baseline. Gene expression levels related to BCAA metabolism correlated positively with GIR and markers of mitochondrial content in both SkM and ScWAT, and negatively with fat mass generally, and particularly with intraperitoneal fat mass. mRNA-sequencing pathway analysis also implied increased BCAA metabolism after 12 weeks of exercise in both groups and in both tissues, including enhanced expression of the gene encoding branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) and reduced expression of the BCKDH phosphatase in both groups and tissues. Gene expression of SLC25A44, which encodes a mitochondrial BCAA transporter, was increased in SkM in both groups, and gene expression of BCKDK, which encodes BCKDH kinase, was reduced in ScWAT in dysglycaemic men. Mediation analyses indicated a pronounced effect of enhanced SkM (~53%, p = 0.022), and a moderate effect of enhanced ScWAT (~18%, p = 0.018) BCAA metabolism on improved insulin sensitivity after 12 weeks of exercise, based on mRNA sequencing. In comparison, plasma concentration of BCAAs did not mediate any effect in this regard.

Conclusion/interpretation: Plasma BCAA concentration was largely unresponsive to long-term exercise and unrelated to exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, the insulin-sensitising effect of long-term exercise in men may be explained by enhanced SkM and, to a lesser degree, also by enhanced ScWAT BCAA catabolism. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05296-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801320PMC
February 2021

Postprandial effects of a meal low in sulfur amino acids and high in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to a meal high in sulfur amino acids and saturated fatty acids on stearoyl CoA-desaturase indices and plasma sulfur amino acids: a pilot study.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Aug 10;13(1):379. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Medical Biosciences, University of Oslo, 0372, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: The sulfur amino acid (SAA) cysteine is positively related, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are inversely related to activity of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). High SCD activity promotes obesity in animals, and plasma activity indices positively associates with fat mass in humans. SCD may thus be a target for dietary intervention with SAA restriction and PUFA enrichment with unknown potential benefits for body composition. We randomized ten healthy individuals to a meal restricted in SAAs and enriched with PUFAs (Cys/Met + PUFA) (n = 5) or a meal enriched in SAA and saturated fatty acids (Cys/Met + SFA) (n = 5). We measured plasma SCD activity indices (SCD16 and SCD18) and SAAs response hourly from baseline and up to 4 h postprandial.

Results: SCD16 was unchanged whereas SCD18 tended to increase in the Cys/Met + PUFA compared to the Cys/Met + SFA group (p = 0.08). Plasma concentrations of total cysteine fractions including free and reduced cysteine decreased in the Cys/Met + PUFA compared to the Cys/Met + SFA group (both p < 0.001). In conclusion, a meal low in SAA but high in PUFAs reduced plasma cysteine fractions but not SCD activity indices. This pilot study can be useful for the design and diet composition of future dietary interventions that targets SCD and SAA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02647970, registration date: 6 January 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05222-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419218PMC
August 2020

Fatty acid profile and estimated desaturase activities in whole blood are associated with metabolic health.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 May 21;19(1):102. Epub 2020 May 21.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 4 St Olavs Plass, 0130, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The aim was to investigate if fatty acid profile and estimated desaturase activities; stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD), delta-5-desaturase and delta-6-desaturase (D5D; D6D), differ between individuals with metabolically healthy (MH) and unhealthy (MU) phenotypes. We also explored these associations according to BMI categories.

Methods: Men and women at moderately elevated risk of cardiovascular disease were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 321). If subjects met ≥4 out of 5 criteria (elevated triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, HbA1c and low HDL-cholesterol), they were classified as MU (n = 52). If levels were within reference ranges for ≥3 of the same criteria, subjects were classified as MH (n = 150). Utilizing the entire population, a score ranging from 0 to 5 denoting the number of MU criteria met was computed. Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as product-to-precursor ratio of fatty acids in whole blood (SCD16 [16:1n7/16:0], SCD18 [18:1n9/18:0], D5D [18:3n6/18:2n6], D6D [20:4n6/20:3n6]).

Results: Individuals with MH had lower estimated SCD16 and SCD18 activities, whereas estimated D6D activity was higher compared to MU. Similar, SCD16 and SCD18 increased, whereas D6D decreased with increasing criteria of MU. Trends were similar across BMI categories.

Conclusions: This study supports the notion of estimated desaturase activities as possible novel biomarkers of metabolic health irrespectively of BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01282-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243306PMC
May 2020

Lipid parameters and vitamin A modify cardiovascular risk prediction by plasma neopterin.

Heart 2020 07 12;106(14):1073-1079. Epub 2020 May 12.

Centre for Nutrition, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: Oxidised cholesterol metabolites are linked to increased production of the active vitamin A (Vit-A) form and monocyte/macrophage activation, which may be reflected by neopterin, a marker of both interferon-γ-mediated immune activation and coronary artery disease risk. We examined the influence of serum lipid parameters and Vit-A on the risk association between neopterin and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: We included 4130 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP), of whom 80% received lipid-lowering treatment with statins. Risk associations between plasma neopterin and AMI are given as HRs per SD increase in log-transformed neopterin.

Results: During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 530 (12.8%) patients experienced an AMI. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis, plasma neopterin was positively associated with incident AMI (HR (95% CI) per SD: 1.26 (1.17 to 1.35)). However, the estimates were most pronounced in patients with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or apolipoprotein (apo) B100 below-median (HR (95% CI) per SD: 1.35 (1.24 to 1.48) and 1.42 (1.27 to 1.58), respectively; both p ≤0.03). We also observed a particularly strong risk association in those with above-median Vit-A (HR (95% CI) per SD: 1.32 (1.21 to 1.44); p=0.03). The estimates were slightly modified after multivariable adjustment.

Conclusions: In patients with suspected SAP, the majority of whom receiving statin therapy, high plasma neopterin was associated with increased risk of AMI particularly among those with low LDL-C and apoB100 or high Vit-A levels. The particularly strong relationship of plasma neopterin with residual cardiovascular risk in patients with low lipid levels should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316165DOI Listing
July 2020

First principles Heisenberg models of 2D magnetic materials: the importance of quantum corrections to the exchange coupling.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Apr 3;32(33):335802. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Computational Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Magnetic materials are typically described in terms of the Heisenberg model, which provides an accurate account of thermodynamic properties when combined with first principles calculations. This approach is usually based on an energy mapping between density functional theory and a classical Heisenberg model. However, for two-dimensional systems the eigenenergies of the Heisenberg model may differ significantly from the classical approximation, which leads to modified expressions for exchange parameters. Here we demonstrate that density functional theory yields local magnetic moments that are in accordance with strongly correlated anti-ferromagnetic eigenstates of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian. This implies that density functional theory provides a description of these states that conforms with the quantum mechanical eigenstates of the model. We then provide expressions for exchange parameters based on a proper eigenstate mapping to the Heisenberg model and find that they may be reduced by up to 17% compared to a classical analysis. Finally, we calculate the corrections to critical temperature for magnetic ordering for a previously predicted set of two-dimensional ferromagnetic insulators and find that the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce the predictions of critical temperatures by up to 7%. The effect is, however, predicted to be much higher for spin-1/2 systems, which are not included in the predictions of critical temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab8664DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of dietary methionine and cysteine restriction on plasma biomarkers, serum fibroblast growth factor 21, and adipose tissue gene expression in women with overweight or obesity: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study.

J Transl Med 2020 03 11;18(1):122. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Postboks 1046, Blindern, 0317, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Dietary restriction of methionine and cysteine is a well-described model that improves metabolic health in rodents. To investigate the translational potential in humans, we evaluated the effects of dietary methionine and cysteine restriction on cardiometabolic risk factors, plasma and urinary amino acid profile, serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression in women with overweight and obesity in a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study.

Methods: Twenty women with overweight or obesity were allocated to a diet low (Met/Cys n = 7), medium (Met/Cys n = 7) or high (Met/Cys n = 6) in methionine and cysteine for 7 days. The diets differed only by methionine and cysteine content. Blood and urine were collected at day 0, 1, 3 and 7 and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were taken at day 0 and 7.

Results: Plasma methionine and cystathionine and urinary total cysteine decreased, whereas FGF21 increased in the Met/Cys vs. Met/Cys group. The Met/Cys group had increased mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissue including DGAT1. When we excluded one participant with high fasting insulin at baseline, the Met/Cys group showed increased expression of ACAC, DGAT1, and tendencies for increased expression of FASN and SCD1 compared to the Met/Cys group. The participants reported satisfactory compliance and that the diets were moderately easy to follow.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that dietary methionine and cysteine restriction may have beneficial effects on circulating biomarkers, including FGF21, and influence subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression. These results will aid in the design and implementation of future large-scale dietary interventions with methionine and cysteine restriction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03629392, registration date: 14/08/2018 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03629392.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02288-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065370PMC
March 2020

Tailored for Real-World: A Whole Slide Image Classification System Validated on Uncurated Multi-Site Data Emulating the Prospective Pathology Workload.

Sci Rep 2020 02 21;10(1):3217. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Departments of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Standard of care diagnostic procedure for suspected skin cancer is microscopic examination of hematoxylin & eosin stained tissue by a pathologist. Areas of high inter-pathologist discordance and rising biopsy rates necessitate higher efficiency and diagnostic reproducibility. We present and validate a deep learning system which classifies digitized dermatopathology slides into 4 categories. The system is developed using 5,070 images from a single lab, and tested on an uncurated set of 13,537 images from 3 test labs, using whole slide scanners manufactured by 3 different vendors. The system's use of deep-learning-based confidence scoring as a criterion to consider the result as accurate yields an accuracy of up to 98%, and makes it adoptable in a real-world setting. Without confidence scoring, the system achieved an accuracy of 78%. We anticipate that our deep learning system will serve as a foundation enabling faster diagnosis of skin cancer, identification of cases for specialist review, and targeted diagnostic classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59985-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035316PMC
February 2020

Retinol, Retinoic Acid, and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 are Differentially Associated with Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Obesity: An Overview of Human Studies.

Adv Nutr 2020 05;11(3):644-666

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble essential nutrient obtained from plant- and animal-based sources that has roles in growth, vision, and metabolism. Vitamin A circulates mainly as retinol bound to retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and is delivered to tissues and converted to retinoic acid, which is a ligand for several nuclear receptors. In recent years, aspects of vitamin A metabolism have been under scrutiny with regards to the development of metabolic and lifestyle diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and overweight and obesity in humans. Studies have mainly focused on RBP4 in this context, whereas the major circulating form, retinol, and the major bioactive form, retinoic acid, have been overlooked in this regard until recently. As one of the main roles of RBP4 is to deliver retinol to tissues for biological action, the associations of retinol and retinoic acid with these diseases must also be considered. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent and available evidence from human studies with focus on retinol, retinoic acid, and RBP4 and provide an overview of these crucial components of vitamin A metabolism in CVD, T2DM, and obesity. In summary, retinol was found to be both inversely and positively associated with CVD whereas the associations with T2DM and obesity were less clear. Although only a few studies have been published on retinoic acid, it was inversely associated with CVD. In contrast, serum RBP4 was mostly found to be positively associated with CVD, T2DM, and obesity. At present, it is difficult to ascertain why the reported associations differ depending on the compound under study, but there is a clear imbalance in the literature in disfavor of retinol and retinoic acid, which needs to be considered in future human studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231588PMC
May 2020

Classifying the Electronic and Optical Properties of Janus Monolayers.

ACS Nano 2019 Nov 22;13(11):13354-13364. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Computational Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics , Technical University of Denmark , DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby , Denmark.

Inspired by the recent synthesis of monolayer MoSSe, we conduct a first-principles high-throughput investigation of 216 MXY Janus monolayers consisting of a middle layer of metal atoms (M) sandwiched between different types of chalcogen, halogen, or pnictogen atoms (X,Y). Using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory, we perform an exhaustive computational characterization of the 70 most stable semiconducting monolayers. These are found to exhibit diverse and fascinating properties including finite out-of-plane dipoles, giant Rashba-splittings, direct and indirect band gaps ranging from 0.7 to 3.0 eV, large exciton binding energies, and very strong light-matter interactions. The data have been generated using the workflow behind the Computational 2D Materials Database and are freely available online. Our work expands the class of known Janus monolayers and points to several potentially synthesizable structures, which could be interesting candidates for valley- or optoelectronic applications or for generating out-of-plane electric fields to control charge transfer, charge separation, or band alignments in van der Waals heterostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b06698DOI Listing
November 2019

Creatinine, total cysteine and uric acid are associated with serum retinol in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Sep 9;59(6):2383-2393. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Centre for Nutrition, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Haukelandsbakken, 5009, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: We hypothesized that biomarkers and dietary factors related to cardiovascular disease risk were associated with serum retinol and evaluated these potential associations in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 4116 patients hospitalised for suspected CAD. Dietary data were obtained from a subgroup of 1962 patients using a food frequency questionnaire. Potential biomarkers and dietary factors were explored using linear regression modelling adjusted for age and sex. Regression coefficients and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) are given as  % change in serum retinol per unit change in the predictors. Analyses were performed in the total population and in strata of serum retinol tertiles.

Results: In age- and sex-adjusted models, serum creatinine (standardized β: 0.38, 95% CI [0.35, 0.42]), plasma total cysteine (0.26, [0.23, 0.29]), serum uric acid (0.30, [0.26, 0.33]) and plasma neopterin (0.22, [0.18, 0.25]) were positively associated, whereas plasma serine (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) and serum C-reactive protein (- 0.15, [- 0.18, - 0.12]) were inversely associated with serum retinol. When we included the significant biomarkers in a multivariate model, the model explained 33% of the variability (R = 0.33) in serum retinol. The results were similar in the lower and upper tertiles of serum retinol. Weak or no associations were observed for dietary factors.

Conclusions: In patients with suspected CAD, concentrations of creatinine, cysteine and uric acid were positively associated with serum retinol. Future studies should assess whether retinol concentrations are influenced by metabolic alterations in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02086-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413901PMC
September 2020

Effects of antioxidant-rich foods on altitude-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in elite endurance athletes: A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(6):e0217895. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Various altitude training regimes, systematically used to improve oxygen carrying capacity and sports performance, have been associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether increased intake of common antioxidant-rich foods attenuates these processes.

Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 31 elite endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n = 16), (> doubling their usual intake), or eucaloric control foods (n = 15) during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m). Fasting blood and urine samples were collected 7 days pre-altitude, after 5 and 18 days at altitude, and 7 days post-altitude. Change over time was compared between the groups using mixed models for antioxidant capacity [uric acid-free (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)], oxidative stress (8-epi-PGF2α) and inflammatory biomarkers (IFNγ, IL1α, IL1RA, IL1β, IL2, IL5, IL6, IL7, IL10, IL12p70, IL13, IL17, TNFα, MCP-1 and micro-CRP). The cytokine response to a stress-test (VO2max ramp test or 100 m swimming) was assessed at pre- and post-altitude.

Results: FRAP increased more in the antioxidant compared to the control group (p = 0.034). IL13 decreased in the antioxidant group, while increasing in the controls (p = 0.006). A similar trend was seen for IL6 (p = 0.062). A larger decrease in micro-CRP was detected in the antioxidant group compared to controls (β: -0.62, p = 0.02). We found no group differences for the remaining cytokines. 8-epi-PGF2α increased significantly in the whole population (p = 0.033), regardless group allocation. The stress response was significantly larger post-altitude compared with pre-altitude for IL1β, IL6, IL7, IL13, IL12p70 and TNFα, but we found no group differences.

Conclusions: Increased intake of antioxidant-rich foods elevated the antioxidant capacity and attenuated some of the altitude-induced systemic inflammatory biomarkers in elite athletes. The antioxidant intervention had no impact on the altitude-induced oxidative stress or changes in acute cytokine responses to exercise stress-tests.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563980PMC
February 2020

Incidence of device-related infection in 97 750 patients: clinical data from the complete Danish device-cohort (1982-2018).

Eur Heart J 2019 06;40(23):1862-1869

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, J. B. Winsløws Vej 4, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: Device-related infection (DRI) is a severe complication to cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) therapy. Device-related infection incidence and its risk factors differ between previous studies. We aimed to define the long-term incidence and incidence rates of DRI for different types of CIEDs in the complete Danish device-cohort and identify patient-, operation- and device-related risk factors for DRI.

Methods And Results: From the Danish Pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) Register, we included consecutive Danish patients undergoing CIED implantation or reoperation from January 1982 to April 2018, resulting in 97 750 patients, 128 045 operations and follow-up of in total 566 275 device years (DY). We identified 1827 DRI causing device removals. Device-related infection incidence during device lifetime was 1.19% (1.12-1.26) for PM, 1.91% (1.71-2.13) for ICD, 2.18% (1.78-2.64) for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-pacemakers (CRT-P), and 3.35% (2.92-3.83) for CRT-defibrillators (CRT-D). Incidence rates in de novo implantations were 2.04/1000 DY for PM, 3.84 for ICD, 4.38 for CRT-P, and 6.76 for CRT-D. Using multiple-record and multiple-event per subject proportional hazard analysis, we identified implantation of complex devices (ICD and CRT), reoperations, prior DRI, male sex, and younger age as significantly associated with higher DRI risk.

Conclusion: Overall risk of infection was low in PM implantations but considerably higher in CRT systems and after reinterventions. These data support the importance of evaluating all patients considered for CIED therapy thoroughly, in order to identify potential modifiable risk factors and reduce the risk of early reoperations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6568207PMC
June 2019

Update on Intraocular Lens Calculation Formulas.

Ophthalmology 2019 09 11;126(9):1334-1335. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Kaiser Permanente, Redwood City, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.04.011DOI Listing
September 2019

Plasma Sulphur-Containing Amino Acids, Physical Exercise and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Dysglycemic and Normal Weight Normoglycemic Men.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 20;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

Plasma sulphur-containing amino acids and related metabolites are associated with insulin sensitivity, although the mechanisms are unclear. We examined the effect of exercise on this relationship. Dysglycemic ( = 13) and normoglycemic ( = 13) men underwent 45 min cycling before and after 12 weeks exercise intervention. We performed hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, mRNA-sequencing of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies, and targeted profiling of plasma metabolites by LC-MS/MS. Insulin sensitivity increased similarly in dysglycemic and normoglycemic men after 12 weeks of exercise, in parallel to similar increases in concentration of plasma glutamine, and decreased concentrations of plasma glutamate, cysteine, taurine, and glutathione. Change in plasma concentrations of cysteine and glutathione exhibited the strongest correlations to exercise-improved insulin sensitivity, and expression of a cluster of genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, as well as mitochondria-related genes such as . Forty-five min of cycling decreased plasma concentrations of glutamine and methionine, and increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, glutathione, and taurine. Similar acute responses were seen in both groups before and after the 12 weeks training period. Both acute and long-term exercise may influence transsulphuration and glutathione biosynthesis, linking exercise-improved insulin sensitivity to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356487PMC
December 2018
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