Publications by authors named "Thomas Moumneh"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in mild and moderate COVID-19: A comparison of two prospective European cohorts.

Thromb Res 2021 Oct 8;208:4-10. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Emergency Department, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; UNIV Angers, UMR MitoVasc CNRS 6015 - INSERM 1083, Angers, France; FCRIN, INNOVTE, Saint Etienne, France.

Background: Severely ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) i.e., deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, the VTE risk in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, hospitalized or managed at home, remain uncertain. The aims of this study were to assess the rate and the risk factors symptomatic VTE, in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 and to compare them to a cohort of similar patients without COVID-19.

Methods: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of participating centers for confirmed or probable mild or moderate COVID-19 and not having acute VTE were included. This COVID-19 cohort was retrospectively compared to a prospective cohort of similar ED patients using propensity score matching. The main outcome was the rate of symptomatic VTE within the 28 days after ED presentation.

Results: A total of 2292 patients were included in the COVID-19 cohort. The 28-day incidence of symptomatic VTE was 1.3% (n = 29/2292, 95%CI: 0.9 to 1.8), 2.3% (n = 20/866, 95%CI: 1.5 to 3.5) in moderate COVID-19 patients and 0.6% (n = 9/1426; 95%CI: 0.3 to 1.2) in mild COVID-19 patients managed as outpatients. An age over 65 years and hospitalization were independent risk factors of VTE. After adjustment, patients in the COVID-19 cohort had an absolute increase in over symptomatic VTE risk of +1.69% (95%CI, 0.88 to 2.51) versus patients in the comparison cohort (n = 1539).

Conclusions: Patients with moderate COVID-19 presenting to the ED had a high risk of subsequent VTE.

Trial Registration: Ethics committee of the CHU of Angers (N°2020/87).
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October 2021

Assessing the clinical probability of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: The Pregnancy-Adapted Geneva (PAG) score.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Dec 21;19(12):3044-3050. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant women represents an ongoing challenge. As in the general population, the first step in pregnant women with suspected PE consists of assessing clinical pre-test probability (PTP). However, no dedicated clinical decision rule has been developed in this population.

Objective: To propose a new version of the Geneva score adapted to pregnant women with suspected PE.

Methods: Data from a multicenter, prospective management outcome study including 395 women with suspected PE, in whom PTP was assessed using the Geneva score, were used. We first removed items which were present in none of the patients (cancer, age >65 years). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was then performed for quantitative variables and the optimal threshold defined. The obtained Pregnancy-Adapted Geneva Score (PAG Score) comprised seven items, including an age 40 years or older and a heart rate >110 beats per minute.

Results: The PAG Score showed a high discriminative power to identify patients with a low, intermediate, or high PTP, associated with increasing prevalence of PE, 2.3%, 11.6%, and 61.5%, respectively. The ROC curves showed an area under the curve of 0.795 for the PAG Score compared to 0.684 for the Geneva score.

Conclusion: In pregnant women with suspected PE, the PAG Score shows a high discriminative power to identify patients at low, intermediate, or high PTP. It has the strength of being a fully objective decision rule, is clinically relevant, easy to compute, and should now be tested in a prospective outcome study.
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December 2021

Adaptation of ED design layout during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional survey.

Emerg Med J 2021 Oct 24;38(10):789-793. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Emergency Department, University Hospital of Angers, 49100, Angers, France.

Background: The aim was to describe the organisational changes in French EDs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to architectural constraints and compare with the recommendations of the various bodies concerning the structural adjustments to be made in this context.

Methods: As part of this cross-sectional study, all heads of emergency services or their deputies were contacted to complete an electronic survey. This was a standardised online questionnaire consisting of four parts: characteristics of the responding centre, creation of the COVID-19 zone and activation of the hospital's emergency operations plan, flow and circulation of patients and, finally, staff management. Each centre was classified according to its workload related to COVID-19 and its size (university hospital centre, high-capacity hospital centre and low-capacity hospital centre). The main endpoint was the frequency of implementation of international guidelines for ED organisation.

Results: Between 11 May and 20 June 2020, 57 French EDs completed the online questionnaire and were included in the analysis. Twenty-eight EDs were able to separate patient flows into two zones: high and low viral density (n=28/57, 49.1%). Of the centres included, 52.6% set up a specific triage area for patients with suspected COVID-19 (n=30/57). Whereas, in 15 of the EDs (26.3%), the architecture made it impossible to increase the surface area of the ED.

Conclusion: All EDs have adapted, but many of the changes recommended for the organisation of ED could not be implemented. ED architecture constrains adaptive capacities in the context of COVID-19.
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October 2021

Triaging acute pulmonary embolism for home treatment by Hestia or simplified PESI criteria: the HOME-PE randomized trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 08;42(33):3146-3157

F-CRIN, INNOVTE, Saint-Etienne, France.

Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the Hestia rule vs. the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) for triaging patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) for home treatment.

Methods And Results: Normotensive patients with PE of 26 hospitals from France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland were randomized to either triaging with Hestia or sPESI. They were designated for home treatment if the triaging tool was negative and if the physician-in-charge, taking into account the patient's opinion, did not consider that hospitalization was required. The main outcomes were the 30-day composite of recurrent venous thrombo-embolism, major bleeding or all-cause death (non-inferiority analysis with 2.5% absolute risk difference as margin), and the rate of patients discharged home within 24 h after randomization (NCT02811237). From January 2017 through July 2019, 1975 patients were included. In the per-protocol population, the primary outcome occurred in 3.82% (34/891) in the Hestia arm and 3.57% (32/896) in the sPESI arm (P = 0.004 for non-inferiority). In the intention-to-treat population, 38.4% of the Hestia patients (378/984) were treated at home vs. 36.6% (361/986) of the sPESI patients (P = 0.41 for superiority), with a 30-day composite outcome rate of 1.33% (5/375) and 1.11% (4/359), respectively. No recurrent or fatal PE occurred in either home treatment arm.

Conclusions: For triaging PE patients, the strategy based on the Hestia rule and the strategy based on sPESI had similar safety and effectiveness. With either tool complemented by the overruling of the physician-in-charge, more than a third of patients were treated at home with a low incidence of complications.
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August 2021

Kneeling-induced calf ischemia: a pilot study in apparently healthy European young subjects.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Nov 12;121(11):3031-3040. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Vascular Medicine, University Hospital, Angers, France.

Purpose: Many tasks, sports or leisure activities require maximal knee flexion. We hypothesized that this position could result in reduced calf perfusion, in young European subjects.

Methods: We quantified calf ischemia resulting from the knee flexion with transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2) sensors by assessing the decrease from rest of TcpO2 (DROP) defined as limb changes minus chest changes. A minimal DROP (DROPm) <-15 mmHg defines the presence of ischemia. From the crawling position, participants kneeled for 3 min while bending as in prostration/prayer position (P). Thirty-five participants repeated this maneuver a second time, while 7 participants were also required to sit on their heels with the torso in the vertical position to attain knee flexion without significant groin flexion (S).

Result: In 41 healthy young volunteers (30 males), 25 [20-31] years old, 37 patients showed a DROPm < -15 mmHg from "R" to "P" in one (n = 4) or both (n = 33) calves (90.2%; 95% CI 76.9-97.3). After backward regression of the DROPm, there was no significant association with side, body weight of systolic blood pressure. However, age was strongly associated with DROPm (OR 5.34 [2.45-8.69]) so that DROPm was significantly higher in older, with a correlation ρ = 0.31 (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: Kneeling dramatically reduces calf perfusion, likely through popliteal artery kinking, possibly through muscle crushing. Eastern lifestyle includes routine flexed position since childhood. Whether or not such a chronic training reduces the risk of kneeling-induced ischemia in adults is unknown to date.
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November 2021

Evaluation of HEAR score to rule-out major adverse cardiac events without troponin test in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain.

Eur J Emerg Med 2021 Aug;28(4):292-298

Département de Médecine d'Urgence, CHU d'Angers, Institut MITOVASC, UMR CNRS 6015 UMR INSERM 1083, Université d'Angers, Angers, France.

Background And Importance: Current guidelines for patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) on electrocardiogram are based on troponin measurement. The HEART score is reportedly a reliable work-up strategy that combines clinical evaluation with troponin value. A clinical rule that could select very low-risk patients without the need for a blood test (HEAR score, being the HEART score without the troponin item) would be of great interest.

Objectives: To prospectively assess the safety of a HEAR score <2 to rule-out non-STEMI without troponin measurement. Secondary objective was to assess the safety of a sequential strategy that combines HEAR score and HEART (defined as two-step HEART strategy).

Design, Settings And Participants: Prospective observational study in six emergency departments. Patients with nontraumatic chest pain and no alternative diagnosis were included and followed up for 45 day. Patients were considered at low-risk if the HEAR score was <2 or, for the two-step HEART strategy, if the HEART score was <4.

Outcomes Measure And Analysis: The primary endpoint was the 45-day rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with a HEAR score <2. A HEAR score based strategy was consider safe if the rate of the primary endpoint was below 1%, with an upper margin of the 95% confidence interval (CI) below 3%.

Results: Among 1452 patients included, 1402 were analyzed and 97 (7%) had a MACE during the follow-up period. The HEAR score was <2 in 279 (20%) patients and one presented a MACE [0.4% (95% CI: 0.01-1.98)]. The two-step HEART strategy classified low-risk an additional 476 patients (34%) and one of these 476 patients had a MACE [0.3% (95% CI: 0.03-0.95)]. The two-step HEART strategy would have theoretically avoided 360 troponin measurements (19%).

Conclusions: In our prospective multicenter study, a HEAR based work-up strategy was safe, with a very low risk of MACE at 45 day. We also report that a two-step HEART-based strategy may safely allow significant reduction of troponin measurements in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain.
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August 2021

Thromboembolic risk stratification by TRiP(cast) score to rationalise thromboprophylaxis in patients with lower leg trauma requiring immobilisation: a study protocol of the casting stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

BMJ Open 2021 06 28;11(6):e045905. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Emergency Department, University Hospital Centre Angers, Angers, France.

Introduction: Patients with lower limb trauma requiring orthopaedic immobilisation may be at risk of venous thromboembolism but opinions differ about who may benefit from thromboprophylactic anticoagulant treatment.The aim of this CASTING study is to demonstrate the safety of thromboprophylaxis based on the Thrombosis Risk Prediction for patients with cast immobilisation (TRiP(cast) score with regards to the 3-month incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism events in low-risk patients not receiving thromboprophylaxis, as well as the usefulness of this strategy on the rate of patients receiving anticoagulant treatment in comparison to current practice.

Methods And Analysis: CASTING will be a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled clinical trial, performed in 15 emergency departments in France and Belgium. With their informed consent, outpatients admitted to one of the participating emergency departments for a lower limb trauma requiring orthopaedic immobilisation without surgery will be included. All centres will begin the trial with the 'observational period' and, every 2 weeks, 1 centre will be randomly assigned to switch to the 'interventional period' and to apply the TRiP(cast) score, in which only patients with a score ≥7 will receive thromboprophylactic anticoagulant treatment. The primary endpoint is the rate of clinical thromboembolic events within 90 days following the inclusion of low-risk patients not receiving thromboprophylaxis.

Ethics And Dissemination: The protocol has been approved by the Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud I (Ethics Review ID-RCB: 2019-A01829-48) for France and the Comité d'éthique hôpital-facultaire Saint Luc (N° B403201941338) for Belgium. It is carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice guidelines. The findings of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04064489.
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June 2021

Derivation and Validation of a 4-Level Clinical Pretest Probability Score for Suspected Pulmonary Embolism to Safely Decrease Imaging Testing.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jun;6(6):669-677

Emergency Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, F-CRIN INNOVTE, Brussels, Belgium.

Importance: In patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), overuse of diagnostic imaging is an important point of concern.

Objective: To derive and validate a 4-level pretest probability rule (4-Level Pulmonary Embolism Clinical Probability Score [4PEPS]) that makes it possible to rule out PE solely on clinical criteria and optimized D-dimer measurement to safely decrease imaging testing for suspected PE.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study included consecutive outpatients suspected of having PE from US and European emergency departments. Individual data from 3 merged management studies (n = 11 114; overall prevalence of PE, 11%) were used for the derivation cohort and internal validation cohort. The external validation cohorts were taken from 2 independent studies, the first with a high PE prevalence (n = 1548; prevalence, 21.5%) and the second with a moderate PE prevalence (n = 1669; prevalence, 11.7%). A prior definition of pretest probability target values to achieve a posttest probability less than 2% was used on the basis of the negative likelihood ratios of D-dimer. Data were collected from January 2003 to April 2016, and data were analyzed from June 2018 to August 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The rate of PE diagnosed during the initial workup or during follow-up and the rate of imaging testing.

Results: Of the 5588 patients in the derivation cohort, 3441 (61.8%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 52 (18.5) years. The 4PEPS comprises 13 clinical variables scored from -2 to 5. It results in the following strategy: (1) very low probability of PE if 4PEPS is less than 0: PE ruled out without testing; (2) low probability of PE if 4PEPS is 0 to 5: PE ruled out if D-dimer level is less than 1.0 μg/mL; (3) moderate probability of PE if 4PEPS is 6 to 12: PE ruled out if D-dimer level is less than the age-adjusted cutoff value; (4) high probability of PE if 4PEPS is greater than 12: PE ruled out by imaging without preceding D-dimer test. In the first and the second external validation cohorts, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.82) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.81), respectively. The false-negative testing rates if the 4PEPS strategy had been applied were 0.71% (95% CI, 0.37 to 1.23) and 0.89% (95% CI, 0.53 to 1.49), respectively. The absolute reductions in imaging testing were -22% (95% CI, -26 to -19) and -19% (95% CI, -22 to -16) in the first and second external validation cohorts, respectively. The 4PEPS strategy compared favorably with all recent strategies in terms of imaging testing.

Conclusions And Relevance: The 4PEPS strategy may lead to a substantial and safe reduction in imaging testing for patients with suspected PE. It should now be tested in a formal outcome study.
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June 2021

Identifying Patients with Low Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome Without Troponin Testing: Validation of the HEAR Score.

Am J Med 2021 04 27;134(4):499-506.e2. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Department of Research & Evaluation, Pasadena; Department of Health Systems Science, Kaiser Permanente School of Medicine, Pasadena.

Background: Current guidelines for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction are mainly based on troponin testing, commonly requiring an emergency department visit. HEAR score (History, Electrocardiogram, Age, and Risk factors) is a risk stratification tool validated in Europe, deduced from the HEART score (History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, and Troponin), already implemented in clinical practice. We aimed to validate the HEAR score to rule out an acute myocardial infarction without needing biomarker testing.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study at 15 emergency departments between May 2016 and December 2017. All adult encounters evaluated for possible acute myocardial infarction with a physician-documented HEART score for health plan members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California were included. Patients with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, those under hospice care, or with a "do not resuscitate" status were excluded. HEAR scores from 0-8 were calculated for each encounter and used to report 30-day acute myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality for each score.

Results: There were 22,109 patient encounters included in the study. Overall, 30-day acute myocardial infarction or death occurred in 1.1% of patients. Among the 4106 patients (19%) with a HEAR score <2, 3 died and 2 experienced an acute myocardial infarction within 30 days (0.1%; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Sensitivity and specificity were 97.9% and 18.8%, respectively.

Conclusions: A low HEAR score may accurately identify patients with a very low risk of 30-day acute myocardial infarction or death, representing a cohort of patients who might appropriately forego biomarker testing. Future research is warranted to assess the impact of implementing the HEAR score into routine clinical practice.
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April 2021

External validation of the YEARS diagnostic algorithm for suspected pulmonary embolism.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 12 23;18(12):3289-3295. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Validated diagnostic algorithms are used to manage patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The recently published YEARS study proposed a simplified diagnostic strategy to reduce the use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography.

Objectives: To externally validate this strategy in an independent cohort.

Methods: We analyzed data from three previous prospective cohort studies of outpatients with suspected PE. We retrospectively applied the YEARS algorithm. The three YEARS clinical criteria are: clinical signs of deep vein thrombosis, hemoptysis, and PE as the most likely diagnosis. If zero YEARS criteria are met, a D-dimer < 1000 ng/mL will rule out PE. If ≥1 YEARS criteria are met, a D-dimer < 500 ng/mL will rule out PE.

Results: Of the 3314 patients, 731 (22.1%) had PE. Applying the YEARS diagnostic algorithm, 1423 (42.9%) patients could have had PE ruled out without imaging. Of these patients, 17 (1.2%; 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.9) were diagnosed with PE at initial testing. All 17 had no YEARS item and a D-dimer < 1000 ng/mL. All 17 had a D-dimer level above their age-adjusted cutoff. Among the 272 patients with no YEARS criteria and a D-dimer < 1000 ng/mL but above their age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff, PE was diagnosed in 6.3% (17/272; 95% confidence interval 3.9-9.8).

Conclusion: We provide external validation of the YEARS diagnostic algorithm in an independent cohort. The rule appears to safely exclude PE. However, caution is required in patients with no YEARS item and a D-dimer < 1000 ng/mL but above their age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff.
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December 2020

Risk Stratification of Pulmonary Embolism.

Crit Care Clin 2020 Jul 12;36(3):437-448. Epub 2020 May 12.

University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Internal Medicine, Vascular and Thrombosis Unit, Rouen University Hospital, 37 Boulevard Gambetta, 76000 Rouen, France; Normandie University, UNIROUEN, INSERM U1096, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76000 Rouen, France.

Given the broad treatment options, risk stratification of pulmonary embolism is a highly desirable component of management. The ideal tool identifies patients at risk of death from the original or recurrent pulmonary embolism. Using all-cause death in the first 30-days after pulmonary embolism diagnosis as a surrogate, clinical parameters, biomarkers, and radiologic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction and strain are predictive. However, no study has demonstrated improved mortality rates after implementation of a risk stratification strategy to guide treatment. Further research should use better methodology to study prognosis and test new management strategies in patients at high risk for death.
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July 2020

Clinical risk assessment model to predict venous thromboembolism risk after immobilization for lower-limb trauma.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Mar 4;20:100270. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Background: Patients with lower-limb trauma requiring immobilization have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While thromboprophylaxis for all patients seems not effective, targeted thromboprophylaxis in high risk patients may be an appropriate alternative. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a risk assessment model for VTE risk: the TRiP(cast) score (Thrombosis Risk Prediction following cast immobilization).

Methods: In this prediction model study, for development, data were used from the MEGA study (case-control study into the etiology of VTE) and for validation, data from the POT-CAST trial (randomized trial on the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis following cast immobilization) were used. Model discrimination was calculated by estimating the Area Under the Curve (AUC). For model calibration, observed and predicted risks were assessed.

Findings: The TRiP(cast) score includes 14 items; one item for trauma severity (or type), one for type of immobilization and 12 items related to patients' characteristics. Validation analyses showed an AUC of 0.74 (95%CI 0.61-0.87) in the complete dataset ( = 1250) and 0.72 (95%CI 0.60-0.84) in the imputed data set ( = 1435). The calibration plot shows the degree of agreement between the observed and predicted risks (intercept 0.0016 and slope 0.933). Using a cut-off score of 7 points in the POT-CAST trial (incidence 1.6%), the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 76.1%, 51.2%, 2.5%, and 99.2%, respectively.

Interpretation: The TRiP(cast) score provides a helpful tool in daily clinical practice to accurately stratify patients in high versus low-risk categories in order to guide thromboprophylaxis prescribing. To accommodate implementation in clinical practice a mobile phone application has been developed.

Funding: ZonMW VIMP grant:17110200011.
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March 2020

Validation of risk assessment models predicting venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical inpatients: A cohort study.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 06 16;18(6):1398-1407. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Département de Médecine d'Urgence, CHU d'Angers, Institut MITOVASC, UMR CNRS 6015, UMR INSERM 1083, InnoVTE F-CRIN, Université d'Angers, Angers, France.

Background: Because hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a frequent cause of preventable deaths in medical inpatients, identifying at-risk patients requiring thromboprophylaxis is critical. We aimed to externally assess the Caprini, IMPROVE, and Padua VTE risk scores and to compare their performance to advanced age as a stand-alone predictor.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients prospectively enrolled in the PREVENU trial. Patients aged 40 years and older, hospitalized for at least 2 days on a medical ward were consecutively enrolled and followed for 3 months. Critical ill patients were not recruited. Patients diagnosed with VTE within 48 hours from admission, or receiving full dose anticoagulant treatment or who underwent surgery were excluded. All suspected VTE and deaths occurring during the 3-month follow-up were adjudicated by an independent committee. The three scores were retrospectively assessed. Body mass index, needed for the Padua and Caprini scores, was missing in 44% of patients.

Results: Among 14 910 eligible patients, 14 660 were evaluable, of which 1.8% experienced symptomatic VTE or sudden unexplained death during the 3-month follow-up. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.63), 0.63 (95% CI 0.60-0.66) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.61-0.67) for Caprini, IMPROVE, and Padua scores, respectively. None of these scores performed significantly better than advanced age as a single predictor (AUC 0.61, 95% CI 0.58-0.64).

Conclusion: In our study, Caprini, IMPROVE, and Padua VTE risk scores have poor discriminative ability to identify not critically ill medical inpatients at risk of VTE, and do not perform better than a risk evaluation based on patient's age alone.
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June 2020

[Management and orientation of geriatric patients admitted to emergencies for a fall: results of the French prospective OREGoN cohort study].

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 09;17(3):254-260

Department of geriatric medicine, Angers University Hospital, Angers ; University memory clinic, Research center on autonomy and longevity, UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, Angers, France.

Falls in older adults are a frequent reason for admission to the emergency department, associated with greater morbidity and mortality risks, and justify specialized geriatric expertise. Our objective was to determine i) the number of older fallers admitted to the emergency department for a serious fall, and ii) the proportion of those who were referred to a geriatrician in the following 12 months.

Methods: We included all patients aged 75 and over admitted to the emergency department of the University hospital of Angers, France, for a fall between 1st October and 1st November 2015. The consensual criteria proposed by the French national authority for health (2009) were used to define serious falls.

Results: Of the 214 older fallers admitted to the emergency department, 213 (99.5%) had at least one severity criterion for the fall. Only 40 older patients (18.7%) were referred to a geriatrician during the following 12 months. They exhibited more frequently a post-fall syndrome (p=0.007), more than 3 fall risk factors (p <0.001), and took more often an anticoagulant (p=0.032) than those who had not been referred to a geriatrician.

Conclusions: Although almost all older fallers admitted to the emergency room had experienced a serious fall, only a minority of them received a geriatric assessment in the following year.
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September 2019

Could the YEARS algorithm be used to exclude pulmonary embolism during pregnancy? Data from the CT-PE-pregnancy study.

J Thromb Haemost 2019 08 5;17(8):1329-1334. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Introduction: The recently proposed YEARS algorithm was shown to safely exclude pulmonary embolism (PE) and reduce the use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) among pregnant women with suspected PE. Our aim was to externally validate this finding.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective management outcome study for PE diagnosis in pregnant women. PE was diagnosed with an algorithm that combined the revised Geneva score, D-dimer testing, bilateral lower-limb compression ultrasonography, and CTPA. All women had a 3-month follow-up. All of the items necessary to use the YEARS algorithm were prospectively collected at the time of the study.

Results: Of the 395 women included in the original study, 371 were available for the present analysis. The PE prevalence was 6.5%. Ninety-one women had no YEARS items, and 280 had one or more items. When the YEARS items were combined with D-dimer levels (<1000 ng/mL in women with no items, and <500 ng/mL in women with one or more items), 77 women (21%) met the criteria for PE exclusion and would not have undergone CTPA as per the YEARS algorithm. None of these 77 women had PE diagnosed during the initial work-up or 3-month follow-up. Therefore, the failure rate of the YEARS algorithm in our pregnant women population was 0/77 (95% confidence interval 0.0-3.9).

Conclusion: In our study, application of the YEARS algorithm would have resulted in safe exclusion of PE in one of five pregnant women without the need for radiation exposure, further supporting the use of the algorithm in this population.
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August 2019

Safety of the Combination of PERC and YEARS Rules in Patients With Low Clinical Probability of Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Analysis of Two Large European Cohorts.

Acad Emerg Med 2019 01 10;26(1):23-30. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Emergency Department, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: This study aimed to determine the failure rate of a combination of the PERC and the YEARS rules for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of two European cohorts of emergency patients with low gestalt clinical probability of PE (PROPER and PERCEPIC). All patients we included were managed using a conventional strategy (D-dimer test, followed, if positive, by computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). We tested a diagnostic strategy that combined PERC and YEARS to rule out PE. The primary endpoint was a thromboembolic event diagnosed in the ED or at 3-months follow-up. Secondary endpoints included a thromboembolic event at baseline in the ED and a CTPA in the ED. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) of proportions were calculated with the use of Wilson's continuity correction.

Results: We analyzed 1,951 patients (mean ± SD age = 47 ± 18 years, 56% women) with an overall proportion of patients with PE of 3.5%. Both PERC and YEARS strategies were associated with 11 missed PE in the ED: failure rate 0.57 (95% CI = 0.32-1.02). At 3-month follow-up, the overall failure rate was 0.83% (95% CI = 0.51-1.35). Among the 503 patients who underwent a CTPA (26%), the use of the PERC-YEARS combination would have ruled out PE without CTPA in 249 patients (50% [95%CI = 45%-54%], absolute reduction 13% (95% CI = 11%-14%]).

Conclusion: The combination of PERC then YEARS was associated with a low risk of PE diagnostic failure and would have resulted in a relative reduction of almost half of CTPA.
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January 2019

Reliability of the CARE rule and the HEART score to rule out an acute coronary syndrome in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Oct 2;13(7):1111-1119. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Institut MITOVASC, Département de Médecine d'Urgence, CHU d'Angers, Université d'Angers, Angers, France.

In patients consulting in the Emergency Department for chest pain, a HEART score ≤ 3 has been shown to rule out an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a low risk of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) occurrence. A negative CARE rule (≤ 1) that stands for the first four elements of the HEART score may have similar rule-out reliability without troponin assay requirement. We aim to prospectively assess the performance of the CARE rule and of the HEART score to predict MACE in a chest pain population. Prospective two-center non-interventional study. Patients admitted to the ED for non-traumatic chest pain were included, and followed-up at 6 weeks. The main study endpoint was the 6-week rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass, and sudden unexplained death). 641 patients were included, of whom 9.5% presented a MACE at 6 weeks. The CARE rule was negative for 31.2% of patients, and none presented a MACE during follow-up [0, 95% confidence interval: (0.0-1.9)]. The HEART score was ≤ 3 for 63.0% of patients, and none presented a MACE during follow-up [0% (0.0-0.9)]. With an incidence below 2% in the negative group, the CARE rule seemed able to safely rule out a MACE without any biological test for one-third of patients with chest pain and the HEART score for another third with a single troponin assay.
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October 2018

Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) rule in European patients with low implicit clinical probability (PERCEPIC): a multicentre, prospective, observational study.

Lancet Haematol 2017 Dec 14;4(12):e615-e621. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Emergency Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Angers, Institut Mitovasc, Université d'Angers, Angers, France. Electronic address:

Background: The ability of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) to exclude pulmonary embolism without further testing remains debated outside the USA, especially in the population with suspected pulmonary embolism who have a high prevalence of the condition. Our main objective was to prospectively assess the predictive value of negative PERC to rule out pulmonary embolism among European patients with low implicit clinical probability.

Methods: We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 12 emergency departments in France and Belgium. We included consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with suspected pulmonary embolism. Patients were excluded if they had already been hospitalised for more than 2 days, had curative anticoagulant therapy in progress for more than 48 h, or had a diagnosis of thromboembolic disease documented before admission to emergency department. Physicians completed a standardised case report form comprising implicit clinical probability assessment (low, moderate, or high) and a list of risk factors including criteria of the PERC rule. They were asked to follow international recommendations for diagnostic strategy, masked to PERC assessment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with low implicit clinical probability and negative PERC who had venous thromboembolic events, diagnosed during initial diagnostic work-up or during 3-month follow-up, as externally adjudicated by an independent committee masked to the PERC and clinical probability assessment. The upper limit of the 95% CI around the 3-month thromboembolic risk was set at 3%. We did all analyses by intention to treat, including all patients with complete follow-up. This trial is registered with, number NCT02360540.

Findings: Between May 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, 1773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were prospectively assessed for inclusion, of whom 1757 were included. 1052 (60%) patients were classed as having low clinical probability, 49 (4·7%, 95% CI 3·5-6·1) of whom had a venous thromboembolic event. In patients with a low implicit clinical probability, 337 (32%) patients had negative PERC, of whom four (1·2%; 95% CI 0·4-2·9) went on to have a pulmonary embolism.

Interpretation: In European patients with low implicit clinical probability, PERC can exclude pulmonary embolism with a low percentage of false-negative results. The results of our prospective, observational study allow and justify an implementation study of the PERC rule in Europe.

Funding: French Ministry of Health.
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December 2017

Using the HEART Score in Patients With Chest Pain in the Emergency Department.

Ann Intern Med 2017 11;167(9):687-688

From Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Angers, Angers, France.

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November 2017