Publications by authors named "Thomas Greiner-Stöffele"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changing the substrate specificity of P450cam towards diphenylmethane by semi-rational enzyme engineering.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2011 May 27;24(5):439-46. Epub 2011 Jan 27.

Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5b, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

A focused library comprising nine residues of the active site of P450cam monooxygenase resulting in ∼ 300,000 protein variants was screened for activity on diphenylmethane (DPM). The assay was based on the depletion of NADH by an in vitro reconstituted P450cam system in a 96-well scale. The throughput was increased by the parallel cultivation, purification and analysis of 20 variants per well (cluster screening). Thus ∼ 20,000 protein variants could be screened in summary of which five were found to transform DPM with a specific activity of up to 75% of the wild-type activity on d-camphor and a coupling rate of 7-18%. One variant converting DPM to 4-hydroxydiphenylmethane (4HDPM) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis and saturation mutagenesis, which revealed the particular importance of positions F87, Y96 and L244 for substrate selectivity and the possibility for further improvements of this variant. Moreover, a reduction in size of the amino acid at position 396 decreased specific activity dramatically but increased coupling and switched the main product formation from 4HDPM towards diphenylmethanol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzq119DOI Listing
May 2011

Characterization and engineering of a novel pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56.

Mol Biotechnol 2011 Mar;47(3):253-61

Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5b, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

A novel pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase like enzyme (PQQ GDH) was isolated from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56. The putative coding region was cloned, over expressed in E. coli and the resulting enzyme was characterized. The recombinant protein has a relative molecular mass of 63 kDa and shows 43% homology to PQQ GDH-B from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. In the presence of PQQ and CaCl₂ the enzyme has dehydrogenase activity with the substrate glucose as well as with other mono- and disaccharides. The thermal stability and its pH activity profile mark the enzyme as a potential glucose biosensor enzyme. In order to decrease the activity on maltose, which is unwanted for a potential application in biosensors, the protein was rationally modified at three specified positions. The best variant showed a 59% reduction in activity on maltose compared to the wild type enzyme. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) was reduced fivefold but the specific activity still amounted to 63% of the wild type activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-010-9339-5DOI Listing
March 2011

Structure and function of the abasic site specificity pocket of an AP endonuclease from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2009 Feb 5;8(2):219-31. Epub 2008 Dec 5.

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The major AP endonuclease in Escherichia coli Exonuclease III (ExoIII) is frequently used in gene technology due to its strong exonucleolytic activity. A thermostabilized variant of ExoIII or a homologous enzyme from thermophilic organisms could be most useful for further applications. For this purpose we characterized a nuclease from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af_Exo), which shares 33% overall sequence identity and 55% similarity to ExoIII. The gene coding for this thermostable enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein shows a strong Mg(2+)-dependent nicking activity at AP-sites, nicking of undamaged double-stranded (ds) DNA and a weak exonucleolytic activity. A V217G variant of the enzyme was crystallized with decamer ds-DNA molecule, and the three-dimensional structure was determined to 1.7A resolution. Besides our goal to find or produce a thermostable exonuclease, the structural and catalytic data of Af_Exo and a series of mutant proteins, based on the crystal structure, provide new insight into the mechanism of abasic site recognition and repair. Each of the hydrophobic residues Phe 200, Trp 215 and Val 217, forming a binding pocket for the abasic deoxyribose in Af_Exo, were mutated to glycine or serine. By expanding the size of the binding pocket the unspecific endonucleolytic activity is increased. Thus, size and flexibility of the mostly hydrophobic binding pocket have a significant influence on AP-site specificity. We suggest that its tight fitting to the flipped-out deoxyribose allows for a preferred competent binding of abasic sites. In a larger or more flexible pocket however, intact nucleotides more easily bind in a catalytically competent conformation, resulting in loss of specificity. Moreover, with mutations of Phe 200 and Trp 215 we induced a strong exonucleolytic activity on undamaged DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.10.009DOI Listing
February 2009

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two thermostable DNA nucleases.

Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2006 Dec 30;62(Pt 12):1290-3. Epub 2006 Nov 30.

Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Institute for Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Temperature-tolerant organisms are an important source to enhance the stability of enzymes used in biotechnological processes. The DNA-cleaving enzyme exonuclease III from Escherichia coli is used in several applications in gene technology. A thermostable variant could expand the applicability of the enzyme in these methods. Two homologous nucleases from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (ExoAf) and Methanothermobacter thermoautrophicus (ExoMt) were studied for this purpose. Both enzymes were crystallized in different space groups using (poly)ethylene glycols, 2,4-methyl pentandiol, dioxane, ethanol or 2-propanol as precipitants. The addition of a 10-mer DNA oligonucleotide was important to obtain monoclinic crystals of ExoAf and ExoMt that diffracted to resolutions better than 2 A using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structures of the homologous proteins can serve as templates for genetic engineering of the E. coli exonuclease III and will aid in understanding the different catalytic properties of the enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1744309106050548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2225370PMC
December 2006

A recombinant exonuclease III homologue of the thermophilic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2005 Apr 8;4(4):433-44. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig/Biotechnological-Biomedical Centre Leipzig, Brüderstrasse 34, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

AP endonucleases catalyse an important step in the base excision repair (BER) pathway by incising the phosphodiester backbone of damaged DNA immediately 5' to an abasic site. Here, we report the cloning and expression of the 774 bp Mth0212 gene from the thermophilic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, which codes for a putative AP endonuclease. The 30.3 kDa protein shares 30% sequence identity with exonuclease III (ExoIII) of Escherichia coli and 40% sequence identity with the human AP endonuclease Ape1. The gene was amplified from a culture sample and cloned into an expression vector. Using an E. coli host, the thermophilic protein could be produced and purified. Characterization of the enzymatic activity revealed strong binding and Mg2+-dependent nicking activity on undamaged double-stranded (ds) DNA at low ionic strength, even at temperatures below the optimum growth temperature of M. thermautotrophicus (65 degrees C). Additionally, a much faster nicking activity on AP site containing DNA was demonstrated. Unspecific incision of undamaged ds DNA was nearly inhibited at KCl concentration of approximately 0.5 M, whereas incision at AP sites was still complete at such salt concentrations. Nicked DNA was further degraded at temperatures above 50 degrees C, probably by an exonucleolytic activity of the enzyme, which was also found on recessed 3' ends of linearized ds DNA. The enzyme was active at temperatures up to 70 degrees C and, using circular dichroism spectroscopy, shown to denature at temperatures approaching 80 degrees C. Considering the high intracellular potassium ion concentration in M. thermautotrophicus, our results suggest that the characterized thermophilic enzyme acts as an AP endonuclease in vivo with similar activities as Ape1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.11.008DOI Listing
April 2005

The xthA gene product of Archaeoglobus fulgidus is an unspecific DNase.

Eur J Biochem 2003 Apr;270(8):1838-49

Junior research group 'Protein Engineering', Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig/Biotechnological-Biomedical Centre Leipzig, Germany.

A thermostable enzyme from the hyperthermophilic sulphate-reducing archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, was expressed and characterized on the assumption that it is homologous to exonuclease III from Escherichia coli. Sequence similarity database searches were performed based on the amino acid sequence of exonuclease III. The 774 bp long gene was isolated from a culture sample and cloned into different vectors. Expression proved successful by transforming pET28_Af_Exo in Origami B(DE3) containing a tRNA plasmid with extra copies of argU, ileY and leuW tRNA genes as a host strain. The lack of thioredoxin reductase (trxB) and glutathione reductase (gor) in Origami B(DE3) allowed formation of disulfide bridges in the cytosol. Purification was performed by heat treatment of the soluble fraction at 80 degrees C for 30 min followed by a two-step ion exchange chromatography. The activity of the enzyme could be maintained. Optimal activity was achieved at 80 degrees C and at a pH of 7. Within the characterization of the protein we could not find any data verifying exonucleolytic activity in the presence of Mg2+ as described [Ankenbauer, W., Laue, F., Sobek, H., & Greif, M. (2000), patent number WO2001023583]. Instead strong DNA binding properties of the enzyme and nicking activities of double stranded DNA comparable to unspecific DNases could be observed. In contrast to exonuclease III from Escherichia coli, the xthA gene product of Archaeoglobus fulgidus is able to degrade supercoiled plasmids and shows no preferences for blunt or recessed 3'-termini of linear double stranded DNA. The enzyme is inhibited by EDTA and shows only weak activity when replacing Mg2+ with Ca2+ ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03548.xDOI Listing
April 2003