Publications by authors named "Thomas F Cash"

39 Publications

Body Image: A joyous journey.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Body Image 2017 12 15;23:A1-A2. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.11.001DOI Listing
December 2017

Disease-specific patient reported outcome tools for systemic lupus erythematosus.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2012 Aug 4;42(1):56-65. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can significantly affect both health and non-health-related quality of life (HRQOL and non-HRQOL). However, of the existent published patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools, none were developed from US patients, an ethnically diverse population. Furthermore, these tools do not address men with SLE or assess non-HRQOL issues. Herein, we present the development and validation of the Lupus Patient-Reported Outcome tool (LupusPRO) and discuss its clinical utility and research value compared with other PRO tools currently available for SLE.

Methods: Beginning with a conceptual framework, items for LupusPRO were generated using feedback from women and men with SLE. The tool underwent iterations based on patient feedback and clinimetric and psychometric analyses. Validity (content, construct, and criterion) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) for the 44-item LupusPRO tool are presented.

Results: Consistent with the conceptual framework, items were identified that were related to HRQOL and non-HRQOL constructs. HRQOL domains included (1) lupus symptoms; (2) physical health (physical function, role physical); (3) pain-vitality; (4) emotional health (emotional function and role emotional); (5) body image; (6) cognition; (7) procreation; and (8) lupus medications. Non-HRQOL domains were (1) available social support and coping; (2) desires-goals; and (3) satisfaction with medical care. Internal consistency reliability (0.68-0.94), test-retest reliability (0.55-0.92), content, construct (r > 0.50 with SF-36), and criterion (r > -0.35 with disease activity) validity were fair to good.

Conclusions: LupusPRO is a valid and reliable disease-targeted patient-reported health outcome tool that is generalizable to SLE patients in the United States of varied ethnic backgrounds and either gender.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2011.12.005DOI Listing
August 2012

A brief assessment tool for body image in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Body Image 2012 Mar 8;9(2):279-84. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Dept. of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may adversely affect body image in multitude ways. Development and validation of a brief and valid SLE specific body image tool were undertaken. Eleven items were identified on interview of 21 SLE patients for the Body Image Lupus Scale (BILS v1.0). The tool was administered to 70 SLE patients. Based on analysis, feedback, and refinement of items, the final iteration BILS v1.2 with five items was administered to 233 SLE patients along with validated body image measures (Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory) and health-related quality of life measures for a subsample. The BILS scores' had an internal consistency reliability of .94. It correlated with both the referent body image measures, and with health-related quality of life. It differentiated participants by health status and disease activity. Test-retest reliability estimates exceeded .90. These results support the psychometric properties of BILS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.11.001DOI Listing
March 2012

Body image in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Int J Behav Med 2012 Jun;19(2):157-64

Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a multisystemic disease of young women may be disfiguring and affect physical and emotional health. Body image literature in SLE is scant and controversial.

Purpose: We compared body image-related quality of life in subjects with (n = 87) and without (n = 78) SLE and determined its correlates using the body image quality of life inventory (BIQLI).

Method: The tool was self-administered to consenting individuals. Demographic information along with disease activity and damage assessments for SLE patients were obtained. T test, chi square test, correlational, and regression analyses were used to make comparisons.

Results: Mean age (±SD) were 42.4 ± 13.1 and 38.7 ± 13.2 years for SLE and non-SLE subjects, respectively. Mean (±SD) BIQLI scores were significantly worse in SLE than non-SLE subjects: 19.9 ± 33.2 and 41.6 ± 24.8 (p = 0.001). In SLE, BIQLI scores correlated inversely with overall damage, irreversible cutaneous damage, alopecia, and self-reported depression, and directly with age and health status.

Conclusion: Body image in SLE is poor, and effective interventions may be directed at cutaneous disease activity, damage, and depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-011-9154-9DOI Listing
June 2012

Body image in women before and after reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

Int Urogynecol J 2010 Aug 4;21(8):919-25. Epub 2010 May 4.

Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: This study seeks to determine the impact of prolapse surgery on body image in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

Methods: Case-control study of 76 sexually active women with greater than or equal to stage II prolapse planning reconstructive surgery and 67 women with lesser than or equal to stage I prolapse. Questionnaires/examinations were completed at baseline and 6 months postoperatively for cases and at baseline for controls: Body Exposure During Sexual Activity Questionnaire (BESAQ), Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI)/Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12), and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POPQ) examination.

Results: Baseline and 6-month data were available for 64 case women with mean age of 60 +/- 8 years, mean body mass index of 28 +/- 5 kg/m(2), 96% Caucasian, and 83% postmenopausal. Baseline POPQ stage distribution was: stage II 14%, stage III 78%, and stage IV 8%. BESAQ, BIQLI, PFDI/PFIQ, and PISQ-12 postoperative scores significantly improved compared to preoperatively (all p
Conclusions: Body image, sexual function, and pelvic floor symptoms improve after prolapse surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-010-1141-1DOI Listing
August 2010

Attitudes and practices of dermatologists and primary care physicians who treat patients for MPHL: results of a survey.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Curr Med Res Opin 2010 Feb;26(2):345-54

Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Objectives: The study's objectives were (a) to characterize physicians' attitudes and practices in relation to treating male pattern hair loss (MPHL), (b) to examine differences vis-à-vis physician distinctions, and (c) to consider the findings in relation to published research on MPHL patients' treatment-seeking experiences.

Methods: The online survey across six countries (United States, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, and Korea) involved 466 physicians (263 dermatologists and 203 primary care physicians [PCPs]) who at least occasionally treat patients for MPHL.

Results: Over 50% of physicians were cognizant of patients' concerns and the impact of hair loss on patients' quality of life. Moreover, 65% were comfortable talking about MPHL with patients, and 62% were comfortable recommending treatment. On the other hand, about one-third of surveyed physicians were not especially comfortable assessing and treating MPHL. Relative to PCPs, dermatologists reported a significantly greater likelihood of spending time answering questions about MPHL and treatments (89 vs. 74%, p < 0.001), providing informational materials or brochures about MPHL (58 vs. 28%, p < 0.001), and letting the patient know that he/she frequently treats MPHL (40 vs. 28%, p < 0.006). Similar significant differences were evident in comparisons of frequent and non-frequent treaters. The primary goal physicians set for patients was prevention of additional hair loss (79%); secondary goals included preventing additional hair thinning/loss with potential for re-growth (65%) and informing patients they would see visible results within a year (63%). Study limitations include a lack of verification that physicians' responses reflect their actual clinical practice and the possibility that physicians enrolled in a research database do not represent the general physician population.

Conclusions: In contrast to physicians less experienced with MPHL treatment, dermatologists and other physicians frequently treating MPHL have attitudes and practices that may foster a favorable context for MPHL patient care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007990903489322DOI Listing
February 2010

Attitudes, behaviors, and expectations of men seeking medical treatment for male pattern hair loss: results of a multinational survey.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Curr Med Res Opin 2009 Jul;25(7):1811-20

Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Objectives: The study's objectives were to characterize the concerns and self-treating efforts of men seeking medical treatment for male pattern hair loss (MPHL) and to describe their expectations and actual experiences of a physician consultation.

Methods: The online survey in six countries (United States, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, and Korea) involved 604 men (25-49 years old) self-identifying with MPHL.

Results: Approximately 75% of the study's treatment-seeking men were concerned, very concerned, or extremely concerned about their hair loss; 96% were at least somewhat concerned. This high level of concern translated into multiple information-seeking actions (53.9% reported two or three actions; 24.6% reported four or five actions) and multiple self-treatments prior to physician consultation. Only 16% of the sample had not tried any treatment. Many treatment-motivated men with MPHL were uncomfortable (21%) or only moderately comfortable (37%) consulting with a physician and delayed this consultation. Factors motivating men with MPHL to consult a physician included a concern about worsening hair loss (82%), a desire to benefit from physicians' treatment expertise (85%) or physician-prescribed products (75%), and dissatisfaction with non-prescription products (73%). Expectations for the physician's treatment actions were met less often than was desired, resulting in dissatisfaction among one-fourth of the men. Dissatisfaction stemmed from lack of specific treatment recommendations (66%), unanswered questions (54%), and a perception that the doctor was uncomfortable or uninterested in discussing their hair loss (52%). Potential study limitations included self-identification of MPHL, reliance on respondents' recall, and a lack of verification of professed future physician consultations.

Conclusions: The typical man seeking MPHL treatment has significant concerns about the condition and has already engaged in considerable efforts to obtain information and to self-treat. Individualized consideration of attitudes, concerns, self-treating efforts, and expectations is crucial for effective management of men seeking medical treatment for MPHL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007990903005201DOI Listing
July 2009

Multidimensional body image comparisons among patients with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and clinical controls: a multisite study.

Body Image 2009 Jun 1;6(3):155-63. Epub 2009 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Body image disturbance is considered a core characteristic of eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), however its definition has been unclear within the literature. This study examined the multidimensional nature of body image functioning among individuals with either anorexia nervosa (AN; n=35), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=26), or BDD (n=56), relative to female (n=34) and male (n=36) psychiatric controls. Participants were recruited from 10 treatment centers in the United States and England and completed psychometrically validated and standardized self-report measures of body image. Overall, the AN, BN, and BDD groups were characterized by significantly elevated disturbances in most body image dimensions relative to their gender-matched clinical controls. There was variability, however, in the comparisons among the three groups of interest, including foci of body dissatisfaction and body image coping patterns. On omnibus indices of body image disturbance and body image quality of life, patients with BDD reported more body image impairment than those with eating disorders. Although AN, BN, and BDD are characterized by body image disturbances, similar and partially distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and emotional elements of body image functioning exist among these groups. The study's empirical and clinical implications are considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.03.001DOI Listing
June 2009

Cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership: relations with cosmetic surgery attitudes, body image, and disordered eating.

Ann Plast Surg 2009 Jan;62(1):7-11

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

Background: According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2007), the number of cosmetic procedures has increased to over 10 million in 2006, representing a 48% increase from 2000. This increase in cosmetic surgery prevalence is paralleled by a surge in reality cosmetic surgery television programming.

Methods: The current study examined the relationships among cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership, cosmetic surgery attitudes, body image, and disordered eating in a sample of 2057 college women.

Results: Viewership of reality cosmetic surgery shows was significantly related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes, perceived pressure to have cosmetic surgery, past attainment of a cosmetic procedure, a decreased fear of surgery, as well as overall body dissatisfaction, media internalization, and disordered eating.

Conclusions: Although the current study is correlational, it provides a framework for future hypothesis testing and elucidates the link between contemporary media influences, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and cosmetic surgery attitudes. Additionally, the findings indicate that surgeons may want to assess the relevance of cosmetic surgery reality TV viewership for patients' attitudes towards and expectations about cosmetic surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0b013e31817e2cb8DOI Listing
January 2009

Body image: interfacing behavioral and medical sciences.

Aesthet Surg J 2008 May-Jun;28(3):357-8

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asj.2008.03.007DOI Listing
February 2009

Caveats in the proficient preparation of an APA-style research manuscript for publication.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Body Image 2009 Jan 6;6(1):1-6. Epub 2008 Dec 6.

Writing a scientific research paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal requires compositional skill and attention to details. In evaluating submitted manuscripts, journal editors and reviewers often encounter recurrent mistakes in composition and in compliance with the stylistic requirements of the particular publication. This editorial article identifies core tenets of effective scientific writing in the social and behavioral sciences, and it delineates commonly committed errors in violation of the style prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). The editor organizes his advice in a user-friendly checklist to assist both authors and reviewers associated with this journal (Body Image: An International Journal of Research), as well as other journals that adhere to APA style. This advisory article may also assist research supervisors and instructors in academic training contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.10.003DOI Listing
January 2009

Surgical repair of pectus excavatum markedly improves body image and perceived ability for physical activity: multicenter study.

Pediatrics 2008 Dec;122(6):1218-22

Department of Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 601 Children's Lane, Suite 5B, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA.

Objective: This study evaluated changes in both physical and psychosocial quality of life reported by the parent and child after surgical repair of pectus excavatum.

Methods: As part of a multicenter study of pectus excavatum, a previously validated tool called the Pectus Excavatum Evaluation Questionnaire was administered by the research coordinator, via telephone, to parents and patients (8-21 years of age) before and 1 year after surgery. Eleven North American children's hospitals participated. From 2001 to 2006, 264 patients and 291 parents completed the initial questionnaire, and 247 patients and 274 parents completed the postoperative questionnaire. Responses used a Likert-type scale of 1 to 4, reflecting the extent or frequency of a particular experience, with higher values conveying less-desirable experience.

Results: Preoperative psychosocial functioning was unrelated to objective pectus excavatum severity (computed tomographic index). Patients and their parents reported significant positive postoperative changes. Improvements occurred in both physical and psychosocial functioning, including less social self-consciousness and a more-favorable body image. For children, the body image component improved from 2.30+/-0.62 (mean+/-SD) to 1.40+/-0.42 after surgery and the physical difficulties component improved from 2.11+/-0.82 to 1.37+/-0.44. For the parent questionnaire, the child's emotional difficulties improved from 1.81+/-0.70 to 1.24+/-0.36, social self-consciousness improved from 2.86+/-1.03 to 1.33+/-0.68, and physical difficulties improved from 2.14+/-0.75 to 1.32+/-0.39. Ninety-seven percent of patients thought that surgery improved how their chest looked.

Conclusions: Surgical repair of pectus excavatum can significantly improve the body image difficulties and limitations on physical activity experienced by patients. These results should prompt physicians to consider the physiologic and psychological implications of pectus excavatum just as they would any other physical deformity known to have such consequences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2723DOI Listing
December 2008

The measurement of body-image dissatisfaction-satisfaction: is rating importance important?

Body Image 2008 Jun 6;5(2):216-23. Epub 2008 May 6.

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

Some researchers have argued that evaluative body image may be better assessed by measures that weight dissatisfaction-satisfaction ratings by their subjective importance to individuals. The Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) is a frequently used, standardized assessment of evaluative body image, albeit one that does not use differential item weights. This investigation, with 410 female and male college students, examined whether an importance-weighted revision of the BASS would have incremental validity relative to the original version in the prediction of multiple criterion variables. Results confirmed the reliability and validity of unweighted and weighted versions. However, the validity of weighted versions did not surpass that of the original BASS. The extremity of individuals' satisfaction and dissatisfaction ratings appears inherently to reflect the importance placed on physical attributes for self-evaluation. Moderated regression analyses offered only weak support for the interaction of average satisfaction and average importance ratings beyond their main effects. The simpler, unweighted BASS is an acceptable assessment of evaluative body image.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.01.001DOI Listing
June 2008

Day-to-day body-image states: prospective predictors of intra-individual level and variability.

Body Image 2007 Mar 15;4(1):1-9. Epub 2006 Dec 15.

Virginia Consortium Program in Clinical Psychology, Virginia Beach, VA, United States.

Most body-image research has focused on the trait level of body-image evaluation, often neglecting the momentary fluctuations many people experience in everyday life. The present prospective study investigated whether theory-relevant body-image measures, perfectionistic self-presentation, and eating attitudes would predict average day-to-day body-image levels and their intra-individual variability. A convenience sample consisted of 121 women from two universities. In Phase 1 of the study, participants completed an online battery of selected body-image and personality questionnaires. In Phase 2, participants went online to complete the dependent measure, the Body Image States Scale, once per evening over 10 days. As hypothesized, more favorable body-image state levels were associated with less investment in appearance for self-worth, less body-image disturbance, fewer body-image cognitive distortions, less disturbed eating attitudes, and lower body mass. Moreover, greater day-to-day body-image variability was predicted by greater psychological investment in appearance, more body-image cognitive distortions, and higher perfectionistic self-presentation. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.11.004DOI Listing
March 2007

Body-image thought processes: The development and initial validation of the Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions.

Body Image 2006 Dec 2;3(4):325-33. Epub 2006 Nov 2.

Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this study with a sample of 263 college women. The ABCD samples eight types of distorted thinking related to how persons process information about their physical appearance. Two 18-item parallel forms of the unidimensional measure were also constructed. All forms were highly internally consistent and relatively free from socially desirable responding. Convergent validity for all ABCD forms was established using several standardized measures of body image and eating attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ABCD was predictable from body-image evaluation, investment, and overweight preoccupation. The ABCD uniquely predicted body-image quality of life and disturbed eating attitudes above and beyond other body-image predictors. Heavier women and White women were more prone to body-image cognitive distortions than were thinner women and Black women. Finally, limitations of this preliminary study, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.09.001DOI Listing
December 2006

The norms and stability of new measures of the multidimensional body image construct.

Body Image 2005 Jun 31;2(2):199-203. Epub 2005 May 31.

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

The measurement of the body image construct has become increasingly multidimensional. New assessments are available to measure various facets of body image functioning: The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory, and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory. The present article reports normative data and acceptable internal reliabilities across seven completed investigations using these measures with female and male college students. Sex differences were examined and found, as expected, for most of the measures. In addition, a study evaluated an undetermined but essential psychometric property of these facets of the construct-their test-retest reliability. In a sample of 107 college students, the 2-week stability of these measures was found to be acceptable. Several directions for future research with these assessments are identified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.03.007DOI Listing
June 2005

Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions.

Body Image 2005 Mar 15;2(1):74-80. Epub 2004 Dec 15.

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examined the preventative impact of two brief interventions (i.e., media literacy information with and without a dissonance-induction procedure). Results indicated that relative to a control group, the exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images adversely influenced the state body image of participants with high internalization levels. Media-literacy psychoeducation prior to the media exposure prevented this adverse effect. Adding a pre-exposure dissonance-induction procedure did not significantly enhance the preventative effects relative to psychoeducation alone. These results and their implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbances are discussed in the context of the empirical literature on the media's effects on body image.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.11.001DOI Listing
March 2005

Our first Body Image birthday: a year in review.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Body Image 2005 Mar;2(1):1-3

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.02.001DOI Listing
March 2005

The Body Image Quality of Life Inventory: further validation with college men and women.

Body Image 2004 Sep;1(3):279-87

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

The Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) was recently developed to quantify both the positive and negative effects of body image on one's psychosocial quality of life. The current study was conducted to further validate the measure with both men and women and to evaluate its psychometric reliability and validity among college students (N=603). Results confirmed that the 19-item measure was an internally consistent and unidimensional measure for both sexes. A significantly more favorable body image quality of life was reported by men than women, by African American than White women, and by women with lower body mass indices. Significant body image correlates included body image evaluation, investment, and situational dysphoria. A better body image quality of life was also related to higher self-esteem, optimism, and social support for both sexes and to less eating disturbance among women. The potential utility of this construct and unique instrument in further research, especially with medical populations, is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1740-1445(03)00023-8DOI Listing
September 2004

Body image ups and downs: prediction of intra-individual level and variability of women's daily body image experiences.

Body Image 2004 Sep;1(3):225-35

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

This investigation assessed body image states in the context of everyday life among 108 college women. Participants initially completed measures of body image traits and eating attitudes and subsequently called an automated telephonic response system twice daily for 6 days to convey current body image experiences on the Body Image States Scale. The research examined the extent to which selected pretest variables predicted the level and variability of body image states. As hypothesized, less favorable body image state levels were associated with lower trait body image satisfaction, more body image dysphoria, more dysfunctional investment in appearance, more disturbed eating attitudes, and the use of less adaptive and more maladaptive body image coping strategies. Also as expected, body image variability was predicted by psychological investment in one's appearance, disturbed eating attitudes, and appearance-fixing coping strategies. Implications of the results and future research directions are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.03.003DOI Listing
September 2004

Body image and psychosocial differences among stable average weight, currently overweight, and formerly overweight women: the role of stigmatizing experiences.

Body Image 2004 May;1(2):155-67

Virginia Consortium Program in Clinical Psychology, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Substantial research has compared obese and nonobese persons on body image and psychosocial adjustment. While differences in body satisfaction are often observed, the literature is less clear on other dimensions. Extant differences are typically thought to result from the social stigmatization and maltreatment experienced by obese persons, especially females. The present study of 165 women compared three cohorts who were currently overweight, never overweight, or formerly overweight. Relative to never-overweight women, currently overweight women reported more body dissatisfaction/distress, overweight preoccupation, and dysfunctional appearance investment, as well as more binge eating, lower social self-esteem, and less satisfaction with life. Consistent with the "phantom fat" phenomenon, formerly overweight women were comparable to currently overweight women but worse than never-overweight women on overweight preoccupation and dysfunctional appearance investment. Correlations confirmed that, among overweight but not formerly overweight women, more frequent stigmatizing experiences during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood were significantly associated with currently poorer body image and psychosocial functioning. Scientific and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2003.12.001DOI Listing
May 2004

Body image: past, present, and future.

Authors:
Thomas F Cash

Body Image 2004 Jan;1(1):1-5

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, VA 23529, USA.

This brief editorial article introduces the new scientific journal, Body Image: An International Journal of Research, and describes its rationale and mission in relation to the history and future of the study of body image and human appearance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1740-1445(03)00011-1DOI Listing
January 2004

Are black-white differences in females' body dissatisfaction decreasing? A meta-analytic review.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2006 Dec;74(6):1121-31

Department of PsychologyIndiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Proponents of the sociocultural model of eating disorders have suggested that ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction may be diminishing as the thin ideal of beauty becomes more widely disseminated among minority women. In a meta-analysis, the authors examined temporal trends in Black-White differences and also examined whether these differences generalize across various age groups and measures. Results confirmed more favorable body image evaluations among Black than White females, with the greatest differences at the age period of the early 20s. Although results confirmed that ethnic differences have diminished, this trend was limited to weight-focused measures. On more global body image measures, ethnic differences actually increased. These results suggest that the relationship between Black-White ethnicity and body image is more complex than previously suggested.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.6.1121DOI Listing
December 2006

The effects of psychoeducation and self-monitoring in a cognitive-behavioral program for body-image improvement.

Eat Disord 2003 ;11(4):255-70

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0267, USA.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for body-image difficulties and disorders. The current study evaluated two combined components of Cash's (1997) self-administered body-image CBT program--psychoeducation and self-monitoring. Twenty-five body-dissatisfied college students enrolled in the three-week program and were required to hand in homework weekly in brief meetings with the experimenter. From pre- to posttest, participants became significantly more satisfied with their appearance and reported less situational body-image dysphoria, less weight-related concern, and less investment in their appearance as a source of self-evaluation. Changes generalized to improved self-esteem, eating attitudes, and social anxiety. Better self-monitoring compliance predicted greater reductions in body-image dysphoria. The study's methodological limitations and clinical implications are considered, and mechanisms of change are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640260390218657DOI Listing
June 2007

Beyond body image as a trait: the development and validation of the Body Image States Scale.

Eat Disord 2002 ;10(2):103-13

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0267, USA.

The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. It was sensitive to reactions in positive versus negative situational contexts. Sex differences reflected those expected from the literature. Construct validity was confirmed by an experiment on persons' differential reactivity to appearance-related information as a function of level of dysfunctional body-image investment. The BISS is a unique and much-needed measure with potential utility in both research and clinical work.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640260290081678DOI Listing
June 2007

Outcomes of manualized cognitive-behavioral body image therapy with eating disordered women treated in a private clinical practice.

Eat Disord 2006 Jan-Feb;14(1):31-40

Mequon, Wisconsin 53092, USA.

Body image change is an important component of the treatment of eating disorders, and cognitive behavioral body image therapy has substantial empirical support as efficacious in the improvement of body image difficulties and disorders. Most evidence comes from randomized, controlled, outcome studies and does not examine effectiveness for persons with clinical eating disorders in the context of "usual care" settings. The present study was conducted in a private practice and assessed 30 women with a range of eating disorder diagnoses. Following manualized group treatment based on Cash's (1997) The Body Image Workbook, clients reported reduced body image dysphoria, greater body and appearance satisfaction on several dimensions, less psychological investment in their appearance, and a better evaluation of their fitness/health. The study's limitations and implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640260500403840DOI Listing
July 2006

Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

Addict Behav 2005 Sep;30(8):1479-95

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.03.005DOI Listing
September 2005

Coping with body-image threats and challenges: validation of the Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory.

J Psychosom Res 2005 Feb;58(2):190-9

Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0267, USA.

Objective: Despite extensive research on both body image and coping, little attention has been given to their interface. This investigation examined the reliability and validity of the newly developed Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory (BICSI), which measures how individuals characteristically manage threats or challenges to body-image experiences.

Methods: The BICSI and other relevant body-image and psychosocial functioning inventories were completed by 603 male and female college students.

Results: Results revealed a 29-item measure consisting of three internally consistent body-image coping factors: avoidance, appearance fixing, and positive rational acceptance. The BICSI significantly converged with other pertinent measures of body-image evaluation, affect, and investment, and with psychosocial functioning (i.e., self-esteem, social support, and eating disturbance). Regression analyses indicated that multiple coping strategies predicted individuals' body-image quality of life and their eating attitudes. Compared with men, women used all coping strategies more, especially appearance-fixing strategies. Ethnic differences were identified.

Conclusion: The empirical findings support the reliability and validity of the BICSI. Limitations, implications, and research directions are considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.07.008DOI Listing
February 2005

Body image and obesity in adulthood.

Psychiatr Clin North Am 2005 Mar;28(1):69-87, viii

Departments of Psychiatry and Surgery, The Edwin and Fannie Gray Hall Center for Human Appearance, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3535 Market Street, Suite 3108, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2004.09.002DOI Listing
March 2005