Publications by authors named "Thomas Fisch"

5 Publications

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Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2005 Mar;97(6):425-32

International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon cedex 08, France.

Background: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.

Methods: Patient records were linked between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and Swiss cantonal cancer registries. Observed and expected numbers of incident cancers were assessed in 7304 persons infected with HIV followed for 28,836 person-years. Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

Results: Highly elevated SIRs were confirmed in persons infected with HIV for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) (SIR = 192, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 170 to 217) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 76.4, 95% CI = 66.5 to 87.4). Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5). In HAART users, SIRs for KS (SIR = 25.3, 95% CI = 10.8 to 50.1) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 24.2, 95% CI = 15.0 to 37.1) were lower than those for nonusers (KS SIR = 239, 95% CI = 211 to 270; non-Hodgkin lymphoma SIR = 99.3, 95% CI = 85.8 to 114). Among HAART users, however, the SIR (although not absolute numbers) for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 36.2, 95% CI = 16.4 to 68.9) was comparable to that for KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers. Cancers of the lung, lip, mouth, or pharynx were not observed among nonsmokers.

Conclusion: In persons infected with HIV, HAART use may prevent most excess risk of KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but not that of Hodgkin lymphoma and other non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers. No cancers of the lip, mouth, pharynx, or lung were observed in nonsmokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dji072DOI Listing
March 2005

Functional consequences of IGFBP excess-lessons from transgenic mice.

Pediatr Nephrol 2005 Mar 16;20(3):269-78. Epub 2004 Dec 16.

Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology/Gene Center, Munich, Germany.

The functions of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been studied extensively in vitro, revealing IGF-dependent and also IGF-independent effects on cell growth, differentiation, and survival. In contrast, the biological relevance of IGFBPs in vivo is only partially understood. In the past decade, mouse models lacking or overexpressing specific IGFBPs have been generated by transgenic technology. Phenotypic analysis revealed features that are common for most IGFBPs (growth inhibition), but also effects that appear to be specific for some but not all IGFBPs, such as disturbed glucose homeostasis (IGFBP-1 and -3) or impaired fertility (IGFBP-1, -5, and -6). Future systematic comparison of IGFBP functions in transgenic mice will be facilitated by targeted insertion of IGFBP expression vectors and by standardized phenotype assessment. Furthermore, analysis of IGFBP expression in growth-selected mouse lines or pedigrees segregating for growth phenotypes will be important to understand the roles of IGFBPs in multigenic growth regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-004-1657-zDOI Listing
March 2005

Pleural mesothelioma incidence in Europe: evidence of some deceleration in the increasing trends.

Cancer Causes Control 2003 Oct;14(8):791-803

Mesothelioma Registry of Liguria, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, National Cancer Research Institute (IST), Genova, Italy.

Objective: To summarize the geographical and temporal variations in incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Europe, using the extensive data available from European general cancer registries, and consider these in light of recent trends in asbestos extraction, use and import in European countries.

Material And Methods: The data were extracted from the European Cancer Incidence and Mortality database (EUROCIM). The inclusion criteria was acceptance in Volume VII of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Truncated age-standardized rates per 100,000 for the ages 40-74 were used to summarise recent geographical variations. Standardized rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the periods 1986-1990 and 1991-1995 were compared to assess geographical variations in risk. To investigate changes in the magnitude of most recent trends, regression models fitted to the latest available 10-year period (1988-1997) were compared with trends in the previous decade. Fitted rates in younger (40-64) and older adults (65-74) in the most recent period were also compared.

Results: There was a great deal of geographical variation in the risk of mesothelioma, annual rates ranging from around 8 per 100,000 in Scotland, England and The Netherlands, to lower than 1 per 100,000 in Spain (0.96), Estonia (0.85), Poland (0.85) and Yugoslavia, Vojvodina (0.56) among men. The rank of the rates for women was similar to that observed for men, although rates were considerably lower. Between 1978 and 1987, rates in men significantly increased in all countries (excepting Denmark). In the following 10 years, there was a deceleration in trend, and a significant increase was detectable only in England and France. In addition, the magnitude of recent trends in younger men was generally lower than those estimated for older men, in both national and regional cancer registry settings.

Conclusions: While mesothelioma incidence rates are still rising in Europe, a deceleration has started in some countries. A decrease may begin in the next few years in certain European populations considering the deceleration of observed trends in mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, as well as the recent ban on its use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1026300619747DOI Listing
October 2003

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) separates hypertrophic and hyperplastic effects of growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I excess on adrenocortical cells in vivo.

FASEB J 2002 Nov;16(13):1721-31

Institutes of Molecular Animal Breeding/Gene Center, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

GH and IGF-I are capable of inducing cellular hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. Chronic overexpression of GH in transgenic mice results in systemically and locally increased IGF-I levels and in disproportionate overgrowth, including adrenocortical enlargement and corticosterone hypersecretion. Using PEPCK-bovine GH transgenic (G) mice, we demonstrate that adrenal enlargement involves both hypertrophy (44%) and hyperplasia (50%) of zona fasciculata cells. To clarify whether IGFBP-2 affected cell volume and number, we crossed hemizygous G mice with hemizygous CMV-IGFBP-2 transgenic (B) mice, generating G mice, B mice, GB double transgenic mice, and nontransgenic controls (C). The absolute weight of the adrenal glands was significantly increased in 5-wk- and 4-month-old G mice vs. C and B mice. IGFBP-2 overexpression in GB mice reduced this effect of GH excess by 26% and 37% in 5-wk- and 4-month-old animals, respectively. GH-induced hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was completely abolished by IGFBP-2 overexpression in GB mice whereas hyperplasia was not affected. Basal and ACTH-induced plasma corticosterone levels of 4-month-old G mice, but not of GB mice, were two- to threefold increased compared with C mice. Plasma ACTH levels were similar in all groups. Our data show that IGFBP-2 potently separates hypertrophic and hyperplastic effects of GH/IGF-I excess on adrenocortical cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.02-0349comDOI Listing
November 2002

Cancer risk by occupation and socioeconomic group among men--a study by the Association of Swiss Cancer Registries.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2002 ;28 Suppl 1:1-88

Geneva Cancer Registry, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland

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March 2002