Publications by authors named "Thomas Klingebiel"

271 Publications

Infantile myofibromatosis: Excellent prognosis but also rare fatal progressive disease. Treatment results of five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Oct 11:e29403. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Pädiatrie 5 (Pädiatrische Onkologie, Hämatologie, Immunologie), Klinikum der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart gKAöR, Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend- und Frauenmedizin, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Infantile myofibromatosis (IM) is a rare benign soft tissue tumor and often a self-limiting disease but rarely includes life-threatening complications. Little is known about optimal treatment of primary localized (LD) and multifocal disease (MFD).

Methods: Treatment and outcome of 95 children with IM registered within five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry (1981-2016) were evaluated.

Results: LD was diagnosed in 71 patients at a median age of 0.4 years (range 0.0-17.7). MFD was present in 24 patients. The mainstay of treatment was watch-and-wait strategy (w&w) after initial biopsy or resection. Low-dose chemotherapy (CHT) was administered to 16/71 (23%) patients with LD and eight of 24 (33%) patients with MFD, imatinib was added in two. A delayed resection was possible in eight of 71 (11%) and five of 24 (21%) patients with LD and MFD, respectively. Overall, patients were alive in complete remission (n = 77) and partial remission (n = 10) at a median follow-up time of 3.4 years after diagnosis (range 0.01-19.4); no data available (n = 5). Three patients died of progressive disease (PD) despite CHT. Gender, tumor size, and location correlated with a favorable event-free survival (EFS) in patients with LD. The 5-year EFS and overall survival of patients with LD were 73% (±12, confidence interval [CI] 95%) and 95% (±6, CI 95%), respectively; for MFD 51% (±22, CI 95%) and 95% (±10, CI 95%).

Conclusion: Prognosis is excellent in patients with LD and MFD. Targeted treatment needs to be evaluated for rare fatal PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29403DOI Listing
October 2021

How can fertility counseling be implemented for every newly diagnosed pediatric patient facing gonadotoxic treatment?-A single-center experience.

Ann Hematol 2021 Nov 18;100(11):2831-2841. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Since the survival rates of pediatric patients undergoing cancer treatment or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have increased rapidly in recent decades, the late effects of treatment are now an important focus of patient care. Access to fertility preservation (FP) procedures as well as their financing differs considerably across Europe. However, some countries in Europe have recently changed the legal basis for financing FP procedures; therefore, the implementation of structures is mandatory to give patients access to FP. In this prospective cohort study, we characterized the process for establishing pediatric fertility counseling, including the development of an in-house standard procedure for recommendations regarding FP with potentially gonadotoxic treatment and valuating data from all FP counseling sessions. All data concerning patient characteristics (pubertal status, disease group) and recommendation of FP measures were prospectively collected and adoption of FP measures analyzed. Prior to the establishment of a structured process for FP in our pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation center, there was no standardized FP counseling. We demonstrate that with the establishment of an inhouse standard procedure, it is possible to give consistent yet individualized FP counseling to approximately 90% of our patients facing gonadotoxic treatment, counseling over 200 patients between 2017 and 2019. This pilot study could potentially be adapted in other pediatric hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplantation centers to allow a more standardized handling of FP counseling for all patients facing gonadotoxic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04648-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510917PMC
November 2021

Genetic Alterations and Resectability Predict Outcome in Patients with Neuroblastoma Assigned to High-Risk Solely by Amplification.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 28;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC) and Department of Experimental Pediatric Oncology, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924 Cologne, Germany.

Background: To identify variables predicting outcome in neuroblastoma patients assigned to the high-risk group solely by the presence of oncogene amplification (MNA).

Methods: Clinical characteristics, genomic information, and outcome of 190 patients solely assigned to high-risk neuroblastoma by MNA were analyzed and compared to 205 patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma aged ≥18 months with MNA (control group).

Results: Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 10 years were 47% (95%-CI 39-54%) and 56% (95%-CI 49-63%), respectively, which was significantly better than EFS and OS of the control group (EFS 25%, 95%-CI 18-31%, < 0.001; OS 32% 95%-CI 25-39%, < 0.001). The presence of /p53-pathway gene alterations was associated with impaired 10-year EFS and OS (19% vs. 55%, and 19% vs. 67%, respectively; both < 0.001). In time-dependent multivariable analyses, alterations of RAS-/p53-pathway genes and the extent of the best primary tumor resection were the only independent prognostic variables for OS ( < 0.001 and = 0.011, respectively).

Conclusions: Neuroblastoma patients attributed to high risk solely by amplification have generally a more favorable outcome. Mutations of genes of the RAS and/or p53 pathways and incomplete resection are the main risk factors predicting poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430929PMC
August 2021

The incidence and type of cancer in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia via a retrospective single-centre study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 1;194(5):879-887. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a hereditary immune system disorder with neurodegeneration. Its first neurologic symptoms include ataxic gait in early childhood, with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and progressive muscle weakness. Neonatal screening for severe T-cell deficiency was recently found to diagnose A-T patients with a significantly reduced naïve T-cell pool. Our study includes 69 A-T patients between 8 January 2002 and 1 December 2019. Nineteen cases of cancer were diagnosed in 17 patients (25%), with a median overall survival [OS; 95% cumulative indcidence (CI)] of 26·9 years for the entire cohort. The 15-year OS of 82·5% (72-95%) was significantly decreased among A-T patients with malignancies, who had a median OS of 2·11 years, with a two-year-estimated OS of 50·7% (31-82%). Haematological malignancies were the major causes of death within the initial years of life with a 15 times increased risk for death [HR (95% CI): 6·9 (3·1-15.2), P < 0·001] upon malignancy diagnosis. Male patients with A-T are at a higher cancer risk than their female counterparts. This manuscript highlights the need for cancer surveillance and prevention, as well as optimal treatment in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17736DOI Listing
September 2021

Response to upfront azacitidine in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in the AZA-JMML-001 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2901-2908

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy; and.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for most children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Novel therapies controlling the disorder prior to HSCT are needed. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study to evaluate the safety and antileukemic activity of azacitidine monotherapy prior to HSCT in newly diagnosed JMML patients. Eighteen patients enrolled from September 2015 to November 2017 were treated with azacitidine (75 mg/m2) administered IV once daily on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was the number of patients with clinical complete remission (cCR) or clinical partial remission (cPR) after 3 cycles of therapy. Pharmacokinetics, genome-wide DNA-methylation levels, and variant allele frequencies of leukemia-specific index mutations were also analyzed. Sixteen patients completed 3 cycles and 5 patients completed 6 cycles. After 3 cycles, 11 patients (61%) were in cPR and 7 (39%) had progressive disease. Six of 16 patients (38%) who needed platelet transfusions were transfusion-free after 3 cycles. All 7 patients with intermediate- or low-methylation signatures in genome-wide DNA-methylation studies achieved cPR. Seventeen patients received HSCT; 14 (82%) were leukemia-free at a median follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 7.0-39.3 months) after HSCT. Azacitidine was well tolerated and plasma concentration--time profiles were similar to observed profiles in adults. In conclusion, azacitidine monotherapy is a suitable option for children with newly diagnosed JMML. Although long-term safety and efficacy remain to be fully elucidated in this population, these data demonstrate that azacitidine provides valuable clinical benefit to JMML patients prior to HSCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02447666.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341358PMC
July 2021

The effect of adjuvant therapies on long-term outcome for primary resected synovial sarcoma in a series of mainly children and adolescents.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Goethe-University Frankfurt (Main), Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: The benefit of adjuvant therapy in synovial sarcoma (SS) treatment is under debate. Long-term follow-up data are missing.

Methods: SS patients treated in the consecutive trials CWS-81, CWS-86, CWS-91, CWS-96, CWS-2002-P, and the SoTiSaR-registry till 2013 were analyzed.

Results: Median age of 185 patients was 13.9 years (0.1-56)-with median follow-up of 7.4 years for 163 survivors. Most tumors (76%) were located in extremities. Size was < 3 cm in 58 (31%), 3-5 cm in 59 (32%), 5-10 cm in 42 (23%), and > 10 cm in 13 (7%) (13 missing). In 84 (45%) tumors, first excision was complete (R0 corresponding to IRS-I-group) and in 101 (55%) marginal (R1 corresponding to IRS-II-group). In a subsequent surgical intervention during chemotherapy, R0-status was accomplished in 23 additional IRS-II-group patients with secondary surgery. Radiotherapy was administered to 135 (73%), thereof 62 with R0-status and 67 R1-status (6 missing information). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to all but six patients. 5-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was 82.9% ± 5.7 (95%CI) and 92.5% ± 3.9. Local and metastatic relapse-free survival was 91.3% ± 4.3 and 92.3% ± 4.1 at 5 years, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, tumor size and no chemotherapy were independently associated with EFS. Size and site were associated with OS. In a detailed analysis of local and metastatic events, tumor size was associated with an independent risk for developing metastases. No independent factor for suffering local recurrence could be identified.

Discussion: Omission of chemotherapy in a non-stratified way seems not justified. Size governs survival due to high linear association with risk of suffering metastatic recurrence in a granular classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03614-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults. An analysis of three prospective studies of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkomstudiengruppe (CWS).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Oct 5;68(10):e29145. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: We have analyzed the outcome of patients with localized extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) treated in three consecutive Cooperative Weichteilsarkomstudiengruppe (CWS) soft tissue sarcoma (STS) studies: CWS-91, CWS-96, and CWS-2002P.

Methods: Patients were treated in CWS-91 with four- (vincristine, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, and ifosfamide [VAIA] or cyclophosphamide [VACA II]) or five-drug (+etoposide [EVAIA]) cycles, in CWS-96 they were randomly assigned to receive VAIA or CEVAIE (+carboplatin and etoposide), and in CWS-2002P with VAIA III plus optional maintenance therapy (MT) with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine. Local therapy consisted of resection and/or radiotherapy (RT).

Results: Two hundred forty-three patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57-69) and 73% (95% CI 67-79), respectively. The 5-year EFS by study was 64% (95% CI 54-74) in CWS-91, 57% (95% CI 48-66) in CWS-96, and 79% (95% CI 67-91) in CWS-2002P (n.s.). The 5-year OS was 72% (95% CI 62-82) in CWS-91, 70% (95% CI 61-79) in CWS-96, and 86% (95% CI 76-96) in CWS-2002P (n.s.). In CWS-96, 5-year EFS and OS in the VAIA arm versus the CEVAIE were 65% (95% CI 52-81) versus 55% (95% CI 39-76) log-rank p = .13, and 85% (95% CI 75-96) versus 61% (95% CI 45-82), log-rank p = .09.

Conclusion: Our analysis provides interesting information on the treatment and specificities of EES, which can be useful for a better understanding of this rare entity and should be considered in the development of future clinical trials for Ewing sarcoma defined as FET-ETS fusion positive tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29145DOI Listing
October 2021

[CAR T-cell therapy for children and adolescents with acute lymphatic leukemia].

Internist (Berl) 2021 Jun 5;62(6):597-604. Epub 2021 May 5.

Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Schwerpunkt Stammzelltransplantation und Immunologie, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt, Deutschland.

Background: Acute lymphatic leukemia is the most common malignant disease in children. Despite a good prognosis, new therapeutic concepts are needed for patients with refractory and relapsed disease.

Question: The importance of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T‑cell therapy for patients with refractory and post-stem cell transplantation.

Material And Methods: Overview of studies in childhood; presentation of extraction, use, side effects and prognostic factors.

Results: In 30 patients with a leukemia burden of <5% at the time of lymphocytic chemotherapy, the probability of event-free survival after 12 months was 0.70; in patients with a leukemia burden of >5%, the probability of event-free survival was only 0.23.

Conclusions: Further improvements in vector design will help to improve the effectiveness of this treatment. It will become important to isolate factors that will make it possible to identify patients who will respond to this therapy in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00108-021-01041-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Case Report: Symptomatic Chronic Granulomatous Disease in the Newborn.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:663883. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency, which is diagnosed in most patients between one and three years of age. Here we report on a boy who presented at birth with extensive skin lesions and lymphadenopathy which were caused by CGD. An analysis of the literature revealed 24 patients with CGD who became symptomatic during the first six weeks of life. Although pulmonary complications and skin lesions due to infection were the leading symptoms, clinical features were extremely heterogenous. As follow-up was not well specified in most patients, the long-term prognosis of children with very early onset of CGD remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.663883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039294PMC
October 2021

Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with stage 4(M) neuroblastoma aged less than 18 months without MYCN amplification.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Aug 7;68(8):e29038. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Medical Statistics and Computational Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Introduction: The survival of children with stage 4(M) neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification and below the age of 18 months is considered better than the still dismal outcome of older high-risk neuroblastoma patients. This study analyzes the impact of clinical and molecular characteristics on the long-term outcome.

Patients And Methods: Clinical presentation, survival, and recurrence patterns of patients enrolled onto trials NB90, NB97, and NB2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Gene expression signatures based on RNA microarrays (TH10) were investigated if tumor material was available.

Results: Between 1990 and 2015, 177 patients with stage 4(M) MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma aged less than 18 months at diagnosis were eligible. After a median follow-up of 9.7 years (IQR 5.0, 13.4), the proportions of 10-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 73% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67-79%) and 86% (95% CI 80-92%), respectively. Of the 27 neuroblastoma recurrences, 44% occurred in more than one site. Four additional patients presented histologically mature ganglioneuroma at recurrence. Six patients developed a secondary malignancy. The secondary 5-year EFS and OS of the 27 patients with neuroblastoma recurrence were 44% and 59%, respectively. TH10 gene expression signature was not prognostically predictive in the investigated subcohort.

Conclusion: The outcome of patients with stage 4(M) neuroblastoma aged less than 18 months is favorable when treated with high-risk or otherwise intensive therapy. The development of secondary malignancies and the potential of maturation to ganglioneuroma call for a controlled stepwise reduction of treatment intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29038DOI Listing
August 2021

Retargeting of NK-92 Cells against High-Risk Rhabdomyosarcomas by Means of an ERBB2 (HER2/Neu)-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department for Children and Adolescents, Division for Stem Cell Transplantation, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The dismal prognosis of pediatric and young adult patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) underscores the need for novel treatment options for this patient group. In previous studies, the tumor-associated surface antigen ERBB2 (HER2/neu) was identified as targetable in high-risk RMS. As a proof of concept, in this study, a novel treatment approach against RMS tumors using a genetically modified natural killer (NK)-92 cell line (NK-92/5.28.z) as an off-the-shelf ERBB2-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered cell product was preclinically explored. In cytotoxicity assays, NK-92/5.28.z cells specifically recognized and efficiently eliminated RMS cell suspensions, tumor cell monolayers, and 3D tumor spheroids via the ERBB2-CAR even at effector-to-target ratios as low as 1:1. In contrast to unmodified parental NK-92 cells, which failed to lyse RMS cells, NK-92/5.28.z cells proliferated and became further activated through contact with ERBB2-positive tumor cells. Furthermore, high amounts of effector molecules, such as proinflammatory and antitumoral cytokines, were found in cocultures of NK-92/5.28.z cells with tumor cells. Taken together, our data suggest the enormous potential of this approach for improving the immunotherapy of treatment-resistant tumors, revealing the dual role of NK-92/5.28.z cells as CAR-targeted killers and modulators of endogenous adaptive immunity even in the inhibitory tumor microenvironment of high-risk RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004684PMC
March 2021

Effect of Blinatumomab vs Chemotherapy on Event-Free Survival Among Children With High-risk First-Relapse B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 03;325(9):843-854

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Importance: Blinatumomab is a CD3/CD19-directed bispecific T-cell engager molecule with efficacy in children with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Objective: To evaluate event-free survival in children with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL after a third consolidation course with blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this randomized phase 3 clinical trial, patients were enrolled November 2015 to July 2019 (data cutoff, July 17, 2019). Investigators at 47 centers in 13 countries enrolled children older than 28 days and younger than 18 years with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL in morphologic complete remission (M1 marrow, <5% blasts) or with M2 marrow (blasts ≥5% and <25%) at randomization.

Intervention: Patients were randomized to receive 1 cycle of blinatumomab (n = 54; 15 μg/m2/d for 4 weeks, continuous intravenous infusion) or chemotherapy (n = 54) for the third consolidation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was event-free survival (events: relapse, death, second malignancy, or failure to achieve complete remission). The key secondary efficacy end point was overall survival. Other secondary end points included minimal residual disease remission and incidence of adverse events.

Results: A total of 108 patients were randomized (median age, 5.0 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 4.0-10.5]; 51.9% girls; 97.2% M1 marrow) and all patients were included in the analysis. Enrollment was terminated early for benefit of blinatumomab in accordance with a prespecified stopping rule. After a median of 22.4 months of follow-up (IQR, 8.1-34.2), the incidence of events in the blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy groups was 31% vs 57% (log-rank P < .001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.33 [95% CI, 0.18-0.61]). Deaths occurred in 8 patients (14.8%) in the blinatumomab group and 16 (29.6%) in the consolidation chemotherapy group. The overall survival HR was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.18-1.01). Minimal residual disease remission was observed in more patients in the blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy group (90% [44/49] vs 54% [26/48]; difference, 35.6% [95% CI, 15.6%-52.5%]). No fatal adverse events were reported. In the blinatumomab vs consolidation chemotherapy group, the incidence of serious adverse events was 24.1% vs 43.1%, respectively, and the incidence of adverse events greater than or equal to grade 3 was 57.4% vs 82.4%. Adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation were reported in 2 patients in the blinatumomab group.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among children with high-risk first-relapse B-ALL, treatment with 1 cycle of blinatumomab compared with standard intensive multidrug chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant resulted in an improved event-free survival at a median of 22.4 months of follow-up.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02393859.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926287PMC
March 2021

Sarcoma classification by DNA methylation profiling.

Nat Commun 2021 01 21;12(1):498. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Sarcomas are malignant soft tissue and bone tumours affecting adults, adolescents and children. They represent a morphologically heterogeneous class of tumours and some entities lack defining histopathological features. Therefore, the diagnosis of sarcomas is burdened with a high inter-observer variability and misclassification rate. Here, we demonstrate classification of soft tissue and bone tumours using a machine learning classifier algorithm based on array-generated DNA methylation data. This sarcoma classifier is trained using a dataset of 1077 methylation profiles from comprehensively pre-characterized cases comprising 62 tumour methylation classes constituting a broad range of soft tissue and bone sarcoma subtypes across the entire age spectrum. The performance is validated in a cohort of 428 sarcomatous tumours, of which 322 cases were classified by the sarcoma classifier. Our results demonstrate the potential of the DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification for research and future diagnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20603-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819999PMC
January 2021

Rhabdomyosarcoma of the female genitourinary tract: Primary and relapsed disease in infants and older children. Treatment results of five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 04 12;68(4):e28889. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Klinikum Stuttgart - Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend- und Frauenmedizin, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the female genitourinary tract (FGU-RMS) located at the vagina or uterus is one of the most favorable RMS sites. Little is known about treatment and outcome in infants and relapsed disease (RD).

Methods: Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of 71 children with FGU-RMS registered within five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry (1981-2019) were evaluated.

Results: FGU-RMS was diagnosed in 67 patients with localized disease (LD) at a median age of 2.89 years (0.09-18.08). Multimodal treatment consisted of chemotherapy (CHT) (n = 66), secondary surgery (n = 32), and radiotherapy (n = 11). Age at diagnosis ≤12 months was the only significant negative prognostic factor influencing the event-free survival (EFS). Ten-year EFS and overall survival (OS) for infants ≤12 months were 50% and 81%, respectively. In contrast, children with LD >1 year and ≤10 years had a 10-year EFS and OS of 78% and 94% (P = .038), and >10 years of 82% and 88%, respectively (P = .53). Metastatic disease was observed in four patients of which three are alive. RD occurred in five of 12 infants ≤1 year and 10/55 children at a median of 1.38 years (0.53-2.97) after initial diagnosis. Treatment of patients with RD consisted of multimodal treatment (n = 13) or resection only (n = 2). Nine patients (60%) were alive in clinical remission at a median of 7.02 years (1.23-16.72) after diagnosis of RD.

Conclusion: Infants with FGU-RMS have a higher relapse rate than older children with FGU-RMS, but prognosis is fair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28889DOI Listing
April 2021

Depletion of CD45RA T cells: Advantages and disadvantages of different purification methods.

J Immunol Methods 2021 05 6;492:112960. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Background: Recently, new advances were made regarding the depletion of CD45RA naïve T cells from haploidentical grafts as they are suspected to be the most alloreactive.

Methods: Within this project we investigated CD45RA-depletion from G-CSF mobilized PBSC by two different purification strategies according to GMP, specifically direct depletion of CD45RA cells (one-step approach), or CD34-positive selection followed by CD45RA-depletion (two-step approach).

Results: With log -3.9 and - 3.8 the depletion quality of CD45RA T cells was equally for both approaches together with a close to complete CD19 B cell depletion. However, due to a high expression of CD45RA the majority of NK cells were lost within both CD45RA depletion strategies. Stem cell recovery after one-step CD45RA-depletion was at median 52.0% (range: 49.7-67.2%), which was comparable to previously published recovery data received from direct CD34 positive selection. Memory T cell recovery including CD4 and CD8 memory T cell subsets was statistically not differing between both purification approaches. The recovery of CD4 and CD8 T cells was as well similar, but overall a higher amount of cytotoxic than T-helper cells were lost as indicated by an increase of the CD4/CD8 ratio.

Conclusions: CD45RA-depletion from G-CSF mobilized PBSC is feasible as one- and two-step approach and results in sufficient reduction of CD45RA T cells as well as B cells, but also to a co-depletion of NK cells. However, by gaining two independent cell products, the two-step approach enables the highest clinical flexibility in regard to individual graft composition with precise dosage of stem cells and T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.112960DOI Listing
May 2021

[Diagnosis and therapy of tumors with NTRK gene fusion].

Pathologe 2021 Feb;42(1):103-115

Klinik für Innere Medizin I, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Deutschland.

NTRK gene fusions are sporadic genetic alterations that can occur across tumor entities. Whereas they are quite rare in most solid tumors they are present at much higher frequencies in certain rare tumors such as infantile fibrosarcoma, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, secretory breast, or salivary gland carcinoma. NTRK gene fusions or TRK fusion proteins are considered strong oncogenic drivers. If NTRK gene fusions are detected, TRK inhibitors such as entrectinib and larotrectinib can be used regardless of the tumor entity. So far only larotrectinib is approved in the European Union. Both drugs have been shown to be effective and well tolerated in phase I and phase II studies. The low prevalence of TRK fusion-positive cancers poses challenges for diagnostic and clinical work-flows. On one hand, patients with NTRK gene fusions should be identified; on the other hand, epidemiological, histological, and resource-related aspects have to be taken into account. Based on these premises, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for TRK fusion cancers and present current data on TRK inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00292-020-00864-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858552PMC
February 2021

Correction: Effects of the SARS-CoV2-Lockdown on Pediatric Care in the Rhine-Main Area.

Klin Padiatr 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department for Children and Adolescents, Division of Allergology, Pulmonology and Cystic Fibrosis, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1320-5056DOI Listing
November 2020

ERBB2-CAR-Engineered Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Exhibit Both CAR-Mediated and Innate Immunity Against High-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:581468. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Division for Stem Cell Transplantation, Immunology, and Intensive Care Medicine, Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

High-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) occurring in childhood to young adulthood is associated with a poor prognosis; especially children above the age of 10 with advanced stage alveolar RMS still succumb to the disease within a median of 2 years. The advent of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells marked significant progress in the treatment of refractory B cell malignancies, but experience for solid tumors has proven challenging. We speculate that this is at least in part due to the poor quality of the patient's own T cells and therefore propose using CAR-modified cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as effector cells. CIK cells are a heterogeneous population of polyclonal T cells that acquire phenotypic and cytotoxic properties of natural killer (NK) cells through the cultivation process, becoming so-called T-NK cells. CIK cells can be genetically modified to express CARs. They are minimally alloreactive and can therefore be acquired from haploidentical first-degree relatives. Here, we explored the potential of ERBB2-CAR-modified random-donor CIK cells as a treatment for RMS in xenotolerant mice bearing disseminated high-risk RMS tumors. In otherwise untreated mice, RMS tumors engrafted 13-35 days after intravenous tumor cell injection, as shown by bioluminescence imaging, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction for human gDNA, and mice died shortly thereafter (median/range: 62/56-66 days, = 5). Wild-type (WT) CIK cells given at an early stage delayed and eliminated RMS engraftment in 4 of 6 (67%) mice, while ERBB2-CAR CIK cells inhibited initial tumor load in 8 of 8 (100%) mice. WT CIK cells were detectable but not as active as CAR CIK cells at distant tumor sites. CIK cell therapies during advanced RMS delayed but did not inhibit tumor progression compared to untreated controls. ERBB2-CAR CIK cell therapy also supported innate immunity as evidenced by selective accumulation of NK and T-NK cell subpopulations in disseminated RMS tumors, which was not observed for WT CIK cells. Our data underscore the power of heterogenous immune cell populations (T, NK, and T-NK cells) to control solid tumors, which can be further enhanced with CARs, suggesting ERBB2-CAR CIK cells as a potential treatment for high-risk RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.581468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641627PMC
June 2021

Effects of the SARS-CoV2-Lockdown on Pediatric Care in the Rhine-Main Area.

Klin Padiatr 2021 Jan 12;233(1):31-36. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department for Children and Adolescents, Division of Allergology, Pulmonology and Cystic Fibrosis, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: The effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and lockdown on pediatric diseases and care are not well characterized in Germany.

Patients And Methods: To investigate the effects of the lockdown on pediatric medical care in the Rhine-Main area, a survey asking 115 pediatricians and an analysis of the inpatient admissions at the Department for Children and Adolescents Goethe-University, Frankfurt in April 2020 compared to April 2019 was performed.

Results: 65/115 (56.5%) pediatricians answered the survey. Pediatricians estimated the reduction of patient consultations in April 2020 vs. 2019 by 40% (median), however, according to their practice administration software, patient visits decreased by 30%. The median number of cases with the diagnosis J21 (acute bronchitis) were significantly less in April 2020 vs. April 2019 (50 vs. 10 cases per pediatrician; p<0.001). Simultaneously, hospital admissions decreased by 43.7% from 402 total cases in April 2019 to 226 cases in April 2020. Hospital admissions due to acute respiratory tract infections or asthma exacerbations as well as neonatal and oncological disorders were significantly reduced compared to the previous year (83.7; 38.1 and 22.1% respectively less to 2019).

Conclusion: The lockdown in April 2020 resulted in significantly fewer visits to pediatricians in general practice and hospital admissions, especially for acute respiratory tract infections. The health and economic consequences are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1263-1467DOI Listing
January 2021

Systemic viral infection in children receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 12 12;67(12):e28673. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Systemic viral diseases frequently occur in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but data in children receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia are scarce. We therefore collected and analyzed the published data on symptomatic infection from cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, parvovirus B19, or adenovirus in pediatric acute leukemia. Reports on 68 children were identified, of whom 16 patients have died from the infection. Further studies have to (1) evaluate the true incidence of these infections in pediatric acute leukemia, (2) their impact on outcome, and (3) whether a subpopulation of patients could benefit from screening and prophylactic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28673DOI Listing
December 2020

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in children, adolescents, and young adults: Treatment results of five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 18;122(7):1337-1347. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that present as large, invasive tumors. Our aim was to assess outcomes, identify prognostic factors, and analyze treatment strategies in a prospectively collected pediatric cohort.

Methods: Patients less than 21 years with MPNST treated in the consecutive prospective European Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS)-trials (1981-2009) and the CWS-SoTiSaR registry (2009-2015) were analyzed.

Results: A total of 159 patients were analyzed. Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) was reported in thirty-eight patients (24%). Most were adolescents (67%) with large (>10 cm, 65%) tumors located at extremities (42%). Nodal involvement was documented in 15 (9%) and distant metastases in 15 (9%) upon diagnosis. Overall, event-free survival (EFS) was 40.5% at 5 and 36.3% at 10 years, and overall survival (OS) was 54.6% at 5 and 47.1% at 10 years. Age, NF1 status, tumor site, tumor size, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) group, metastatic disease, and achieving first complete remission (CR1) were identified as prognostic factors for EFS and/or OS in the univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Prognostic factors were identified and research questions for future clinical trials were addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26153DOI Listing
December 2020

Unstimulated apheresis for chimeric antigen receptor manufacturing in pediatric/adolescent acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

J Clin Apher 2020 Sep 4;35(5):398-405. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

German Red Cross Blood Service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen, Institute Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Autologous unstimulated leukapheresis product serves as starting material for a variety of innovative cell therapy products, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells. Although it may be reasonable to assume feasibility and efficiency of apheresis for CAR-T cell manufacture, several idiosyncrasies of these patients warrant their separate analysis: target cells (mononuclear cells [MNC] and T-cells) are relatively few which may instruct the selection of apheresis technology, low body weight, and, hence, low total blood volume (TBV) can restrict process and product volume, and patients may be in compromised health. We here report outcome data from 46 consecutive leukaphereses in 33 unique pediatric patients performed for the purpose of CD19-CAR-T-cell manufacturing. Apheresis targets of 2×10 MNC/1×10 T-cells were defined by marketing authorization holder specification. Patient weight was 8 to 84 kg; TBV was 0.6 to 5.1 L. Spectra Optia apheresis technology was used. For 23 patients, a single apheresis sufficed to generate enough cells and manufacture CAR-T-cells, the remainder required two aphereses to meet target dose and/or two apheresis series because of production failure. Aphereses were technically feasible and clinically tolerable without serious adverse effects. The median collection efficiencies for MNC and T-cells were 53% and 56%, respectively. In summary, CAR apheresis in pediatric patients, including the very young, is feasible, safe and efficient, but the specified cell dose targets can be challenging in smaller children. Continuous monitoring of apheresis outcomes is advocated in order to maintain quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21812DOI Listing
September 2020

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in children and adolescents: Primary and Relapsed disease-Experience of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkomstudiengruppe (CWS).

J Surg Oncol 2020 Aug 19;122(2):263-272. Epub 2020 May 19.

Klinikum Stuttgart-Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend- und Frauenmedizin, Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare low-grade tumor. Little is known about best treatment of primary and relapsed disease (RD).

Methods: Treatment and outcome of 40 patients with DFSP prospectively registered within the CWS-96 and -2002P trials and the registry SoTiSaR (1996-2016) were analysed.

Results: Median age was 8 years (range, 0.64-17.77). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect COL1A1-PDGFB fusion genes was positive in 86% (12/14) of evaluated patients. Primary resection was performed in all patients. Patients had IRS group I (n = 28), II (n = 9), and III (n = 2); not available (n = 1). To achieve complete remission (CR), a secondary resection was performed in 18 patients resulting in microscopically complete (R0, n = 34/40) and microscopically incomplete (R1, n = 5/40) resection. All patients achieved CR. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival was 86% (±12; CI, 95%) and 100% (±0; CI, 95%), respectively. R0 resection/IRS I was significantly favorable for the 5-year EFS. Local relapse occurred after a median time of 1.1 years (range, 0.04-5.1) in 15% (6/40) after CR. All patients with RD underwent resection and achieved CR. Three patients had fibrosarcomatous DFSP, two were alive after R0 resection.

Conclusion: Complete surgical resection is mandatory to prevent relapse of DFSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25943DOI Listing
August 2020

[Registries and studies in the Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) - What contribution do they make to progress?]

Klin Padiatr 2020 May 20;232(3):124-135. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Dresden Center of Internal Medicine, Dresden.

Cancer in children and adolescents under the age of 18 is rare; in 2017, approximately 2220 new cases in Germany were reported to the German Childhood Cancer Registry. The aim of the GPOH has always been to treat as many affected patients as possible in a standardized way, preferably in prospective, controlled studies. The Joint Federal Committee has also laid down this requirement in the paediatric oncology guideline. In a survey among the study chairs of the GPOH, it was determined how the number of clinical trials has changed following the amended drug legislation. In 2002, 33 therapy optimization studies (TOS) of the GPOH were open. Overall, TOS decreased from 33 in 2002 to 2 in 2017. The number of drug trials has increased to 16 by 2017 (almost 1100 patients registered). At the time, the number of clinical registries has increased to 28 with a total of more than 1800 registered patents. This observation shows that the clinical registers have taken on a new significance in paediatric oncology. Three examples are used to examine what contributions registries can make in relation to studies on the treatment of patients and to scientific progress. In summary, the experience gained so far from the examples discussed illustrates that studies and registries mutually represent a meaningful and necessary addition to the study group structure in paediatric oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1081-1832DOI Listing
May 2020

Second malignancies after treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster study group.

Haematologica 2021 05 1;106(5):1390-1400. Epub 2021 May 1.

DEpt. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.

Second malignant neoplasms pose a concern for survivors of childhood cancer. We evaluated incidence, type and risk factors for second malignant neoplasms in patients included in Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster protocols for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 3590 patients <15 years of age at diagnosis registered between 01/1981 and 06/2010 were analyzed. Second malignant neoplasms were reported by the treating institutions and the German Childhood Cancer Registry. After median follow-up of 9.4 years (Quartile, Q1 6.7 and Q3 12.1) 95 second malignant neoplasms were registered (26 carcinomas including 9 basal cell carcinomas, 21 acute myeloid leukemias/myelodysplastic syndromes, 20 lymphoid malignancies, 12 CNS-tumors, and 16 other). Cumulative incidence at 20 years was 5.7±0.7%, standard incidence ratio excluding basal cell carcinomas was 19.8 (95% CI 14.5-26.5). Median time from initial diagnosis to second malignancy was 8.7 years (range: 0.2-30.3). Acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-type therapy, cumulative anthracycline dose, and cranial radiotherapy for brain tumor-development were significant risk factors in univariate analysis only. In multivariate analysis including risk factors significant in univariate analysis, female sex (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.23-2.86, p=0.004), CNS-involvement (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.88, p=0.042), lymphoblastic lymphoma (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.69-3.97, p<0.001), and cancer-predisposing condition (HR 11.2, 95% CI 5.52-22.75, p<0.001) retained an independent risk. Carcinomas were the most frequent second malignant neoplasms after non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood followed by acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoid malignancies. Female sex, lymphoblastic lymphoma, CNS-involvement, or/and known cancer-predisposing condition were risk factors for second malignant neoplasm-development. Our findings set the basis for individualized long-term follow-up and risk assessment of new therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.244780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094109PMC
May 2021

Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1540-1551. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Paediatric Onco-Haematology, City of Science and Health of Turino, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Torino, Italy.

Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0854-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376634PMC
August 2020

Age-Dependent Presentation and Clinical Course of 1465 Patients Aged 0 to Less than 18 Years with Ovarian or Testicular Germ Cell Tumors; Data of the MAKEI 96 Protocol Revisited in the Light of Prenatal Germ Cell Biology.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 6;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

ESPED Surveillance Unit, University Düsseldorf, Coordination Center for Clinical Studies, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate prognostic factors in pediatric patients with gonadal germ cell tumors (GCT).

Methods: Patients <18 years with ovarian and testicular GCT (respectively OGCT and TGCT) were prospectively registered according to the guidelines of MAKEI 96. After resection of the primary tumor, patients staged ≥II received risk-stratified cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Patients were analyzed in respect to age (six age groups divided into 3-year intervals), histology, stage, and therapy. The primary end point was overall survival.

Results: Between January 1996 and March 2016, the following patients were registered: 1047 OGCT, of those, 630 had ovarian teratoma (OTER) and 417 had malignant OGCT (MOGCT); and 418 TGCT, of those, 106 had testicular teratoma (TTER) and 312 had malignant TGCT (MTGCT). Only in MTGCT, older age correlated with a higher proportion of advanced tumors. All 736 teratomas and 240/415 stage I malignant gonadal GCT underwent surgery and close observation alone. In case of watchful waiting, the progression rate of OGCT was higher than that of TGCT. However, death from disease was reported in 8/417 (1.9%) MOGCT and 8/312 (2.6%) MTGCT irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy and repeated surgery.

Conclusions: The different pathogenesis and histogenesis of gonadal GCT reflects sex- and age-specific patterns that define clinically relevant risk groups. Therefore, gender and age should be considered in further research on the biology and clinical practice of pediatric gonadal GCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139559PMC
March 2020

Serving his patients with passion and dedication-Obituary to Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dietrich Niethammer.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 24;55(6):1209-1210. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department for Children and Adolescents Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0840-6DOI Listing
June 2020

The Phenotype and Functional Activity of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Pediatric Patients with Non-Malignant Hematological Diseases.

Cells 2020 02 12;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

As the biology of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with non-malignant hematological diseases (NMHD) is poorly understood, in the current study we performed a basic characterization of the phenotype and functional activity of NMHD-MSCs. Bone marrow (BM) of patients with thalassemia major (TM) possessed a significantly higher number of nucleated cells (BM-MNCs)/mL BM than healthy donors ( < 0.0001), which however did not result in a higher number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F) per milliliter BM. In contrast, from 1 × 10 BM-MNCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) were generated significantly more CFU-Fs than from TM-BM-MNCs ( < 0.013) and control group ( < 0.02). In addition, NMHD-MSCs expressed significantly lower levels of CD146 molecule, demonstrated an equal proliferation potential and differentiated along three lineages (osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes) as healthy donors' MSCs, with exception of TM-MSCs which differentiated weakly in adipocytes. In contrast to other NMHD-MSCs and healthy donors' MSCs, TM-MSCs demonstrated an impaired in vitro immunosuppressive potential, either. Noteworthy, the majority of the immunosuppressive effect of NMHD-MSCs was mediated through prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), because indomethacin (an inhibitor of PGE2 synthesis) was able to significantly reverse this effect. Our results indicate therefore that NMHD-MSCs, except TM-MSCs, may be used as an autologous cell-based therapy for post-transplant complications such as graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and osteonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9020431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072753PMC
February 2020
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