Publications by authors named "Thomas M Burke"

8 Publications

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Circulating CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells are potential precursors to LCH lesion CD1a+CD207+ cells.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):87-99

Texas Children's Cancer Center, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by the inflammatory lesions with pathogenic CD1a+CD207+ dendritic cells (DCs). BRAFV600E and other somatic activating MAPK gene mutations have been identified in differentiating bone marrow and blood myeloid cells, but the origin of the LCH lesion CD1a+CD207+ DCs and mechanisms of lesion formation remain incompletely defined. To identify candidate LCH CD1a+CD207+ DC precursor populations, gene-expression profiles of LCH lesion CD1a+CD207+ DCs were first compared with established gene signatures from human myeloid cell subpopulations. Interestingly, the CD1c+ myeloid DC (mDC) gene signature was most enriched in the LCH CD1a+CD207+ DC transcriptome. Additionally, the BRAFV600E allele was not only localized to CD1a+CD207- DCs and CD1a+CD207+ DCs, but it was also identified in CD1c+ mDCs in LCH lesions. Transcriptomes of CD1a+CD207- DCs were nearly indistinguishable from CD1a+CD207+ DCs (both CD1a+CD207low and CD1a+CD207high subpopulations). Transcription profiles of LCH lesion CD1a+CD207+ DCs and peripheral blood CD1c+ mDCs from healthy donors were compared to identify potential LCH DC-specific biomarkers: HLA-DQB2 expression was significantly increased in LCH lesion CD1a+CD207+ DCs compared with circulating CD1c+ mDCs from healthy donors. HLA-DQB2 antigen was identified on LCH lesion CD1a+CD207- DCs and CD1a+CD207+ DCs as well as on CD1c+(CD1a+CD207-) mDCs, but it was not identified in any other lesion myeloid subpopulations. HLA-DQB2 expression was specific to peripheral blood of patients with BRAFV600E+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and HLA-DQB2+CD1c+ blood cells were highly enriched for the BRAFV600E in these patients. These data support a model in which blood CD1c+HLA-DQB2+ mDCs with activated ERK migrate to lesion sites where they differentiate into pathogenic CD1a+CD207+ DCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960472PMC
January 2020

Anti TNF-α therapy in patients with relapsed and refractory Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a phase II study.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Aug - Sep;35(5-6):362-368. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

a Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX , USA.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is produced in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions and is elevated in plasma of patients with active LCH. It has been postulated that TNF-α may play a role in the pathophysiology of LCH. Etanercept, an anti-TNF-α antibody, has been used in TNF-modulated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a phase II study to determine the efficacy of etanercept for patients with refractory or relapsed LCH. Five LCH patients who had failed at least 2 prior treatments (range 2-9) received etanercept at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg twice weekly for up to a total of 24 doses. Disease response was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. None of the five patients had improvement in their disease with etanercept treatment. Three progressed at week 4 and 1 progressed at week 8. One subject died after 3 weeks of treatment from disease progression. During the study, only one drug-related toxicity was noted which spontaneously resolved. The study was concluded early due to lack of response to etanercept and insufficient accrual rate. This data suggests that etanercept as given in this study may not be effective for relapsed or refractory LCH. However, the number of patients treated was not adequate enough to power this study and it is possible that a different dose and regimen of etanercept may be required to successfully treat this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2018.1539149DOI Listing
March 2019

Development of a 3-D printing-based cardiac surgical simulation curriculum to teach septal myectomy.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 09 6;156(3):1139-1148.e3. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Objective: We sought to develop a 3-D printing-based simulator for teaching extended septal myectomy to trainees in cardiothoracic surgery (clinical postgraduate year 4-7). This procedure is difficult to teach because of generally unfamiliar and highly variable anatomy, limited visibility for the assistant, and significant potential complications.

Methods: A curriculum using multimedia didactics and 3-D print-based patient-specific surgical simulation was implemented. Six identical 3-D prints were constructed for each of 5 consecutive patients. Preoperative septal myectomy was performed on each printed heart by an attending surgeon and 5 residents. Model myectomy specimen volumes were measured according to liquid displacement. All print resections were videotaped and blindly evaluated by 3 attending surgeons. Pre- and post-test evaluations, and a survey tool were also used to evaluate the curriculum.

Results: Baseline myectomy resection volumes differed significantly (attending 15 cm vs resident 3.1 cm; P < .05). Residents resected increasingly larger volumes of tissue over the course of the study. Initial resection volume (compared with faculty) increased by 0.82 cm per resection (95% confidence interval, 0.37-1.3 cm; P < .0001). Total resection volume (compared with faculty) increased by 3.6 cm per resection (95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.9 cm; P < .0001). The residents' survey assessment of the simulator was favorable.

Conclusions: A patient-specific 3-D printing-based simulation module shows promise as a tool to augment and improve cardiothoracic resident training in septal myectomy. The residents were quickly able to perform resections on par with the attending. Residents rated the simulator favorably. Each resident benefited by experiencing the variable anatomy of 5 separate patient-specific models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.09.136DOI Listing
September 2018

A Chimeric Antibody against ACKR3/CXCR7 in Combination with TMZ Activates Immune Responses and Extends Survival in Mouse GBM Models.

Mol Ther 2018 05 6;26(5):1354-1365. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research (PAVIR), Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System (VAPAHCS), Palo Alto, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the least treatable type of brain tumor, afflicting over 15,000 people per year in the United States. Patients have a median survival of 16 months, and over 95% die within 5 years. The chemokine receptor ACKR3 is selectively expressed on both GBM cells and tumor-associated blood vessels. High tumor expression of ACKR3 correlates with poor prognosis and potential treatment resistance, making it an attractive therapeutic target. We engineered a single chain FV-human FC-immunoglobulin G1 (IgG) antibody, X7Ab, to target ACKR3 in human and mouse GBM cells. We used hydrodynamic gene transfer to overexpress the antibody, with efficacy in vivo. X7Ab kills GBM tumor cells and ACKR3-expressing vascular endothelial cells by engaging the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and complement and the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Combining X7Ab with TMZ allows the TMZ dosage to be lowered, without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Mice treated with X7Ab and in combination with TMZ showed significant tumor reduction by MRI and longer survival overall. Brain-tumor-infiltrating leukocyte analysis revealed that X7Ab enhances the activation of M1 macrophages to support anti-tumor immune response in vivo. Targeting ACKR3 with immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in combination with standard of care therapies may prove effective in treating GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.02.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993942PMC
May 2018

Alternative genetic mechanisms of BRAF activation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Blood 2016 11 11;128(21):2533-2537. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Texas Children's Cancer Center, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by inflammatory lesions containing pathologic CD207 dendritic cells with constitutively activated ERK. Mutually exclusive somatic mutations in MAPK pathway genes have been identified in ∼75% of LCH cases, including recurrent BRAF-V600E and MAP2K1 mutations. To elucidate mechanisms of ERK activation in the remaining 25% of patients, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES, n = 6), targeted BRAF sequencing (n = 19), and/or whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq, n = 6) on 24 LCH patient samples lacking BRAF-V600E or MAP2K1 mutations. WES and BRAF sequencing identified in-frame BRAF deletions in the β3-αC loop in 6 lesions. RNA-seq revealed one case with an in-frame FAM73A-BRAF fusion lacking the BRAF autoinhibitory regulatory domain but retaining an intact kinase domain. High levels of phospho-ERK were detected in vitro in cells overexpressing either BRAF fusion or deletion constructs and ex vivo in CD207 cells from lesions. ERK activation was resistant to BRAF-V600E inhibition, but responsive to both a second-generation BRAF inhibitor and a MEK inhibitor. These results support an emerging model of universal ERK-activating genetic alterations driving pathogenesis in LCH. A personalized approach in which patient-specific alterations are identified may be necessary to maximize benefit from targeted therapies for patients with LCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-08-733790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123197PMC
November 2016

Scan, plan, print, practice, perform: Development and use of a patient-specific 3-dimensional printed model in adult cardiac surgery.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 01 20;153(1):132-140. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Objective: Static 3-dimensional printing is used for operative planning in cases that involve difficult anatomy. An interactive 3D print allowing deliberate surgical practice would represent an advance.

Methods: Two patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had 3-dimensional prints constructed preoperatively. Stereolithography files were generated by segmentation of chest computed tomographic scans. Prints were made with hydrogel material, yielding tissue-like models that can be surgically manipulated. Septal myectomy of the print was performed preoperatively in the simulation laboratory. Volumetric measures of print and patient resected specimens were compared. An assessment tool was developed and used to rate the utility of this process. Clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed.

Results: There was congruence between volumes of print and patient resection specimens (patient 1, 3.5 cm and 3.0 cm, respectively; patient 2, 4.0 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively). The prints were rated useful (3.5 and 3.6 on a 5-point Likert scale) for preoperative visualization, planning, and practice. Intraoperative echocardiographic assessment showed adequate relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (patient 1, 80 mm Hg to 18 mm Hg; patient 2, 96 mm Hg to 9 mm Hg). Both patients reported symptomatic improvement (New York Heart Association functional class III to class I).

Conclusions: Three-dimensional printing of interactive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart models allows for patient-specific preoperative simulation. Resection volume relationships were congruous on both specimens and suggest evidence of construct validity. This model also holds educational promise for simulation of a low-volume, high-risk operation that is traditionally difficult to teach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.08.007DOI Listing
January 2017

A novel CMKLR1 small molecule antagonist suppresses CNS autoimmune inflammatory disease.

PLoS One 2014 1;9(12):e112925. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America.

Therapies that target leukocyte trafficking pathways can reduce disease activity and improve clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely studied animal model that shares many clinical and histological features with MS. Chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) is a chemoattractant receptor that is expressed by key effector cells in EAE and MS, including macrophages, subsets of dendritic cells, natural killer cells and microglia. We previously showed that CMKLR1-deficient (CMKLR1 KO) mice develop less severe clinical and histological EAE than wild-type mice. In this study, we sought to identify CMKLR1 inhibitors that would pharmaceutically recapitulate the CMKLR1 KO phenotype in EAE. We identified 2-(α-naphthoyl) ethyltrimethylammonium iodide (α-NETA) as a CMKLR1 small molecule antagonist that inhibits chemerin-stimulated β-arrestin2 association with CMKLR1, as well as chemerin-triggered CMKLR1+ cell migration. α-NETA significantly delayed the onset of EAE induced in C57BL/6 mice by both active immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 and by adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells. In addition, α-NETA treatment significantly reduced mononuclear cell infiltrates within the CNS. This study provides additional proof-of-concept data that targeting CMKLR1:chemerin interactions may be beneficial in preventing or treating MS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112925PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249827PMC
September 2015

Robust expansion of dendritic cells in vivo by hydrodynamic FLT3L-FC gene transfer.

J Immunol Methods 2014 Nov 24;413:69-73. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research & Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address:

Due to low numbers of endogenous dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, exogenous DC-poietin Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand (FLT3L) is routinely used to generate DC for subsequent studies. We engineered a novel FLT3L-FC DNA construct that, when combined with hydrodynamic gene transfer (HDT), induced robust DC expansion in mice. DC generated in vivo by FLT3L-FC HDT produced cytokines in response to stimulation by an array of TLR agonists and promoted T cell proliferation. The FLT3L-FC protein produced in vivo spontaneously homodimerized to enable effective FLT signaling and the FC-domain enhanced its plasma half-life, providing an improved reagent and method to boost DC numbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2014.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253009PMC
November 2014