Publications by authors named "Thomas E Joiner"

408 Publications

Examining the roles of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity in the relationship between psychological trauma and substance abuse among women with bulimic-spectrum pathology.

Eat Disord 2021 Mar 16:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Biobehavioral Research, Sanford Research, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa report elevated rates of childhood maltreatment, which appears to increase risk for co-occurring substance use problems and negatively impact clinical course. The current study sought to examine the mechanistic pathways by which specific forms of childhood maltreatment may give rise to substance use problems among individuals with bulimic-spectrum pathology. Women with bulimic-spectrum disorders ( = 204) completed measures of childhood trauma, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and substance use. Path analysis was used to examine emotion dysregulation and impulsivity as mediators of the relationship between distinct forms of childhood trauma (physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse) and the presence of problematic alcohol/drug use. In the full path model, significant pathways from childhood emotional abuse to emotion dysregulation, childhood emotional neglect to impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation to problematic substance use emerged. Further, emotion dysregulation significantly mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and substance use. Results indicate that emotion dysregulation may be an important mechanism linking a history of childhood emotional maltreatment to later eating and substance use problems, and therefore may be an important treatment target among individuals with co-occurring eating and substance use concerns.Childhood emotional abuse was related to greater emotion dysregulation.Childhood emotional neglect was related to greater impulsivity.Emotion dysregulation was related to greater problematic substance use.Emotional abuse may impact substance use through emotion dysregulation.Creating emotion dysregulation may improve substance and eating disorder symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2021.1891370DOI Listing
March 2021

Examining the roles of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity in the relationship between psychological trauma and substance abuse among women with bulimic-spectrum pathology.

Eat Disord 2021 Mar 16:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Biobehavioral Research, Sanford Research, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa report elevated rates of childhood maltreatment, which appears to increase risk for co-occurring substance use problems and negatively impact clinical course. The current study sought to examine the mechanistic pathways by which specific forms of childhood maltreatment may give rise to substance use problems among individuals with bulimic-spectrum pathology. Women with bulimic-spectrum disorders ( = 204) completed measures of childhood trauma, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and substance use. Path analysis was used to examine emotion dysregulation and impulsivity as mediators of the relationship between distinct forms of childhood trauma (physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse) and the presence of problematic alcohol/drug use. In the full path model, significant pathways from childhood emotional abuse to emotion dysregulation, childhood emotional neglect to impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation to problematic substance use emerged. Further, emotion dysregulation significantly mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and substance use. Results indicate that emotion dysregulation may be an important mechanism linking a history of childhood emotional maltreatment to later eating and substance use problems, and therefore may be an important treatment target among individuals with co-occurring eating and substance use concerns.Childhood emotional abuse was related to greater emotion dysregulation.Childhood emotional neglect was related to greater impulsivity.Emotion dysregulation was related to greater problematic substance use.Emotional abuse may impact substance use through emotion dysregulation.Creating emotion dysregulation may improve substance and eating disorder symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2021.1891370DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form in a transgender and gender diverse community sample.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences.

This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse ( = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/body image. Analyses comprised evaluation of EDE-QS internal consistency, convergent validity, and specificity for disordered eating. The EDE-QS demonstrated strong internal consistency in the full sample, in participants with and without suspected eating disorders, and in each gender identity group; and correlated significantly with indices of disordered eating and body image. The full scale and each item significantly differentiated between participants with and without suspected eating disorders. This study provides initial evidence for good measurement and construct validity of the EDE-QS as applied to transgender and gender diverse individuals. Findings offer the EDE-QS as a promising, brief tool for screening and/or population-based research related to disordered eating in this high-risk, yet underserved population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000996DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form in a transgender and gender diverse community sample.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences.

This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse ( = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/body image. Analyses comprised evaluation of EDE-QS internal consistency, convergent validity, and specificity for disordered eating. The EDE-QS demonstrated strong internal consistency in the full sample, in participants with and without suspected eating disorders, and in each gender identity group; and correlated significantly with indices of disordered eating and body image. The full scale and each item significantly differentiated between participants with and without suspected eating disorders. This study provides initial evidence for good measurement and construct validity of the EDE-QS as applied to transgender and gender diverse individuals. Findings offer the EDE-QS as a promising, brief tool for screening and/or population-based research related to disordered eating in this high-risk, yet underserved population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000996DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form in a transgender and gender diverse community sample.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences.

This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse ( = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/body image. Analyses comprised evaluation of EDE-QS internal consistency, convergent validity, and specificity for disordered eating. The EDE-QS demonstrated strong internal consistency in the full sample, in participants with and without suspected eating disorders, and in each gender identity group; and correlated significantly with indices of disordered eating and body image. The full scale and each item significantly differentiated between participants with and without suspected eating disorders. This study provides initial evidence for good measurement and construct validity of the EDE-QS as applied to transgender and gender diverse individuals. Findings offer the EDE-QS as a promising, brief tool for screening and/or population-based research related to disordered eating in this high-risk, yet underserved population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000996DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form in a transgender and gender diverse community sample.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences.

This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse ( = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/body image. Analyses comprised evaluation of EDE-QS internal consistency, convergent validity, and specificity for disordered eating. The EDE-QS demonstrated strong internal consistency in the full sample, in participants with and without suspected eating disorders, and in each gender identity group; and correlated significantly with indices of disordered eating and body image. The full scale and each item significantly differentiated between participants with and without suspected eating disorders. This study provides initial evidence for good measurement and construct validity of the EDE-QS as applied to transgender and gender diverse individuals. Findings offer the EDE-QS as a promising, brief tool for screening and/or population-based research related to disordered eating in this high-risk, yet underserved population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000996DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form in a transgender and gender diverse community sample.

Psychol Assess 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences.

This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse ( = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/body image. Analyses comprised evaluation of EDE-QS internal consistency, convergent validity, and specificity for disordered eating. The EDE-QS demonstrated strong internal consistency in the full sample, in participants with and without suspected eating disorders, and in each gender identity group; and correlated significantly with indices of disordered eating and body image. The full scale and each item significantly differentiated between participants with and without suspected eating disorders. This study provides initial evidence for good measurement and construct validity of the EDE-QS as applied to transgender and gender diverse individuals. Findings offer the EDE-QS as a promising, brief tool for screening and/or population-based research related to disordered eating in this high-risk, yet underserved population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000996DOI Listing
March 2021

Rumination in the Context of Anger and Sadness: Differential Effects on State Agitation.

J Affect Disord 2021 Feb 11;280(Pt A):89-96. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Florida State University.

Background: Agitation is an important transdiagnostic factor for several mental health disorders and a significant risk factor for dangerous or maladaptive coping behaviors. How an individual responds to experiences of agitation itself may also play a crucial role in conferring risk towards maladaptive behaviors. Specifically, ruminating on high arousal emotions, such as anger, will also be more likely to initiate and maintain agitation, thereby increasing risk for impulsive and maladaptive behaviors.

Methods: Undergraduate students (N=117) were randomly assigned to an emotion induction condition (i.e., control, sadness only, anger only, sadness and anger) followed by either a control condition or a rumination induction. They completed measures on subjective emotional state and agitation at baseline, after emotion induction, after rumination induction, and at the end of session.

Results: Agitation was influenced by negative affect broadly with each experimental condition leading to agitation. Anger influenced momentary change in agitation and sustained agitation when combined with rumination.

Limitations: The majority of participants in the current study were young, white females and the findings may not generalize to individuals of diverse genders and cultures who may have experience and cope with agitation differently.

Conclusions: Recognizing and mitigating rumination during moments of anger may help decrease a clients' use of problematic coping behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.071DOI Listing
February 2021

Rumination in the Context of Anger and Sadness: Differential Effects on State Agitation.

J Affect Disord 2021 Feb 11;280(Pt A):89-96. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Florida State University.

Background: Agitation is an important transdiagnostic factor for several mental health disorders and a significant risk factor for dangerous or maladaptive coping behaviors. How an individual responds to experiences of agitation itself may also play a crucial role in conferring risk towards maladaptive behaviors. Specifically, ruminating on high arousal emotions, such as anger, will also be more likely to initiate and maintain agitation, thereby increasing risk for impulsive and maladaptive behaviors.

Methods: Undergraduate students (N=117) were randomly assigned to an emotion induction condition (i.e., control, sadness only, anger only, sadness and anger) followed by either a control condition or a rumination induction. They completed measures on subjective emotional state and agitation at baseline, after emotion induction, after rumination induction, and at the end of session.

Results: Agitation was influenced by negative affect broadly with each experimental condition leading to agitation. Anger influenced momentary change in agitation and sustained agitation when combined with rumination.

Limitations: The majority of participants in the current study were young, white females and the findings may not generalize to individuals of diverse genders and cultures who may have experience and cope with agitation differently.

Conclusions: Recognizing and mitigating rumination during moments of anger may help decrease a clients' use of problematic coping behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.071DOI Listing
February 2021

Mental distress among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Clin Psychol 2020 12 9;76(12):2170-2182. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Objective: This study aims to document the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.

Method: We compared a nationally representative online sample of 2,032 U.S. adults in late April 2020 to 19,330 U.S. adult internet users who participated in the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) using the Kessler-6 scale of mental distress in the last 30 days.

Results: Compared to the 2018 NHIS sample, U.S. adults in April 2020 were eight times more likely to fit criteria for serious mental distress (27.7% vs. 3.4%) and three times more likely to fit criteria for moderate or serious mental distress (70.4% vs. 22.0%). Differences between the 2018 and 2020 samples appeared across all demographic groups, with larger differences among younger adults and those with children in the household.

Conclusions: These considerable levels of mental distress may portend substantial increases in diagnosed mental disorders and in their associated morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675251PMC
December 2020

Mental distress among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Clin Psychol 2020 12 9;76(12):2170-2182. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Objective: This study aims to document the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.

Method: We compared a nationally representative online sample of 2,032 U.S. adults in late April 2020 to 19,330 U.S. adult internet users who participated in the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) using the Kessler-6 scale of mental distress in the last 30 days.

Results: Compared to the 2018 NHIS sample, U.S. adults in April 2020 were eight times more likely to fit criteria for serious mental distress (27.7% vs. 3.4%) and three times more likely to fit criteria for moderate or serious mental distress (70.4% vs. 22.0%). Differences between the 2018 and 2020 samples appeared across all demographic groups, with larger differences among younger adults and those with children in the household.

Conclusions: These considerable levels of mental distress may portend substantial increases in diagnosed mental disorders and in their associated morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675251PMC
December 2020

Psychological Problems among 12th-Grade Students Predicting Military Enlistment: Findings from the Monitoring the Future Survey.

Psychiatry 2020 ;83(3):244-258

Department of Psychology, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA, USA.

: Rates of some psychological disorders are higher among enlisted U.S. military personnel than socio-demographically matched civilians. Indirect evidence suggests some internalizing and externalizing psychological problems among enlistees onset prior to enlistment. However, the consistency and strength of the associations between pre-enlistment psychological problems and enlistment over time is unknown. We address this uncertainty by examining whether internalizing and externalizing problems in high school predicted subsequent military enlistment using a large cohort-sequential panel study. : The Monitoring the Future study administered baseline surveys from 1989-2014 and biennial follow-up surveys two and four years later to national samples of high-school seniors (N = 20,823). Validated self-report scales assessed internalizing (depression, low self-esteem) and externalizing (risk-taking, school misbehavior, conduct disorder, interpersonal violence, alcohol, and drug use) problems in each survey. Follow-up surveys assessed military enlistment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of problems scales with subsequent enlistment. : School misbehavior in 12 grade, and risk-taking in 12 grade and two years after graduation were associated with significantly elevated odds of enlistment at follow-up. Although modest, these associations were linear and invariant across respondent sex and baseline survey year. : School misbehavior and risk-taking predicted subsequent enlistment and there was no evidence of historical changes in these associations over the course of 25 years; these pre-enlistment psychological problems do not fully explain the high rates of psychological disorders among enlisted military personnel. Further research is needed to determine whether these predictors are associated with negative outcomes during or after military service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00332747.2020.1794191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513460PMC
January 2020

Psychological Problems among 12th-Grade Students Predicting Military Enlistment: Findings from the Monitoring the Future Survey.

Psychiatry 2020 ;83(3):244-258

Department of Psychology, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA, USA.

: Rates of some psychological disorders are higher among enlisted U.S. military personnel than socio-demographically matched civilians. Indirect evidence suggests some internalizing and externalizing psychological problems among enlistees onset prior to enlistment. However, the consistency and strength of the associations between pre-enlistment psychological problems and enlistment over time is unknown. We address this uncertainty by examining whether internalizing and externalizing problems in high school predicted subsequent military enlistment using a large cohort-sequential panel study. : The Monitoring the Future study administered baseline surveys from 1989-2014 and biennial follow-up surveys two and four years later to national samples of high-school seniors (N = 20,823). Validated self-report scales assessed internalizing (depression, low self-esteem) and externalizing (risk-taking, school misbehavior, conduct disorder, interpersonal violence, alcohol, and drug use) problems in each survey. Follow-up surveys assessed military enlistment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of problems scales with subsequent enlistment. : School misbehavior in 12 grade, and risk-taking in 12 grade and two years after graduation were associated with significantly elevated odds of enlistment at follow-up. Although modest, these associations were linear and invariant across respondent sex and baseline survey year. : School misbehavior and risk-taking predicted subsequent enlistment and there was no evidence of historical changes in these associations over the course of 25 years; these pre-enlistment psychological problems do not fully explain the high rates of psychological disorders among enlisted military personnel. Further research is needed to determine whether these predictors are associated with negative outcomes during or after military service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00332747.2020.1794191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513460PMC
January 2020

Psychological Problems among 12th-Grade Students Predicting Military Enlistment: Findings from the Monitoring the Future Survey.

Psychiatry 2020 ;83(3):244-258

Department of Psychology, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA, USA.

: Rates of some psychological disorders are higher among enlisted U.S. military personnel than socio-demographically matched civilians. Indirect evidence suggests some internalizing and externalizing psychological problems among enlistees onset prior to enlistment. However, the consistency and strength of the associations between pre-enlistment psychological problems and enlistment over time is unknown. We address this uncertainty by examining whether internalizing and externalizing problems in high school predicted subsequent military enlistment using a large cohort-sequential panel study. : The Monitoring the Future study administered baseline surveys from 1989-2014 and biennial follow-up surveys two and four years later to national samples of high-school seniors (N = 20,823). Validated self-report scales assessed internalizing (depression, low self-esteem) and externalizing (risk-taking, school misbehavior, conduct disorder, interpersonal violence, alcohol, and drug use) problems in each survey. Follow-up surveys assessed military enlistment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of problems scales with subsequent enlistment. : School misbehavior in 12 grade, and risk-taking in 12 grade and two years after graduation were associated with significantly elevated odds of enlistment at follow-up. Although modest, these associations were linear and invariant across respondent sex and baseline survey year. : School misbehavior and risk-taking predicted subsequent enlistment and there was no evidence of historical changes in these associations over the course of 25 years; these pre-enlistment psychological problems do not fully explain the high rates of psychological disorders among enlisted military personnel. Further research is needed to determine whether these predictors are associated with negative outcomes during or after military service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00332747.2020.1794191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513460PMC
January 2020

Gaining "The Quarantine 15:" Perceived versus observed weight changes in college students in the wake of COVID-19.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 11 28;53(11):1801-1808. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Objective: Amidst restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID-19, jokes have surfaced regarding weight gain during the pandemic. The current study documents perceived changes since COVID-19 and compares these to observed longitudinal changes in reported weight, BMI, and how college students described their weight from January to April 2020.

Method: Undergraduates (N = 90; 88% female) completed on-line assessments before and after students were required to leave campus due to COVID-19. Time 1 and Time 2 surveys collected demographic information, height, weight, and a Likert-scale rating to describe perceived weight, ranging from 1 = very underweight to 5 = very overweight (weight description). Time 2 surveys added questions for perceived changes since COVID-19 in body weight, eating, physical activity, various forms of screen time, and concerns about weight, shape, and eating.

Results: Time 2 surveys indicated perceived increases in body weight, eating, and screen time, and decreases in physical activity along with increased concerns about weight, shape and eating since COVID-19. Longitudinal data indicated no significant change in weight, body mass index (BMI), or BMI category, but how participants described their weight changed significantly from January to April 2020. Compared to longitudinal changes in BMI category, students' weight description was significantly more likely to fall into a higher category from Time 1 to Time 2.

Discussion: Shifts in how body weight is experienced in the wake of COVID-19 that do not align with observed changes in reported weight may reflect cognitive distortions that could increase risk for disordered eating in some individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461524PMC
November 2020

Gaining "The Quarantine 15:" Perceived versus observed weight changes in college students in the wake of COVID-19.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 11 28;53(11):1801-1808. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Objective: Amidst restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID-19, jokes have surfaced regarding weight gain during the pandemic. The current study documents perceived changes since COVID-19 and compares these to observed longitudinal changes in reported weight, BMI, and how college students described their weight from January to April 2020.

Method: Undergraduates (N = 90; 88% female) completed on-line assessments before and after students were required to leave campus due to COVID-19. Time 1 and Time 2 surveys collected demographic information, height, weight, and a Likert-scale rating to describe perceived weight, ranging from 1 = very underweight to 5 = very overweight (weight description). Time 2 surveys added questions for perceived changes since COVID-19 in body weight, eating, physical activity, various forms of screen time, and concerns about weight, shape, and eating.

Results: Time 2 surveys indicated perceived increases in body weight, eating, and screen time, and decreases in physical activity along with increased concerns about weight, shape and eating since COVID-19. Longitudinal data indicated no significant change in weight, body mass index (BMI), or BMI category, but how participants described their weight changed significantly from January to April 2020. Compared to longitudinal changes in BMI category, students' weight description was significantly more likely to fall into a higher category from Time 1 to Time 2.

Discussion: Shifts in how body weight is experienced in the wake of COVID-19 that do not align with observed changes in reported weight may reflect cognitive distortions that could increase risk for disordered eating in some individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461524PMC
November 2020

Gaining "The Quarantine 15:" Perceived versus observed weight changes in college students in the wake of COVID-19.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 11 28;53(11):1801-1808. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Objective: Amidst restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID-19, jokes have surfaced regarding weight gain during the pandemic. The current study documents perceived changes since COVID-19 and compares these to observed longitudinal changes in reported weight, BMI, and how college students described their weight from January to April 2020.

Method: Undergraduates (N = 90; 88% female) completed on-line assessments before and after students were required to leave campus due to COVID-19. Time 1 and Time 2 surveys collected demographic information, height, weight, and a Likert-scale rating to describe perceived weight, ranging from 1 = very underweight to 5 = very overweight (weight description). Time 2 surveys added questions for perceived changes since COVID-19 in body weight, eating, physical activity, various forms of screen time, and concerns about weight, shape, and eating.

Results: Time 2 surveys indicated perceived increases in body weight, eating, and screen time, and decreases in physical activity along with increased concerns about weight, shape and eating since COVID-19. Longitudinal data indicated no significant change in weight, body mass index (BMI), or BMI category, but how participants described their weight changed significantly from January to April 2020. Compared to longitudinal changes in BMI category, students' weight description was significantly more likely to fall into a higher category from Time 1 to Time 2.

Discussion: Shifts in how body weight is experienced in the wake of COVID-19 that do not align with observed changes in reported weight may reflect cognitive distortions that could increase risk for disordered eating in some individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461524PMC
November 2020

U.S. Census Bureau-assessed prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in 2019 and during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.

Depress Anxiety 2020 10 15;37(10):954-956. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

Background: The disruptions to daily life caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have impacted mental health, particularly mood disorders. This study aimed to compare prevalence rates of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder in national samples in the U.S. before and during the pandemic.

Methods: Participants (n = 336,525) were from U.S. Census Bureau-administered nationally representative probability samples, one from the first half of 2019 and four during the pandemic in April and May 2020. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 screening for depressive disorder and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 screening for anxiety disorders.

Results: Compared to U.S. adults in 2019, U.S. adults in April and May 2020 were more than three times as likely to screen positive for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or one or both, with more than one out of three screening positive for one or both. The prevalence of anxiety decreased slightly between the April 23-May 4, 2020 and the May 21-26, 2020 administrations, while the prevalence of depression increased slightly.

Conclusions: U.S. adults in 2020 are considerably more likely to screen positive for mood disorders than in 2019, with anxiety declining and depression increasing from April to May.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405486PMC
October 2020

U.S. Census Bureau-assessed prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in 2019 and during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.

Depress Anxiety 2020 10 15;37(10):954-956. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

Background: The disruptions to daily life caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have impacted mental health, particularly mood disorders. This study aimed to compare prevalence rates of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder in national samples in the U.S. before and during the pandemic.

Methods: Participants (n = 336,525) were from U.S. Census Bureau-administered nationally representative probability samples, one from the first half of 2019 and four during the pandemic in April and May 2020. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 screening for depressive disorder and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 screening for anxiety disorders.

Results: Compared to U.S. adults in 2019, U.S. adults in April and May 2020 were more than three times as likely to screen positive for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or one or both, with more than one out of three screening positive for one or both. The prevalence of anxiety decreased slightly between the April 23-May 4, 2020 and the May 21-26, 2020 administrations, while the prevalence of depression increased slightly.

Conclusions: U.S. adults in 2020 are considerably more likely to screen positive for mood disorders than in 2019, with anxiety declining and depression increasing from April to May.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405486PMC
October 2020

U.S. Census Bureau-assessed prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in 2019 and during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.

Depress Anxiety 2020 10 15;37(10):954-956. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.

Background: The disruptions to daily life caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have impacted mental health, particularly mood disorders. This study aimed to compare prevalence rates of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder in national samples in the U.S. before and during the pandemic.

Methods: Participants (n = 336,525) were from U.S. Census Bureau-administered nationally representative probability samples, one from the first half of 2019 and four during the pandemic in April and May 2020. All participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 screening for depressive disorder and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 screening for anxiety disorders.

Results: Compared to U.S. adults in 2019, U.S. adults in April and May 2020 were more than three times as likely to screen positive for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or one or both, with more than one out of three screening positive for one or both. The prevalence of anxiety decreased slightly between the April 23-May 4, 2020 and the May 21-26, 2020 administrations, while the prevalence of depression increased slightly.

Conclusions: U.S. adults in 2020 are considerably more likely to screen positive for mood disorders than in 2019, with anxiety declining and depression increasing from April to May.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405486PMC
October 2020

Mental Health Outcomes of Premature Discharge from United States Air Force Basic Military Training.

Mil Med 2020 09;185(9-10):e1736-e1742

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, 1107 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306.

Introduction: Each year, a substantial proportion of trainees who enter the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Basic Military Training (BMT) are unable to complete training. Reentry to civilian life poses significant challenges, including finding employment, establishing a new career path, and paying for education. To our knowledge, no study has examined the association of discharge from USAF BMT and mental health symptoms. Utilizing a sample of 85 individuals discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns, the present study aimed to: (1) characterize the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms; (2) examine the relationship between the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms and sociodemographic variables; and (3) determine whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from BMT is associated with differing severities of depression or anxiety symptoms.

Materials And Methods: Participants were individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health issues. Premature discharge is defined as any trainee who was unable to complete BMT in the USAF and was subsequently sent home. Participants were recruited from online Facebook groups for individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT. Participants were administered a battery of self-report questionnaires through a web-based survey platform. A structured demographic overview was administered to all participants to assess for age, gender, reason for discharge, amount of time spent in BMT, amount of time spent in medical hold, and whether or not the trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with depression. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with anxiety. Descriptive statistics were used to assess overall depression and anxiety rates, and analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to analyze group differences. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Florida State University (FSU).

Results: In total, 85 participants (42.4% = female) were accounted for in these data. Regarding depression symptom severity, 58.8% of participants (n = 50) indicated moderate or higher levels of depression symptoms. Regarding anxiety symptoms, 45.9% of participants (n = 39) indicated moderate or higher levels of anxiety symptoms. There were no significant differences reported regarding depression or anxiety symptoms across gender, age, amount of time spent in BMT, and amount of time spent in medical hold. Significant differences were found between depression and anxiety symptoms and whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from the USAF, such that trainees who did not agree with this decision reported higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms.

Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that this population of trainees who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns has high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Discharge from BMT may be associated with substantial distress when the individual disagrees with the reason for discharge. Enhanced procedures and continued research regarding their postdischarge well-being seem warranted.
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September 2020

Mental Health Outcomes of Premature Discharge from United States Air Force Basic Military Training.

Mil Med 2020 09;185(9-10):e1736-e1742

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, 1107 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306.

Introduction: Each year, a substantial proportion of trainees who enter the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Basic Military Training (BMT) are unable to complete training. Reentry to civilian life poses significant challenges, including finding employment, establishing a new career path, and paying for education. To our knowledge, no study has examined the association of discharge from USAF BMT and mental health symptoms. Utilizing a sample of 85 individuals discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns, the present study aimed to: (1) characterize the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms; (2) examine the relationship between the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms and sociodemographic variables; and (3) determine whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from BMT is associated with differing severities of depression or anxiety symptoms.

Materials And Methods: Participants were individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health issues. Premature discharge is defined as any trainee who was unable to complete BMT in the USAF and was subsequently sent home. Participants were recruited from online Facebook groups for individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT. Participants were administered a battery of self-report questionnaires through a web-based survey platform. A structured demographic overview was administered to all participants to assess for age, gender, reason for discharge, amount of time spent in BMT, amount of time spent in medical hold, and whether or not the trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with depression. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with anxiety. Descriptive statistics were used to assess overall depression and anxiety rates, and analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to analyze group differences. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Florida State University (FSU).

Results: In total, 85 participants (42.4% = female) were accounted for in these data. Regarding depression symptom severity, 58.8% of participants (n = 50) indicated moderate or higher levels of depression symptoms. Regarding anxiety symptoms, 45.9% of participants (n = 39) indicated moderate or higher levels of anxiety symptoms. There were no significant differences reported regarding depression or anxiety symptoms across gender, age, amount of time spent in BMT, and amount of time spent in medical hold. Significant differences were found between depression and anxiety symptoms and whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from the USAF, such that trainees who did not agree with this decision reported higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms.

Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that this population of trainees who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns has high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Discharge from BMT may be associated with substantial distress when the individual disagrees with the reason for discharge. Enhanced procedures and continued research regarding their postdischarge well-being seem warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa110DOI Listing
September 2020

Mental Health Outcomes of Premature Discharge from United States Air Force Basic Military Training.

Mil Med 2020 09;185(9-10):e1736-e1742

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, 1107 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306.

Introduction: Each year, a substantial proportion of trainees who enter the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Basic Military Training (BMT) are unable to complete training. Reentry to civilian life poses significant challenges, including finding employment, establishing a new career path, and paying for education. To our knowledge, no study has examined the association of discharge from USAF BMT and mental health symptoms. Utilizing a sample of 85 individuals discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns, the present study aimed to: (1) characterize the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms; (2) examine the relationship between the severity of current depression and anxiety symptoms and sociodemographic variables; and (3) determine whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from BMT is associated with differing severities of depression or anxiety symptoms.

Materials And Methods: Participants were individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health issues. Premature discharge is defined as any trainee who was unable to complete BMT in the USAF and was subsequently sent home. Participants were recruited from online Facebook groups for individuals who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT. Participants were administered a battery of self-report questionnaires through a web-based survey platform. A structured demographic overview was administered to all participants to assess for age, gender, reason for discharge, amount of time spent in BMT, amount of time spent in medical hold, and whether or not the trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with depression. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was used to assess current symptoms consistent with anxiety. Descriptive statistics were used to assess overall depression and anxiety rates, and analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to analyze group differences. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at Florida State University (FSU).

Results: In total, 85 participants (42.4% = female) were accounted for in these data. Regarding depression symptom severity, 58.8% of participants (n = 50) indicated moderate or higher levels of depression symptoms. Regarding anxiety symptoms, 45.9% of participants (n = 39) indicated moderate or higher levels of anxiety symptoms. There were no significant differences reported regarding depression or anxiety symptoms across gender, age, amount of time spent in BMT, and amount of time spent in medical hold. Significant differences were found between depression and anxiety symptoms and whether or not a trainee agreed with the decision to be discharged from the USAF, such that trainees who did not agree with this decision reported higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms.

Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that this population of trainees who were prematurely discharged from USAF BMT for reasons other than mental health concerns has high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Discharge from BMT may be associated with substantial distress when the individual disagrees with the reason for discharge. Enhanced procedures and continued research regarding their postdischarge well-being seem warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa110DOI Listing
September 2020

Strategies and solutions to address the mental health needs of protective service workers: An introduction.

Psychol Serv 2020 May;17(2):127-128

Department of Psychology.

By virtue of their occupational responsibilities, protective service workers are often exposed to stressors and hazards that may increase their risk for various mental health problems. Efforts are thus needed to enhance connection to psychological services across protective service worker groups and to tailor the delivery of these services based on the specific needs of these workers. To enhance the understanding of how to improve the provision of psychological services to protective service workers, the journal issued a call for papers. The 5 articles summarized in this introduction were accepted in response to this call and constitute this special section of articles. These articles represent a wide variety of public safety roles, including police officers, military service members, workers on secure forensic units, and human rights advocates. Despite this variety in specific roles and public service practice settings, findings from each study offer broad insights into bolstering mental health and improving the delivery of psychological services to all protective service workers. Together, these articles provide key perspectives on how to meet the mental health needs of protective service workers and illuminate unique considerations when providing care to this important group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000371DOI Listing
May 2020

Strategies and solutions to address the mental health needs of protective service workers: An introduction.

Psychol Serv 2020 May;17(2):127-128

Department of Psychology.

By virtue of their occupational responsibilities, protective service workers are often exposed to stressors and hazards that may increase their risk for various mental health problems. Efforts are thus needed to enhance connection to psychological services across protective service worker groups and to tailor the delivery of these services based on the specific needs of these workers. To enhance the understanding of how to improve the provision of psychological services to protective service workers, the journal issued a call for papers. The 5 articles summarized in this introduction were accepted in response to this call and constitute this special section of articles. These articles represent a wide variety of public safety roles, including police officers, military service members, workers on secure forensic units, and human rights advocates. Despite this variety in specific roles and public service practice settings, findings from each study offer broad insights into bolstering mental health and improving the delivery of psychological services to all protective service workers. Together, these articles provide key perspectives on how to meet the mental health needs of protective service workers and illuminate unique considerations when providing care to this important group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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May 2020

Underestimating digital media harm.

Nat Hum Behav 2020 04 17;4(4):346-348. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0839-4DOI Listing
April 2020