Publications by authors named "Thomas E Witzig"

358 Publications

Evolving Frontline Immunochemotherapy for Mantle Cell Lymphoma and the Impact on Survival Outcomes.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

With the advances in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) frontline treatment over the last two decades, we sought to characterize the frontline treatment pattern change and its association with outcomes. Patients with newly diagnosed MCL from September 2002 through June 2015 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, and clinical characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients diagnosed in 2002-2009 (Era 1) vs 2010-2015 (Era 2). Patient age, sex and simplified MIPI score were similar between the two groups. In patients with an age ≤65, there were less use of R-Hyper-CVAD (16.1% vs 8.8%) but more Nordic and R-CHOP/R-DHAP regimens (1.1% vs 26.4%), and less use of R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like regimen (64.5% vs 35.2%) but more R-Bendamustine (0% vs 12.1%) in Era 2 (p<0.001). These changes were associated with improved EFS (5-year 34.3% vs 50.0%, p=0.010) and OS (5-year 68.8% vs 81.6%, p=0.017) in Era 2. In patients with an age >65, there were less use of R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like (39.0% vs 14.3%) and non-standard systemic therapy (36.6% vs 13.0%) but more R-Bendamustine (0% vs 49.4%). These changes were associated with a trend for improved EFS (5-year 25.4% vs 37.5%, p=0.051) in Era 2. The shift from R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like regimen to R-Bendamustine was associated with improved EFS (5-year 25.0% vs 44.6%, p=0.008) in Era 2. Results from this prospective cohort study provide critical real-world evidence for improved outcomes with evolving frontline pattern of care in patients with MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005715DOI Listing
October 2021

Lenalidomide in combination with R-CHOP produces high response rates and progression-free survival in new, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma: results from the Phase 2 MC078E study.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Sep 25;11(9):160. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), either concurrent with or transformed from follicular lymphoma (FL) is often excluded from clinical trials. Lenalidomide has response rates of 45% in relapsed transformed DLBCL. Herein we present an analysis of MC078E, a phase II clinical trial testing lenalidomide plus R-CHOP (R2CHOP) for patients with untreated transformed/concurrent DLBCL (NCT00670358). Adult patients with transformed or concurrent DLBCL were included. Patients received six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP) with lenalidomide 25 mg days 1-10 of each cycle. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were response rates, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Thirty-nine patients were accrued from August 5, 2013 to July 28, 2020 and 33 were eligible by central pathology review. The median age was 64 (24-80) years, 18 (54%) were male, 25 (76%) were concurrent and 8 (24%) were transformed DLBCL. The PFS, EFS, and OS rates at 24 months were 84.4% (CI: 67.2-94.7%), 84.5% (CI: 72.9-98%), and 97.0% (CI: 91.3-100%), respectively. R2CHOP is effective in concurrent and transformed DLBCL. The study supports the inclusion of anthracycline-naive transformed and concurrent DLBCL in future clinical trials of novel immunomodulatory analogues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00542-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464592PMC
September 2021

Outcomes in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL, LT) is a rare, aggressive lymphoma characterized by skin involvement predominantly in the lower extremities. Immunochemotherapy with or without involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is considered standard front-line therapy. Over-expression of PD-L1/PD-L2 is seen in a high proportion of PCDLBCL, LT cases, but efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in relapsed/refractory, PCDLBCL, LT has not been thoroughly studied. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with PCDLBCL, LT seen at Mayo Clinic from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2020. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we calculated progression-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival in patients who received front-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) with and without ISRT, and salvage ICI therapy for relapsed/refractory disease. A total of 28 patients with PCDLBCL, LT were identified. The median PFS in patients treated with R-CHOP plus ISRT was 58 months (95% CI: 18-112) compared to 14 months (95% CI: 5-not reached; p = 0.04) in those treated with R-CHOP without ISRT. The median PFS from salvage ICI therapy was 10 months (95% CI: 4-not reached), and median DOR from salvage ICI therapy was 23 months [95% CI: 4-26]. R-CHOP with ISRT had a significantly longer median PFS compared to R-CHOP without ISRT as front-line therapy for PCDLBCL, LT. ICIs may have a role in treating relapsed/refractory disease as reasonable activity in heavily pre-treated patients was observed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2919DOI Listing
August 2021

Propsective evaluation of high-dose methotrexate pharmacokinetics in adult patients with lymphoma using novel determinants of kidney function.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) pharmacokinetics (PKs), including the best estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation that reflects methotrexate (MTX) clearance, requires investigation. This prospective, observational, single-center study evaluated adult patients with lymphoma treated with HDMTX. Samples were collected at predefined time points up to 96 h postinfusion. MTX and 7-hydroxy-MTX PKs were estimated by standard noncompartmental analysis. Linear regression determined which serum creatinine- or cystatin C-based eGFR equation best predicted MTX clearance. The 80 included patients had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 68.6 years (IQR 59.2-75.6), 54 (67.5%) were men, and 74 (92.5%) were White. The median (IQR) dose of MTX was 7.6 (IQR 4.8-11.3) grams. Median clearance was similar across three dosing levels at 4.5-5.6 L/h and was consistent with linear PKs. Liver function, weight, age, sex, concomitant chemotherapy, and number of previous MTX doses did not impact clearance. MTX area under the curve (AUC) values varied over a fourfold range and appeared to increase in proportion to the dose. The eGFR (ml/min) equation most closely correlated with MTX clearance in both the entire cohort and after excluding outlier MTX clearance values (r = 0.31 and 0.51, respectively). HDMTX as a 4-h infusion displays high interpatient pharmacokinetic variability. Population PK modeling to optimize MTX AUC attainment requires further evaluation. The cystatin C-based eGFR equation most closely estimated MTX clearance and should be investigated for dosing and monitoring in adults requiring MTX as part of lymphoma management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13125DOI Listing
August 2021

Disease outcomes and biomarkers of progression in smouldering Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.

Br J Haematol 2021 Oct 2;195(2):210-216. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Patients with asymptomatic/smouldering Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (SWM) have a variable risk of progression to active WM. Our study evaluated 143 patients with SWM consecutively seen between January 1996 and December 2013. With a median [95% confidence interval (CI)] follow-up of 9·5 [8·1-11·5] years, the cumulative rate of progression was 11% at 1 year, 38% at 3 years and 55% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, haemoglobin (Hb) ≤123 g/l [risk ratio (RR) 2·08; P = 0·009] and β -microglobulin (β M) ≥2·7 µg/ml (RR 2·0; P = 0·01) were independent predictors of a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) to active WM. Patients with myeloid differentiation factor 88 wild type (MYD88 ) genotype (n = 11) demonstrated a trend toward shorter TTP [median (95% CI) 1·7 (0·7-8·7) vs. 4·7 (2·4-7·7) years for the MYD88 cohort, n = 42; P = 0·11]. The presence of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) mutation (n = 29) did not impact the TTP (median: 3 years for CXCR4 vs. 5·6 years for CXCR4 , P = 0·34). The overall survival (OS) for patients with SWM (median: 18·1 years) was comparable to an age-, sex- and calendar year-matched USA population (median: 20·3 years, P = 0·502). In conclusion, Hb and β M at diagnosis represent independent predictors of progression to active WM. Comparable survival of SWM and a matched USA population argues against pre-emptive intervention in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17691DOI Listing
October 2021

Patterns of therapy initiation during the first decade for patients with follicular lymphoma who were observed at diagnosis in the rituximab era.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Jul 17;11(7):133. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Immediate treatment for asymptomatic, low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) has not shown an overall survival benefit over "watch and wait" (W/W) strategy. We estimated incidence of treatment initiation at specific time points and assessed its association with the presence of any criteria such as GELF, BNLI, GITMO at diagnosis. FL patients managed by W/W strategy were identified from the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) of the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Lymphoma SPORE between 2002 and 2015. Cumulative incidence estimates of treatment initiation were calculated using transformation (as the first event) and death as competing risks. 401 FL patients were identified on W/W strategy. At a median follow-up of 8 years, 256 (64%) initiated treatment. For patients on the W/W strategy for 5 years, the likelihood of treatment initiation in the next 5 years was 12% compared to 43% at diagnosis unlike transformation rates which remained steady. Patients with any of popular treatment criteria at diagnosis did not have increased therapy initiation rates (44% vs. 42%) during the first 5 years or lymphoma-related death rates at 10 years (6% vs. 7%). Identifying biological differences in patients with early vs. late or no progression is a critical next step in understanding outcomes in W/W patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00525-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286048PMC
July 2021

Lack of intrafollicular memory CD4 + T cells is predictive of early clinical failure in newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Jul 15;11(7):130. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Despite a characteristic indolent course, a substantial subset of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients has an early relapse with a poor outcome. Cells in the microenvironment may be a key contributor to treatment failure. We used a discovery and validation study design to identify microenvironmental determinants of early failure and then integrated these results into the FLIPI. In total, 496 newly diagnosed FL grade 1-3 A patients who were prospectively enrolled into the MER cohort from 2002 to 2012 were evaluated. Tissue microarrays were stained for CD4, CD8, FOXP3, CD32b, CD14, CD68, CD70, SIRP-α, TIM3, PD-1, and PD-L1. Early failure was defined as failing to achieve event-free survival at 24 months (EFS24) in immunochemotherapy-treated patients and EFS12 in all others. CyTOF and CODEX analysis were performed to characterize intratumoral immunophenotypes. Lack of intrafollicular CD4 expression was the only predictor of early failure that replicated with a pooled OR 2.37 (95%CI 1.48-3.79). We next developed a bio-clinical risk model (BioFLIPI), where lack of CD4 intrafollicular expression moved patients up one FLIPI risk group, adding a new fourth high-risk group. Compared with BioFLIPI score of 1, patients with a score of 2 (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.08-4.69), 3 (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.78-7.54), and 4 (OR 8.92; 95% CI 4.00-21.1) had increasing risk of early failure. The favorable intrafollicular CD4 T cells were identified as activated central memory T cells, whose prognostic value was independent from genetic features. In conclusion, lack of intrafollicular CD4 expression predicts early failure in FL and combined with FLIPI improves identification of high-risk patients; however, independent validation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00521-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282842PMC
July 2021

MCIR1: A patient-derived mantle cell lymphoma line for discovering new treatments for ibrutinib resistance.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Oct 18;107(4):458-465. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Despite the unprecedented success of ibrutinib in lymphoma therapy, the development of ibrutinib resistance due to acquired BTK or PLCγ2 mutations has become a new clinical problem. However, not all resistance is mediated by these mutations and these mechanisms are poorly understood due to a lack of study tools that truly recapitulate this clinical scenario.

Methods: We established a novel patient-derived ibrutinib-resistant mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) line named MCIR1. Using immunological, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches, we comprehensively characterized MCIR1 and further demonstrated its utility in the study of resistance mechanisms and treatments to overcome this resistance.

Results: We show that MCIR1 is a bona fide ibrutinib-resistant MCL cell line with normal BTK-/PLCγ2 but ibrutinib-resistant ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling. RNA-Seq analysis revealed a robust non-canonical NF-kB signaling that drives the ibrutinib resistance. We also demonstrate the potential utility of a MCIR1-based cell and mouse model for the discovery of new treatments to overcome BTK inhibitor resistance.

Conclusions: We have established the first patient-derived ibrutinib-resistant MCL cell line MCIR1 that lacks BTK or PLCγ2 mutations but exhibits a hyperactive non-canonical NF-kB pathway. We further demonstrate its utility in the discovery and validation of new drugs to overcome this resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13682DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients With Cancer: A Closer Look at Pre-Emptive Routine Screening Strategies.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 09 14;17(9):e1382-e1393. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: The benefit of routine pre-emptive screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in patients with cancer before cancer-directed therapies is unclear. Herein, we characterize the outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by routine screening (RS) in comparison with those diagnosed on the basis of clinical suspicion or exposure history (nonroutine screening [NRS]).

Methods: A multisite prospective observational study was conducted at three major and five satellite campuses of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center between March 18 and July 31, 2020. The primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admissions and all-cause mortality.

Results: Five thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent RS in the outpatient setting only, and 44 (0.81%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. RS detected 19 additional patients from the scheduled inpatient admissions for surgical or interventional procedures or inpatient chemotherapy. One hundred sixty-one patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 on the basis of NRS. COVID-19-related hospitalization rate (17.5% 26.7%; = .14), intensive care unit admission (1.6% 5.6%; = .19), and mortality (4.8% 3.7%; = .72) were not significantly different between the RS and NRS groups. In the multivariable analysis, age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio, 4.4; = .023) and an absolute lymphocyte count ≤ 1.4 × 10/L (odds ratio, 9.2; = .002) were independent predictors of COVID-19-related hospital admission.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 positivity rate was low on the basis of RS. Comparing the hospital admission and mortality outcomes with the NRS cohort, there were no significant differences. The value of routine pre-emptive screening of asymptomatic patients with cancer for COVID-19 remains low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.21.00177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457797PMC
September 2021

Elevated Serum Lactate in Patients With Lymphoma: It Is Not Always Infection.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Apr 8;5(2):423-430. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: To distinguish between sepsis only vs progressive lymphoma in patients with a history of lymphoma who present to the hospital with lactic acidosis.

Patients And Methods: We identified patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: sepsis only or progressive lymphoma. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ/Fisher exact test were used to compare the continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate overall survival (OS).

Results: A total of 51 patients were identified; 33 (65%) patients were categorized into the sepsis only group, and 18 (35%), into the progressive lymphoma group. Values for serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) drawn during hospitalization were statistically different between the sepsis only and progressive lymphoma groups (median, 262 vs 665 U/L; .005), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum LDH level 2 or more times the upper limit of normal for progressive lymphoma were 56% (95% CI, 33% to 79%) and 85% (95% CI, 73% to 97%), respectively. Serum LDH level was independently predictive of inferior OS (hazard ratio, 27.8; 95% CI, 4.0 to 160.1; <.001), while serum albumin level (hazard ratio, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.27; <.001) was independently predictive of improved OS.

Conclusion: Serum LDH levels used in conjunction with serial serum lactate values may be reliable markers to differentiate patients with progressive lymphomatous disease from patients with lymphoma with sepsis only. The LDH levels should be obtained in all patients with lymphoma who present to the hospital with lactic acidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2021.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105511PMC
April 2021

Anthracycline treatment, cardiovascular risk factors and the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of newly diagnosed lymphoma patients from the modern treatment era.

Am J Hematol 2021 08 27;96(8):979-988. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

The development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in long-term survivors of lymphoma is of increasing importance. Here, we characterize the cumulative incidence and risk factors for CVD in lymphoma patients diagnosed in the current treatment era. From 2002-2015, newly diagnosed lymphoma patients (>18 years) were enrollment into a prospective cohort study that captured incident CVD, consisting of congestive heart failure (CHF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), valvular heart disease (VHD), and arrhythmia. The cumulative incidence of CVD was calculated with death modeled as a competing risk. We estimated the association of treatment with anthracyclines or radiotherapy and traditional CVD risk factors with incidence of CVD using hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated from Cox regression. After excluding prevalent CVD at lymphoma diagnosis, the study consisted of 3063 patients with a median age of 59 years (range 18-95). The cumulative incidence of CVD at 10-years was 10.7% (95% CI, 9.5%-12.1%). In multivariable analysis, increasing age (HR = 1.05 per year, p < 0.001), male sex (HR = 1.36, p = 0.02), current smoker (HR = 2.10, p < 0.001), BMI > 30 kg/m (HR = 1.45, p = 0.01), and any anthracycline treatment (HR = 1.57, p < 0.001) were all significantly associated with risk of CVD. Anthracyclines were associated with increased risk of CHF (HR = 2.71, p < 0.001) and arrhythmia (HR = 1.61, p < 0.01), but not VHD (HR = 0.84, p = 0.58) or ACS (HR = 1.32, p = 0.24) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. Even in the modern treatment era, CVD remains common in lymphoma survivors and preventive efforts are required that address both treatment and CVD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26230DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessment of fixed-duration therapies for treatment-naïve Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Am J Hematol 2021 08 22;96(8):945-953. Epub 2021 May 22.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Comparative data guiding initial therapy for Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), an infrequently encountered non-Hodgkin lymphoma, are sparse. We evaluated three commonly used rituximab-based frontline regimens: rituximab-bendamustine (R-Benda); dexamethasone, rituximab, cyclophosphamide (DRC); and bortezomib, dexamethasone, rituximab (BDR) in 220 treatment-naïve patients with WM, seen at Mayo Clinic between November 1, 2000 and October 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 4.5 (95%CI: 4-5) years. The R-Benda cohort (n = 83) demonstrated superior overall response rate (ORR: 98%), in comparison to DRC (n = 92, ORR: 78%) or BDR (n = 45, ORR: 84%) cohorts, p = 0.003. Similarly, longer progression-free survival (PFS) was evident with R-Benda use [median 5.2 vs. 4.3 (DRC) and 1.8 years (BDR), p < 0.001]. The time-to-next therapy (TTNT) favored R-Benda [median, not-reached, 4.4 (DRC) and 2.6 years (BDR), p < 0.001). These endpoints were comparable between the DRC and BDR cohorts. Overall survival (OS) was similar across the three cohorts, p = 0.77. In a subset analysis of 142 patients genotyped for MYD88 mutation, the ORR, PFS and TTNT were unaffected by the patients' MYD88 signature within each cohort. In conclusion, ORR, PFS and TTNT with R-Benda are superior compared to DRC or BDR in treatment-naïve patients with active WM. The patient outcomes with any one of these three regimens are unaffected by the MYD88 mutation status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26210DOI Listing
August 2021

Epigenetic alteration contributes to the transcriptional reprogramming in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2021 04 15;11(1):8318. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare disease with aggressive clinical course. Cytogenetic analysis, whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have identified primary structural alterations in T-PLL, including inversion, translocation and copy number variation. Recurrent somatic mutations were also identified in genes encoding chromatin regulators and those in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Epigenetic alterations are the hallmark of many cancers. However, genome-wide epigenomic profiles have not been reported in T-PLL, limiting the mechanistic study of its carcinogenesis. We hypothesize epigenetic mechanisms also play a key role in T-PLL pathogenesis. To systematically test this hypothesis, we generated genome-wide maps of regulatory regions using H3K4me3 and H3K27ac ChIP-seq, as well as RNA-seq data in both T-PLL patients and healthy individuals. We found that genes down-regulated in T-PLL are mainly associated with defense response, immune system or adaptive immune response, while up-regulated genes are enriched in developmental process, as well as WNT signaling pathway with crucial roles in cell fate decision. In particular, our analysis revealed a global alteration of regulatory landscape in T-PLL, with differential peaks highly enriched for binding motifs of immune related transcription factors, supporting the epigenetic regulation of oncogenes and genes involved in DNA damage response and T-cell activation. Together, our work reveals a causal role of epigenetic dysregulation in T-PLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87890-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050249PMC
April 2021

Hypomagnesemia at the time of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with an increased risk of failure.

Blood Cancer J 2021 03 26;11(3):65. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Magnesium is an essential element that is involved in critical metabolic pathways. A diet deficient in magnesium is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Few studies have reported whether a serum magnesium level below the reference range (RR) is associated with prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a retrospective approach in DLBCL patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplant (AHSCT), we evaluated the association of hypomagnesemia with survival. Totally, 581 patients eligible for AHSCT with a serum magnesium level during the immediate pre-transplant period were identified and 14.1% (82/581) had hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia was associated with an inferior event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to patients with a serum magnesium level within RR; median EFS: 3.9 years (95% CI: 1.63-8.98 years) versus 6.29 years (95% CI: 4.73-8.95 years) with HR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.09-2.43, p = 0.017) for EFS, and median OS: 7.3 years (95% CI: 2.91-upper limit not estimable) versus 9.7 years (95% CI: 6.92-12.3 years) with HR 1.90 (95% CI: 1.22-2.96, p = 0.005) for OS months 0-12, respectively. These findings suggest a potentially actionable prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL undergoing AHSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00452-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998023PMC
March 2021

JAK2 activation promotes tumorigenesis in ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma via regulating oncogenic STAT1-PVT1 lncRNA axis.

Blood Cancer J 2021 03 12;11(3):56. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, GW Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00447-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955124PMC
March 2021

Early, empiric high-dose leucovorin rescue in lymphoma patients treated with sequential doses of high-dose methotrexate.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Sep 4;29(9):5293-5301. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: In patients exposed to high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX; >1g/m) with a history of elevated methotrexate (MTX) concentrations during previous doses, it is unclear whether prescribing high-dose leucovorin (HDLV) rescue limits future high levels or reduces the likelihood of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: This retrospective, single-center study longitudinally followed adult lymphoma patients treated with HDMTX between 1/1/2011 and 10/31/2017 from diagnosis until 30 days after the last HDMTX dose. Endpoints included elevated MTX concentrations at 48 h (>1.0 μmol/L) and incident AKI after each HDMTX dose.

Results: The 321 included patients had a median (IQR) age of 65 (57, 72) years, 190 (59%) were male, and 293 (91%) were Caucasian. There were 1558 HDMTX doses [median (IQR) 3 (2, 6) doses per patient] prescribed with 265 (83%) patients receiving more than one MTX dose. Those receiving HDLV rescue were more likely to have an elevated MTX concentration after that dose (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.75-4.11, p < 0.001). Receiving HDLV rescue was associated with a greater likelihood of AKI after MTX (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.38-3.43, p < 0.001). Hospital LOS was longer in those prescribed empiric HDLV rescue after MTX than those prescribed standard leucovorin with an estimated difference of 1.1 days, (95% CI: 0.5-1.7, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Sequential HDMTX doses are associated with a significant incidence of elevated MTX levels and AKI during lymphoma management. HDLV rescue prescribed during subsequent MTX doses in patients with a previously elevated level was not associated with improved safety outcomes. The optimal supportive care strategy following HDMTX administration requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06106-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295178PMC
September 2021

Microbial dysbiosis is associated with aggressive histology and adverse clinical outcome in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1194-1198

Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell survival depends on poorly understood immune evasion mechanisms. In melanoma, the composition of the gut microbiota (GMB) is associated with immune system regulation and response to immunotherapy. We investigated the association of GMB composition and diversity with lymphoma biology and treatment outcome. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), marginal zone (MZL), and follicular lymphoma (FL) were recruited at Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, and Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health. The pretreatment GMB was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We examined GMB compositions in 3 contexts: lymphoma patients (51) compared with healthy controls (58), aggressive (DLBCL) (8) compared with indolent (FL, MZL) (18), and the association of GMB with immunochemotherapy treatment outcomes (8 responders, 6 nonresponders). Respectively, we found that the pretreatment GMB in lymphoma patients had a distinct composition compared with healthy controls (P < .001); GMB compositions in DLBCL patients were significantly different than indolent patients (P = .01) with a trend toward reduced microbial diversity in DLBCL patients (P = .08); and pretreatment GMB diversity and composition were significant predictors of treatment responses (P = .01). The impact of these pilot results is limited by our small sample size, and should be considered a proof of principle. If validated, our results could lead toward improved treatment outcomes by improving medication stewardship and informing which GMB-targeted therapies should be tested to improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948261PMC
March 2021

ROBUST: A Phase III Study of Lenalidomide Plus R-CHOP Versus Placebo Plus R-CHOP in Previously Untreated Patients With ABC-Type Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 04 23;39(12):1317-1328. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Hematology, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital and University, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: Patients with the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) historically showed inferior survival with standard rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Phase II studies demonstrated that adding the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide to R-CHOP improved outcomes in ABC-type DLBCL. The goal of the global, phase III ROBUST study was to compare lenalidomide plus R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) with placebo/R-CHOP in previously untreated, ABC-type DLBCL.

Methods: Histology and cell-of-origin type were prospectively analyzed by central pathology prior to random assignment and study treatment. Patients with ABC-DLBCL received lenalidomide oral 15 mg/d, days 1-14/21 plus standard R-CHOP21 versus placebo/R-CHOP21 for six cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) per independent central radiology review.

Results: A total of 570 patients with ABC-DLBCL (n = 285 per arm) were stratified by International Prognostic Index score, age, and bulky disease, and randomly assigned to R2-CHOP or placebo/R-CHOP. Baseline demographics were similar between arms. Most patients completed six cycles of treatment: 74% R2-CHOP and 84% placebo/R-CHOP. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events for R2-CHOP versus placebo/R-CHOP were neutropenia (60% 48%), anemia (22% 14%), thrombocytopenia (17% 11%), and leukopenia (14% 15%). The primary end point of PFS was not met, with a hazard ratio of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.14) and = .29; median PFS has not been reached for either arm. PFS trends favoring R2-CHOP over placebo/R-CHOP were seen in patients with higher-risk disease.

Conclusion: ROBUST is the first DLBCL phase III study to integrate biomarker-driven identification of eligible ABC patients. Although the ROBUST trial did not meet the primary end point of PFS in all patients, the safety profile of R2-CHOP was consistent with individual treatments with no new safety signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078325PMC
April 2021

Addition of Lenalidomide to R-CHOP Improves Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a Randomized Phase II US Intergroup Study ECOG-ACRIN E1412.

J Clin Oncol 2021 04 8;39(12):1329-1338. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: Lenalidomide combined with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) (R2CHOP) in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has shown promising activity, particularly in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)-ACRIN trial E1412 was a randomized phase II study comparing R2CHOP versus R-CHOP in untreated DLBCL.

Patients And Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL, stage II bulky-IV disease, International Prognostic Index (IPI) ≥ 2, and ECOG performance status ≤ 2 were eligible and randomly assigned 1:1 to R2CHOP versus R-CHOP for six cycles. Tumors were analyzed using the NanoString Lymph2Cx for cell of origin. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) in all patients with the co-primary end point of PFS in ABC-DLBCL. Secondary end points included overall response rate (ORR), complete response (CR) rate, and overall survival (OS).

Results: Three hundred forty-nine patients were enrolled; 280 patients (145 R2CHOP and 135 R-CHOP) were evaluable: 94 were ABC-DLBCL, 122 germinal center B-cell-like-DLBCL, 18 unclassifiable, and 46 unknowns. Baseline characteristics were well-balanced between arms, and the median age was 66 (range, 24-92); 70% of patients had stage IV disease; 34%, 43%, and 24% had IPI 2, 3, and 4 or 5, respectively. Myelosuppression was more common in the R2CHOP arm. The ORR and CR rate were 92% and 68% in R-CHOP and 97% ( = .06) and 73% ( = .43) in the R2CHOP arm, respectively. The median follow-up was 3.0 years; R2CHOP was associated with a 34% reduction in risk of progression or death versus R-CHOP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.01) and 3-year PFS of 73% versus 61%, one-sided = .03, and an improvement in OS (83% and 75% at 3 years; HR, 0.67; one-sided = .05). The PFS HR for R2CHOP was 0.67 for ABC-DLBCL, one-sided = .1.

Conclusion: In this signal-seeking study, the addition of lenalidomide to R-CHOP (R2CHOP) improved outcomes in newly diagnosed DLBCL including patients with ABC-DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078264PMC
April 2021

Impact of Organ Function-Based Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Who Gets Left Behind?

J Clin Oncol 2021 05 2;39(15):1641-1649. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: Exclusion of patients needing urgent treatment or requiring novel biomarkers before enrollment has impacted the ability to enroll real-world patients in frontline trials of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The impact of baseline organ function-based eligibility criteria on this effect and clinical trial exclusion is less well-understood.

Methods: Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma were enrolled from 2002 to 2015 into the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) of the University of Iowa and Mayo Clinic Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence. The current analysis includes 1,265 patients with DLBCL receiving standard immunochemotherapy. Organ function parameters were identified from criteria for hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, creatinine clearance, and bilirubin, as reported in frontline DLBCL trials. Abstracted laboratory values from MER were used to determine the percent (%) of patients excluded. Outcomes and cause-of-death analyses comparing ineligible and eligible groups in MER were conducted. An interactive online tool was developed to estimate exclusions based on organ function for future trial design.

Results: Between 9% and 24% of MER patients with DLBCL receiving standard immunochemotherapy were excluded on the basis of baseline organ function alone. Ineligible patients based on organ function had significantly inferior event-free survival (hazard ratios, 1.67-2.16), overall survival (hazard ratios, 1.87-2.56), and event-free survival at 24 months (odds ratio, 1.71-2.16). Ineligible patients were more likely to die from lymphoma progression than increased therapy-related complications.

Conclusion: Current national and international trials exclude up to 24% of patients from participation on the basis of organ function alone. A significant difference in the outcomes, notably lymphoma-related death, suggests issues with generalization and potential exclusion of high-risk patients. These data will help future clinical trial development and meet US Food and Drug Administration and ASCO recommendations to increase trial accrual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274741PMC
May 2021

Salicylates enhance CRM1 inhibitor antitumor activity by induction of S-phase arrest and impairment of DNA-damage repair.

Blood 2021 01;137(4):513-523

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine.

Chromosome region maintenance protein 1 (CRM1) mediates protein export from the nucleus and is a new target for anticancer therapeutics. Broader application of KPT-330 (selinexor), a first-in-class CRM1 inhibitor recently approved for relapsed multiple myeloma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, have been limited by substantial toxicity. We discovered that salicylates markedly enhance the antitumor activity of CRM1 inhibitors by extending the mechanisms of action beyond CRM1 inhibition. Using salicylates in combination enables targeting of a range of blood cancers with a much lower dose of selinexor, thereby potentially mitigating prohibitive clinical adverse effects. Choline salicylate (CS) with low-dose KPT-330 (K+CS) had potent, broad activity across high-risk hematological malignancies and solid-organ cancers ex vivo and in vivo. The K+CS combination was not toxic to nonmalignant cells as compared with malignant cells and was safe without inducing toxicity to normal organs in mice. Mechanistically, compared with KPT-330 alone, K+CS suppresses the expression of CRM1, Rad51, and thymidylate synthase proteins, leading to more efficient inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export, impairment of DNA-damage repair, reduced pyrimidine synthesis, cell-cycle arrest in S-phase, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the addition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors further potentiates the K+CS antitumor effect. K+CS represents a new class of therapy for multiple types of blood cancers and will stimulate future investigations to exploit DNA-damage repair and nucleocytoplasmic transport for cancer therapy in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845010PMC
January 2021

Bone involvement on PET/CT predicts event-free survival in follicular lymphoma Grade 3B.

Br J Haematol 2020 10 23;191(2):e41-e43. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16974DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary versus secondary gastrointestinal mantle cell lymphoma.

Blood Cancer J 2021 01 7;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Primary gastrointestinal (GI) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is rare and the optimal management is unknown. We reviewed 800 newly diagnosed MCL cases and found 22 primary (2.8%) and 79 (9.9%) secondary GI MCL cases. Age, sex, and performance status were similar between primary and secondary cases. Secondary cases had more elevations in lactate dehydrogenase (28% vs 0%, P = 0.03) and a trend for a higher MCL international prognostic index (P = 0.07). Observation or local therapy was more common for primary GI MCL (29% vs 8%, P < 0.01), and autologous stem-cell transplant was more common for secondary GI MCL (35% vs 14%, P < 0.05). The median follow-up was 85 months. Primary and secondary GI MCL had similar 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (30% vs 28%, P = 0.59) and overall survival (OS) (65% vs 66%, P = 0.83). The extent of GI involvement in primary GI MCL affected treatment selection but not outcome, with a 5-year PFS of 43% vs 14% vs 31% (P = 0.48) and OS of 57% vs 71% vs 69% (P = 0.54) in cases with single lesion vs multiple lesions in 1 organ vs multiple lesions in ≥2 organs. Less aggressive frontline treatment for primary GI MCL is reasonable. It is unknown whether more aggressive treatment can result in improved outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00394-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791108PMC
January 2021

A Review of Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, and Management Options of COVID-19 Associated Coagulopathy.

Shock 2021 06;55(6):700-716

Division of Trauma, Critical Care, and General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Abstract: There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on laboratory coagulation disruptions associated with COVID-19 and the clinical effects of thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19. Endothelial injury and augmented innate immune response are implicated in the development of diffuse macro- and microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is an important determinant of appropriate treatment and monitoring of these complications. We highlight the importance of diagnosis and management of dysregulated coagulation in COVID-19 to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients with thromboembolic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122038PMC
June 2021

Treatment facility volume and patient outcomes in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 02 15;62(2):308-315. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) has an annual incidence of 3-3.2 cases per million-person/year. National Cancer Data Base was used to identify newly diagnosed WM cases requiring initiation of therapy and their annual facility volume was used to divide the treatment facilities into four quartiles (Qs). Cox regression was used to analyze the association between facility volume and survival, adjusted by demographics, socioeconomic, geographic, comorbidity factors and year of diagnosis. A total of 3064 patients treated in 795 facilities were included. The unadjusted median overall survival (OS) by facility volume was: Q1:6.5 years (5-year OS 55%), Q2:7 years (5-year OS 60%), Q3:8 years (5-year OS 64%), and Q4: NR (5-year OS 71%),  < 0.0001. Our results demonstrated that a volume-outcome relationship exists in WM and is an independent predictor of overall survival in addition to the established risk factors as age and disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1832669DOI Listing
February 2021

Myc matters in HIV-associated lymphoma.

Authors:
Thomas E Witzig

Blood 2020 09;136(11):1217-1218

Mayo Clinic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006651DOI Listing
September 2020

Disease Flare During Temporary Interruption of Ibrutinib Therapy in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Oncologist 2020 11 20;25(11):974-980. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) experience a flare of disease following ibrutinib discontinuation. A critical question is whether this phenomenon may also occur when ibrutinib is temporarily held. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of disease flares in this setting and assess risk factors and clinical outcomes.

Materials And Methods: We identified all patients with CLL seen at Mayo Clinic between October 2012 and March 2019 who received ibrutinib. Temporary interruptions in treatment and associated clinical findings were ascertained.

Results: Among the 372 patients identified, 143 (38%) had at least one temporary interruption (median 1 hold, range 1-7 holds) in treatment. The median duration of interruption was 8 days (range 1-59 days) and the most common indication was periprocedural. Among the 143 patients with ≥1 hold, an associated disease flare was seen in 35 (25%) patients: mild (constitutional symptoms only) in 21 patients and severe (constitutional symptoms with exam/radiographic findings or laboratory changes) in 14 patients. Disease flare resolved with resuming ibrutinib in all patients. Predictive factors of disease flare included progressive disease at time of hold and ≥ 24 months of ibrutinib exposure. The occurrence of disease flare with an ibrutinib hold was associated with shorter event-free survival (hazard ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.3-4.1; p = .007) but not overall survival.

Conclusion: Temporary interruptions in ibrutinib treatment of patients with CLL are common, and one quarter of patients who held ibrutinib in this study experienced a disease flare. Resolution with resuming ibrutinib underscores the importance of awareness of this phenomenon for optimal management.

Implications For Practice: Ibrutinib is a very effective treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but needs to be taken continuously. Side effects, such as increased bleeding risk with procedures, require temporary interruptions in this continuous treatment. Rapid CLL progression following ibrutinib discontinuation has been increasingly recognized. This study demonstrates that similar flares in disease signs or symptoms may occur during ibrutinib holds as well. Importantly, management with restarting ibrutinib led to quick clinical improvement. Awareness of this phenomenon among clinicians is critical to avoid associated patient morbidity and premature cessation of effective treatment with ibrutinib if the flare is misidentified as true progression of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648348PMC
November 2020
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