Publications by authors named "Thomas Licher"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Triantennary GalNAc Molecular Imaging Probes for Monitoring Hepatocyte Function in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Dec 9;7(24):2002997. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Industriepark Höchst 65926 Frankfurt Germany.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that can lead to irreversible liver cirrhosis and cancer. Early diagnosis of NASH is vital to detect disease before it becomes life-threatening, yet noninvasively differentiating NASH from simple steatosis is challenging. Herein, bifunctional probes have been developed that target the hepatocyte-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), the expression of which decreases during NASH progression. The results show that the probes allow longitudinal, noninvasive monitoring of ASGPR levels by positron emission tomography in the newly developed rat model of NASH. The probes open new possibilities for research into early diagnosis of NASH and development of drugs to slow or reverse its progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739951PMC
December 2020

The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Functional Studies of Sodium Channels: From Target to Compound Identification.

Curr Protoc Pharmacol 2016 12 13;75:9.21.1-9.21.35. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Sanofi, Paris, France.

Over the last six decades, voltage-gated sodium (Na ) channels have attracted a great deal of scientific and pharmaceutical interest, driving fundamental advances in both biology and technology. The structure and physiological function of these channels have been extensively studied; clinical and genetic data have uncovered their implication in diseases such as epilepsy, arrhythmias, and pain, bringing them into focus as current and future drug targets. While different techniques have been established to record the activity of Na channels, proper determination of their properties still presents serious challenges, depending upon the experimental conditions and the desired subtype of channel to be characterized. The aim of this unit is to review the characteristics of Na channels, their properties, the cells in which they can be studied, and the currently available techniques. Topics covered include the determination of Na -channel biophysical properties as well as the use of toxins to discriminate between subtypes using electrophysiological or optical methods. Perspectives on the development of high-throughput screening assays with their advantages and limitations are also discussed to allow a better understanding of the challenges encountered in voltage-gated sodium channel preclinical drug discovery. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpph.14DOI Listing
December 2016

Measuring interference of drug-like molecules with the respiratory chain: toward the early identification of mitochondrial uncouplers in lead finding.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2013 Sep 30;11(7):408-22. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

1 R&D LGCR, Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany .

The electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer between donors and acceptors with proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Proton transfer is based on the activity of complex I-V proteins in the ETC. The overall electrical activity of these proteins can be measured by proton transfer using Solid Supported Membrane technology. We tested the activity of complexes I, III, and V in a combined assay, called oxidative phosphorylation assay (oxphos assay), by activating each complex with the corresponding substrate. The oxphos assay was used to test in-house substances from different projects and several drugs currently available on the market that have reported effects on mitochondrial functions. The resulting data were compared to the influence of the respective compounds on mitochondria as determined by oxygen consumption and to data generated with an ATP depletion assay. The comparison shows that the oxidative phosphorylation assay provides both a rapid approach for detecting interaction of compounds with respiratory chain proteins and information on their mode of interaction. Therefore, the oxphos assay is a useful tool to support structure activity relationship studies by allowing early identification of mitotoxicity and for analyzing the outcome of phenotypic screens that are susceptible to the generation of mitotoxicity-related artifacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/adt.2012.463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777647PMC
September 2013

Inhibition of diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC channels by synthetic and natural steroids.

PLoS One 2012 17;7(4):e35393. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Research and Development, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

TRPC channels are a family of nonselective cation channels that regulate ion homeostasis and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in numerous cell types. Important physiological functions such as vasoregulation, neuronal growth, and pheromone recognition have been assigned to this class of ion channels. Despite their physiological relevance, few selective pharmacological tools are available to study TRPC channel function. We, therefore, screened a selection of pharmacologically active compounds for TRPC modulating activity. We found that the synthetic gestagen norgestimate inhibited diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC3 and TRPC6 with IC(50)s of 3-5 µM, while half-maximal inhibition of TRPC5 required significantly higher compound concentrations (>10 µM). Norgestimate blocked TRPC-mediated vasopressin-induced cation currents in A7r5 smooth muscle cells and caused vasorelaxation of isolated rat aorta, indicating that norgestimate could be an interesting tool for the investigation of TRP channel function in native cells and tissues. The steroid hormone progesterone, which is structurally related to norgestimate, also inhibited TRPC channel activity with IC(50)s ranging from 6 to 18 µM but showed little subtype selectivity. Thus, TRPC channel inhibition by high gestational levels of progesterone may contribute to the physiological decrease of uterine contractility and immunosuppression during pregnancy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0035393PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328449PMC
November 2012

Establishment of cell-free electrophysiology for ion transporters: application for pharmacological profiling.

J Biomol Screen 2006 Apr 20;11(3):262-8. Epub 2006 Feb 20.

Lead Identification Technologies, New Assay Technologies, Sanofi-Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Ion transporters are emerging targets of increasing importance to the pharmaceutical industry because of their relevance to a wide range of numerous indications of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases. However, traditional ion transporter assay technologies using radioactive or fluorescent ligands and substrates or manual patch clamping suffer from several problems: limited sensitivity and robustness, significant numbers of false positives and false negatives, and cost. The authors describe a novel method for the measurement of ion transporters using cell-free electrophysiology based on the SURFE (2) R (surface electrogenic event reader) technology platform. The main advantages of the method described here are high sensitivity and simple handling. Material for assays is mainly a simple membrane preparation, which can be stored over weeks and months. Thus, the application of the method does not depend on a permanently running cell-culture lab. The application of the technology itself uses a bench-top system and chips loaded with membrane fragments. The SURFE (2) R technology was used to establish an Na+/Ca2+-exchanger assay. The assay performance, as judged by the Z' value of 0.73 and the signal-to-background ratio of 7.6, suggests that this is a reliable and robust assay. The authors compared the technology with patch-clamp experiments: The measurement of activity of 17 different inhibitors and the determination of an IC (50)value indicated a good correlation between SURFE (2) R technology and patch clamp results. Using the SURFE (2) R technology, results were obtained with 20 times higher throughput and required less-qualified personnel compared with manual patch clamping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057105285110DOI Listing
April 2006

Inhibition of Na+-H+ exchange by cariporide reduces inflammation and heart failure in rabbits with myocardial infarction.

Br J Pharmacol 2004 Aug 5;142(7):1147-54. Epub 2004 Jul 5.

Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH, 65926 Frankfurt, Germany.

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Na+-H+ exchange inhibitor cariporide on left ventricular (LV) morphology and function as well as inflammation in rabbits with heart failure. Rabbits with myocardial infarction (MI) and sham controls were randomized to receive either standard chow or chow supplemented with cariporide for 9 weeks. LV morphology was determined by echocardiography. LV systolic and diastolic function was assessed under load-dependent and -independent conditions by analysis of LV pressure-volume loops using piezo-electric crystals. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and aldosterone were measured. Rabbits with MI developed LV dilatation that was reduced by cariporide. Systolic and diastolic LV function was impaired in rabbits with MI when compared to sham, as indicated by a decreased dP/dtmax (MI: 3537 +/- 718 mmHg s(-1), sham: 5839 +/- 247 mmHg s(-1), P < 0.05), the load-independent preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW)(MI: 22 +/-7 mmHg, sham: 81 +/- 23 mmHg, P < 0.05) and a reduction in the time constant of relaxation tau (tau) (MI: 27+/-1 ms, sham: 17+/-1 ms, P < 0.05), and significantly improved by cariporide (dP/dtmax: 4586 +/- 374 mmHg s(-1), PRSW: 67 +/- 18 mmHg, tau: 20 +/- 2 ms; P < 0.05 vs MI/control). Induction of MI was associated with an increase in aldosterone and CRP, indicating activation of the neurohormonal and the inflammatory system that were largely reduced by cariporide. Cariporide improves LV morphology and function post MI and suppresses inflammation and neurohormonal activation in congestive heart failure (CHF). Na+-H+ exchange inhibition may represent a new pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1575166PMC
August 2004

Inhibition of human TREK-1 channels by bupivacaine.

Anesth Analg 2003 Jun;96(6):1665-73, table of contents

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.

Unlabelled: Human TWIK-related K(+) channels (TREK-1) stabilize the membrane potential (mp) of neurons and have a major role in the regulation of membrane excitability. In view of their physiological significance, interaction of bupivacaine with TREK-1 channels may be clinically important. Our aim was to characterize with the patch-clamp technique the properties of human TREK-1 channels and the effects of bupivacaine on these channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Transfection of CHO cells with TREK-1 channels (CHO(TREK-1) cells) hyperpolarized the mp from -33 +/- 13 to -78 +/- 4 mV. The channels were stimulated by intracellular acidosis. Inhibition of TREK-1 channels by bupivacaine was reversible, concentration-dependent, voltage-independent, and increased with intracellular acidosis. Bupivacaine depolarized the mp of CHO(TREK-1) cells in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. Concentrations for channel inhibition and membrane depolarization were not linearly related (50% inhibitory concentration value for channel inhibition 370 +/- 20 micro M, Hill coefficient 1.8 +/- 0.1, n = 51; 50% inhibitory concentration value for membrane depolarization 856 +/- 14 micro M, Hill coefficient 2.4 +/- 0.1, mean +/- SEM, n = 27). The results suggest that protonated bupivacaine elicits the observed effects via a site of interaction accessible from the intracellular space. Inhibition of TREK-1 channels and consecutive depolarization of the cell membrane by bupivacaine may contribute to blockade of neuronal signal conduction during regional anesthesia.

Implications: The interaction of bupivacaine with human TREK-1 channels was studied with the patch-clamp technique. Bupivacaine inhibited TREK-1 channels and depolarized the membrane potential of cells expressing TREK-1 channels in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. Both effects may contribute to conductance block caused by bupivacaine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000062524.90936.1fDOI Listing
June 2003