Publications by authors named "Thomas C Heineman"

44 Publications

The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine co-administered with a tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: A randomized trial.

Vaccine 2019 09 20;37(39):5877-5885. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

GSK, 20 Avenue Fleming, 1300 Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: This study evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) and the reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) when co-administered in adults aged ≥50 years.

Methods: In this open label, multi-center study (NCT02052596), participants were randomized 1:1 to the Co-Administration group (RZV dose 1 and Tdap at Day 0 [D0], RZV dose 2 at Month 2 [M2]) or Control group (Tdap at D0, RZV dose 1 at M2, RZV dose 2 at M4). Co-primary objectives were evaluation of the vaccine response rate (VRR) to RZV in the Co-Administration group, and demonstration of non-inferiority of the humoral responses to RZV and Tdap in the Co-Administration compared to Control group. Reactogenicity and safety of RZV and Tdap were also assessed.

Results: VRR to RZV was 97.8% in the Co-Administration group. The non-inferiority criterion was met for the humoral response to RZV and for 4 Tdap antigens, but was not met for the Tdap antigen pertactin. Occurrences of solicited, unsolicited and serious adverse events, and potential immune-mediated diseases were similar between groups.

Conclusions: Co-administration of RZV and Tdap did not interfere with the humoral immune response to RZV or 4 of the 5 Tdap antigens. No safety concerns were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in adults with haematological malignancies: a phase 3, randomised, clinical trial and post-hoc efficacy analysis.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 09 6;19(9):988-1000. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

CureVac, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (Shingrix) can prevent herpes zoster in older adults and autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in adults with haematological malignancies receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study, done at 77 centres worldwide, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with haematological malignancies aged 18 years and older to receive two doses of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine or placebo 1-2 months apart during or after immunosuppressive cancer treatments, and stratified participants according to their underlying diseases. The co-primary objectives of the study were the evaluation of safety and reactogenicity of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo from the first vaccination up to 30 days after last vaccination in all participants; evaluation of the proportion of participants with a vaccine response in terms of anti-glycoprotein E humoral immune response to the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine at month 2 in all participants, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; and evaluation of the anti-glycoprotein E humoral immune responses to the vaccine compared with placebo at month 2 in all participants, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We assessed immunogenicity in the per-protocol cohort for immunogenicity and safety in the total vaccinated cohort. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01767467, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, number 2012-003438-18.

Findings: Between March 1, 2013, and Sept 10, 2015, we randomly assigned 286 participants to adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine and 283 to placebo. 283 in the vaccine group and 279 in the placebo group were vaccinated. At month 2, 119 (80·4%, 95% CI 73·1-86·5) of 148 participants had a humoral vaccine response to adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine, compared with one (0·8%, 0·0-4·2) of 130 participants in the placebo group, and the adjusted geometric mean anti-glycoprotein E antibody concentration was 23 132·9 mIU/mL (95% CI 16 642·8-32 153·9) in the vaccine group and 777·6 mIU/mL (702·8-860·3) in the placebo group (adjusted geometric mean ratio 29·75, 21·09-41·96; p<0·0001) in all patients, excluding those with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted above baseline until month 13 in all strata and, as expected, vaccine was more reactogenic than placebo (within 7 days after vaccination pain was reported by 221 [79·5%] of 278 vaccine group participants and 45 [16·4%] of 274 placebo group participants; fatigue was reported by 162 [58·3%] of 278 vaccine group participants and 102 [37·2%] of 274 placebo group participants). Incidences of unsolicited or serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, disease-related events, and fatal serious adverse events were similar between the groups.

Interpretation: The immunocompromised adult population with haematological malignancies is at high risk for herpes zoster. The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine, which is currently licensed in certain countries for adults aged 50 years and older, is likely to benefit this population.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30163-XDOI Listing
September 2019

Effect of Recombinant Zoster Vaccine on Incidence of Herpes Zoster After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2019 07;322(2):123-133

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Herpes zoster, a frequent complication following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is associated with significant morbidity. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine has been developed to prevent posttransplantation zoster.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse event profile of the recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised autologous HSCT recipients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded study conducted in 167 centers in 28 countries between July 13, 2012, and February 1, 2017, among 1846 patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone recent autologous HSCT.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 2 doses of either recombinant zoster vaccine (n = 922) or placebo (n = 924) administered into the deltoid muscle; the first dose was given 50 to 70 days after transplantation and the second dose 1 to 2 months thereafter.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was occurrence of confirmed herpes zoster cases.

Results: Among 1846 autologous HSCT recipients (mean age, 55 years; 688 [37%] women) who received 1 vaccine or placebo dose, 1735 (94%) received a second dose and 1366 (74%) completed the study. During the 21-month median follow-up, at least 1 herpes zoster episode was confirmed in 49 vaccine and 135 placebo recipients (incidence, 30 and 94 per 1000 person-years, respectively), an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.22-0.44; P < .001), equivalent to 68.2% vaccine efficacy. Of 8 secondary end points, 3 showed significant reductions in incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (vaccine, n=1; placebo, n=9; IRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.00-0.78; P = .02) and of other prespecified herpes zoster-related complications (vaccine, n=3; placebo, n=13; IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.04-0.81; P = .02) and in duration of severe worst herpes zoster-associated pain (vaccine, 892.0 days; placebo, 6275.0 days; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; P = .01). Five secondary objectives were descriptive. Injection site reactions were recorded in 86% of vaccine and 10% of placebo recipients, of which pain was the most common, occurring in 84% of vaccine recipients (grade 3: 11%). Unsolicited and serious adverse events, potentially immune-mediated diseases, and underlying disease relapses were similar between groups at all time points.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among adults who had undergone autologous HSCT, a 2-dose course of recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster over a median follow-up of 21 months.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610414.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.9053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6618796PMC
July 2019

Medical conditions at enrollment do not impact efficacy and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine: a pooled post-hoc analysis of two parallel randomized trials.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 28;15(12):2865-2872. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In two pivotal efficacy studies (ZOE-50; ZOE-70), the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated >90% efficacy against herpes zoster (HZ).Adults aged ≥50 or ≥70 years (ZOE-50 [NCT01165177]; ZOE-70 [NCT01165229]) were randomized to receive 2 doses of RZV or placebo 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy and safety were evaluated post-hoc in the pooled (ZOE-50/70) population according to the number and type of selected medical conditions present at enrollment.At enrollment, 82.3% of RZV and 82.7% of placebo recipients reported ≥1 of the 15 selected medical conditions. Efficacy against HZ ranged from 84.5% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 46.4-97.1) in participants with respiratory disorders to 97.0% (95%CI: 82.3-99.9) in those with coronary heart disease. Moreover, efficacy remained >90% irrespective of the number of selected medical conditions reported by a participant.As indicated by the similarity of the point estimates, this post-hoc analysis suggests that RZV efficacy remains high in all selected medical conditions, as well as with increasing number of medical conditions. No safety concern was identified by the type or number of medical conditions present at enrollment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1627818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930113PMC
May 2020

Understanding the immunology of Shingrix, a recombinant glycoprotein E adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 08 17;59:42-48. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Departments of Pedatrics and Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States. Electronic address:

Herpes zoster is common in older and immune suppressed persons due to diminished VZV-specific cellular immunity. A recombinant herpes zoster vaccine (RZV) consisting of a single VZV glycoprotein and an adjuvant system stimulates robust and persistent VZV-specific antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in these high-risk populations. VZV-specific immune responses induced by RZV, including the generation of polyfunctional T cells, are driven by the synergistic actions of the components of the vaccine adjuvant system. RZV provides unprecedented protection against herpes zoster in older adults regardless of age at vaccination and is efficacious in immune suppressed populations. Adjuvanted subunit antigens may represent a general strategy for vaccines in the elderly and other individuals typically considered immunologically resistant to vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2019.02.009DOI Listing
August 2019

Safety profile of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine: Pooled analysis of two large randomised phase 3 trials.

Vaccine 2019 04 29;37(18):2482-2493. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: The ZOE-50 (NCT01165177) and ZOE-70 (NCT01165229) phase 3 clinical trials showed that the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) was ≥90% efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in adults. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the safety data from these studies.

Methods: Adults aged ≥50 (ZOE-50) and ≥70 (ZOE-70) years were randomly vaccinated with RZV or placebo. Safety analyses were performed on the pooled total vaccinated cohort, consisting of participants receiving at least one dose of RZV or placebo. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7 and 30 days after each vaccination, respectively. Serious AEs (SAEs) were collected from the first vaccination until 12 months post-last dose. Fatal AEs, vaccination-related SAEs, and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were collected during the entire study period.

Results: Safety was evaluated in 14,645 RZV and 14,660 placebo recipients. More RZV than placebo recipients reported unsolicited AEs (50.5% versus 32.0%); the difference was driven by transient injection site and solicited systemic reactions that were generally seen in the first week post-vaccination. The occurrence of overall SAEs (RZV: 10.1%; Placebo: 10.4%), fatal AEs (RZV: 4.3%; Placebo: 4.6%), and pIMDs (RZV: 1.2%; Placebo: 1.4%) was balanced between groups. The occurrence of possible exacerbations of pIMDs was rare and similar between groups. Overall, except for the expected local and systemic symptoms, the safety results were comparable between the RZV and Placebo groups irrespective of participant age, gender, or race.

Conclusions: No safety concerns arose, supporting the favorable benefit-risk profile of RZV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.043DOI Listing
April 2019

Immunogenicity and Safety of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Chronically Immunosuppressed Adults Following Renal Transplant: A Phase 3, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 01;70(2):181-190

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 9 times higher in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in renal transplant (RT) recipients ≥18 years of age receiving daily immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomized (1:1), observer-blind, multicenter trial, RT recipients were enrolled and received 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1-2 months (M) apart 4-18M posttransplant. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates were assessed at 1M post-dose 1, and 1M and 12M post-dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each dose, respectively. Solicited general symptoms and unsolicited AEs were also collected 7 days before first vaccination. Serious AEs (including biopsy-proven allograft rejections) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were recorded up to 12M post-dose 2.

Results: Two hundred sixty-four participants (RZV: 132; placebo: 132) were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2017. gE-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were higher in RZV than placebo recipients across postvaccination time points and persisted above prevaccination baseline 12M post-dose 2. Local AEs were reported more frequently by RZV than placebo recipients. Overall occurrences of renal function changes, rejections, unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, and pIMDs were similar between groups.

Conclusions: RZV was immunogenic in chronically immunosuppressed RT recipients. Immunogenicity persisted through 12M postvaccination. No safety concerns arose.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02058589.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938982PMC
January 2020

Immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine in patients with solid tumors, vaccinated before or during chemotherapy: A randomized trial.

Cancer 2019 04 1;125(8):1301-1312. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has demonstrated >90% efficacy against herpes zoster in adults ≥50 years of age and 68% efficacy in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients ≥18 years of age. We report the immunogenicity and safety of RZV administered to patients with solid tumors (STs) before or at the start of a chemotherapy cycle.

Method: In this phase 2/3 observer-blind, multicenter study (NCT01798056), patients with STs who were ≥18 years of age were randomized (1:1) to receive 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1-2 months apart and stratified (4:1) according to the timing of the first dose with respect to the start of a chemotherapy cycle (first vaccination 8-30 days before the start or at the start [±1 day] of a chemotherapy cycle). Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates (VRRs) were assessed 1 month after dose 1 and 1 and 12 months after dose 2. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed in the total vaccinated cohort through 12 months after dose 2.

Results: There were 232 participants in the total vaccinated cohort, 185 participants in the according-to-protocol cohort for humoral immunogenicity, and 58 participants in the according-to-protocol cohort for cell-mediated immunogenicity. Postvaccination anti-gE antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T cell frequencies and VRRs were higher in RZV recipients than in placebo recipients. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were more frequent among RZV recipients than placebo recipients. Incidence of unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, fatalities, and potential immune-mediated diseases were similar between RZV and placebo recipients.

Conclusion: RZV was immunogenic in patients with STs receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapies. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted 1 year after vaccination. No safety concerns were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766894PMC
April 2019

Immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine co-administered with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in adults ≥50 years of age: A randomized trial.

Vaccine 2018 07 11;36(29):4278-4286. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: This study evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) when the first dose was co-administered with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in adults aged ≥50 years.

Methods: In this open label, multi-center study (NCT02045836), participants were randomized 1:1 to receive either the first dose of RZV and PPSV23, co-administered at Day 0 and the second dose of RZV at Month 2 (Co-Ad group), or PPSV23 at Day 0, the first dose of RZV at Month 2 and second dose of RZV at Month 4 (Control group). Co-primary objectives were the RZV vaccine response rate (VRR) in the Co-Ad group and the non-inferiority of the antibody responses to RZV and PPSV23 in the Co-Ad group compared to the Control group. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed.

Results: 865 participants were vaccinated (Co-Ad: 432, Control: 433). VRRs to RZV were >98% in both groups. Humoral immune responses to co-administration of RZV and PPSV23 were non-inferior to sequential administration. All three co-primary immunogenicity objectives were met. Solicited local symptoms after the first RZV dose were reported by similar percentages of participants in both groups. Solicited general symptoms were more frequently reported when the first dose of RZV and PPSV23 were co-administered. No differences were apparent between groups after the second RZV dose.

Conclusions: No immunologic interference was observed between RZV and PPSV23 when co-administered in adults ≥50 years. No safety concerns were raised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.110DOI Listing
July 2018

Immune Responses to a Recombinant Glycoprotein E Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older.

J Infect Dis 2018 05;217(11):1750-1760

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora.

Background: The herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, was highly efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials. We present immunogenicity results from those trials.

Methods: Participants (ZOE-50: ≥50; ZOE-70: ≥70 years of age) received 2 doses of HZ/su or placebo, 2 months apart. Serum anti-gE antibodies and CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of 4 activation markers assessed (CD42+) after stimulation with gE-peptides were measured in subcohorts for humoral (n = 3293) and cell-mediated (n = 466) immunogenicity.

Results: After vaccination, 97.8% of HZ/su and 2.0% of placebo recipients showed a humoral response. Geometric mean anti-gE antibody concentrations increased 39.1-fold and 8.3-fold over baseline in HZ/su recipients at 1 and 36 months post-dose 2, respectively. A gE-specific CD42+ T-cell response was shown in 93.3% of HZ/su and 0% of placebo recipients. Median CD42+ T-cell frequencies increased 24.6-fold (1 month) and 7.9-fold (36 months) over baseline in HZ/su recipients and remained ≥5.6-fold above baseline in all age groups at 36 months. The proportion of CD4 T cells expressing all 4 activation markers increased over time in all age groups.

Conclusions: Most HZ/su recipients developed robust immune responses persisting for 3 years following vaccination.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01165177; NCT01165229.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946839PMC
May 2018

Complications of herpes zoster in immunocompetent older adults: Incidence in vaccine and placebo groups in two large phase 3 trials.

Vaccine 2018 03 17;36(12):1537-1541. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

GSK, King of Prussia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: An adjuvanted herpes zoster (HZ) subunit vaccine, HZ/su, demonstrated high efficacy against HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in two randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults aged ≥50 and ≥70 years (ZOE-50 and ZOE-70, respectively).

Methods: Data from ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of HZ/su against mortality, hospitalizations, and non-PHN complications of HZ including HZ-associated vasculitis, stroke, and disseminated, ophthalmic, neurologic, and visceral diseases.

Results: In the pooled ZOE-50/ZOE-70 analysis, 1 of 32 HZ/su recipients (3.1%) and 16 of 477 placebo recipients (3.4%) with a confirmed HZ episode had complications other than PHN. Efficacy against HZ-related complications was 93.7% (95% confidence interval, 59.5-99.9%) in adults aged ≥50 years and 91.6% (43.3-99.8%) in adults ≥70 years. Five HZ-related hospitalizations, all in placebo recipients, and no HZ-related deaths were reported.

Conclusions: HZ/su reduces the risk of HZ-associated complications in older adults (NCT01165177; NCT01165229).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.029DOI Listing
March 2018

Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of 2 doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine administered 2, 6 or 12 months apart in older adults: Results of a phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study.

Vaccine 2018 01 22;36(1):148-154. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

GSK, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In phase III trials, 2 doses of a herpes zoster (HZ) subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01 Adjuvant System) administered 2-months apart in older adults (≥50 and ≥70 years) demonstrated >90% efficacy in preventing HZ and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Here we report immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety following administration of 2 HZ/su doses at intervals longer than 2 months.

Methods: In this Phase III, open-label trial conducted in the US and Estonia, 354 adults ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 2 HZ/su doses 2, 6, or 12 months apart. gE-specific humoral immune responses were evaluated at pre-vaccination, 1 and 12 months post-dose 2. Co-primary objectives were to compare immune responses to HZ/su 1 month post-dose 2 when given 6-months or 12-months apart to those administered 2-months apart. For each participant, safety information was collected from dose 1 to 12 months post-dose 2.

Results: 346 participants completed the study and 343 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. One month post-dose 2, vaccine response rates were 96.5% (97.5% confidence interval [CI]: 90.4; 99.2) and 94.5% (97.5% CI: 87.6; 98.3) for the 0, 6- and 0, 12-month schedules, respectively, both schedules meeting the pre-defined criterion. Non-inferiority of anti-gE geometric mean concentrations was demonstrated for HZ/su administered on 0, 6-month compared to a 0, 2-month schedule; however, HZ/su administered on a 0, 12-month schedule did not meet the non-inferiority criterion. Injection site pain was the most commonly reported solicited adverse event (AE). 26 participants each reported at least 1 serious AE; none were assessed as related to vaccination.

Conclusions: Immune responses to HZ/su administered at 0, 6-month were non-inferior to those elicited by a 0, 2-month schedule. HZ/su exhibited a clinically acceptable safety profile for all dosing intervals.

Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01751165).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.019DOI Listing
January 2018

A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.

Vaccine 2017 12 24;35(48 Pt B):6700-6706. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Pfizer Inc., 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots.

Methods: This multicenter, phase III, double-blind, randomized study (NCT02075515), assessed lot-to-lot consistency in terms of immunogenicity of HZ/su and also assessed safety of these lots. Participants aged 50 years or older were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2 doses of HZ/su, 2 months apart, from 1 out of 3 randomized HZ/su lots (Lots A, B and C). Humoral immunogenicity was assessed pre-vaccination and 1 month post-second vaccination by anti-gE antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lot-to-lot consistency was demonstrated if the 2-sided 95% confidence intervals of the anti-gE geometric mean concentration ratio between all lot pairs were within 0.67 and 1.5. Solicited symptoms were recorded within 7 days and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were reported until study end (12 months post-second vaccination).

Results: Of 651 participants enrolled in the study, 638 received both doses of the HZ/su vaccine and 634 completed the study. Humoral immune responses were robust and consistency between 3 manufacturing lots was demonstrated. The incidence of solicited symptoms, unsolicited AEs and SAEs was comparable between all lots. Three fatal SAEs, 1 in each lot, were reported, none of which were considered vaccine-related by investigator assessment. Two out of the 8 reported pIMDs were considered vaccine-related by the investigator.

Conclusion: The three HZ/su manufacturing lots demonstrated consistent immunogenicity. No safety concerns were identified. Clinical trial registry number: NCT02075515 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.10.017DOI Listing
December 2017

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine Coadministered With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older.

J Infect Dis 2017 12;216(11):1352-1361

GSK Vaccines, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit (HZ/su) vaccine when coadministered with a quadrivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) was investigated in a phase 3, open-label, randomized clinical trial in adults aged ≥50 years.

Methods: Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive either HZ/su (varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E; AS01B Adjuvant System) and IIV4 at day 0 followed by a second HZ/su dose at month 2 (coadministration group), or IIV4 at month 0 and HZ/su at months 2 and 4 (control group). The primary objectives were the HZ/su vaccine response rate in the coadministration group and the noninferiority of the antibody responses to HZ/su and IIV4 in the coadministration compared with the control group. Safety information was collected throughout the duration of the study.

Results: A total of 413 subjects were vaccinated in the coadministration group and 415 in the control group. The HZ/su vaccine response rate in the coadministration group was 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.3%-97.6%) and the anti-glycoprotein E GMCControl/Coadmin ratio was 1.08 (.97-1.20). The primary noninferiority objectives were met. No safety concerns were observed.

Conclusions: No interference in the immune responses to either vaccine was observed when the vaccines were coadministered, and no safety concerns were identified.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01954251.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853904PMC
December 2017

Immunogenicity and Safety of the HZ/su Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults Previously Vaccinated With a Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

J Infect Dis 2017 12;216(11):1343-1351

GSK Vaccine, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: Protection against herpes zoster (HZ) induced by the live attenuated zoster vaccine Zostavax (ZVL) wanes within 3-7 years. Revaccination may renew protection. We assessed whether (re)vaccination with the adjuvanted HZ subunit vaccine candidate (HZ/su) induced comparable immune responses in previous ZVL recipients and ZVL-naive individuals (HZ-NonVac).

Methods: In an open-label, multicenter study, adults ≥65 years of age, vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years previously (HZ-PreVac), were matched to ZVL-naive adults (HZ-NonVac). Participants received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart. The primary objective of noninferiority of the humoral immune response 1 month post-dose 2 was considered demonstrated if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the adjusted anti-glycoprotein E geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio of HZ-NonVac over HZ-PreVac was <1.5. HZ/su cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety were also assessed.

Results: In 430 participants, humoral immune response to HZ/su was noninferior in HZ-PreVac compared with HZ-NonVac (adjusted GMC ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, .92-1.17]). Cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety appeared to be comparable between groups. HZ/su was well-tolerated, with no safety concerns raised within 1 month post-dose 2.

Conclusions: HZ/su induces a strong immune response irrespective of prior vaccination with ZVL, and may be an attractive option to revaccinate prior ZVL recipients.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02581410.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853346PMC
December 2017

Immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in adults ≥ 50 years of age with a prior history of herpes zoster: A phase III, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 05 9;13(5):1051-1058. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

c GSK Vaccines , King of Prussia , PA , USA.

This phase III, non-randomized, open-label, multi-center study (NCT01827839) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant subunit herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (HZ/su) in adults aged ≥ 50 y with prior physician-documented history of HZ. Participants (stratified by age: 50-59, 60-69 and ≥ 70 y) received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart and were followed-up for another 12 months. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before vaccination and 1 month after the second dose (Month 3). Solicited local and general adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 d and unsolicited AEs for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious AEs were recorded until study end. The primary immunogenicity objective was met if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the vaccine response rate (VRR), defined as a 4-fold increase in anti-gE over baseline, at Month 3 was ≥ 60%. 96 participants (32/age group) were enrolled. The primary immunogenicity objective was met, as the VRR at Month 3 was 90.2% (95% CI: 81.7-95.7). Geometric mean anti-gE antibody concentrations at Month 3 were similar across age groups. 77.9% and 71.6% of participants reported local and general solicited AEs, respectively. The most frequent solicited AEs were pain at injection site, fatigue, headache, myalgia and shivering. The HZ/su vaccine was immunogenic in adults aged ≥ 50 y with a physician-documented history of HZ, and no safety concerns were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1265715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5443374PMC
May 2017

Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

N Engl J Med 2016 Sep;375(11):1019-32

From Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, NSW (A.L.C.), University of Sydney, Sydney (A.L.C.), the Department of Infectious Disease, Barwon Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC (E.A.), AusTrials and the Discipline of General Practice, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane (F.L.), and Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (W.Y.) - all in Australia; GSK Vaccines, King of Prussia, PA (H.L., T.C.H.); GSK Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium (M.K., O.G., C.V.A., T.Z., L.C., L.O.); Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic (R.C., J.S.); the Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (S.-J.H.); the Vaccine Research Unit, Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica, Valencia, Spain (J.D.-D., J.P.-B.); the Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (M.J.L.); Health Sciences North Research Institute, Sudbury, ON (J.E.M.), the Section of Infectious Diseases, University of British Colombia, Victoria (W.G.), PrimeHealth Clinical Research, Toronto (I.G.), and the Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Center and Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University, Halifax (S.A.M.) - all in Canada; Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (T.V., A.A., T.K.); the Department of Dermatology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan (D.W.); Instituto Dermatologico de Jalisco Dr. José Barba Rubio, Zapopan, Mexico (J.F.B.-G.); Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL (H.J.D.); the Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong (E.L.); Center for Clinical Research, Sörmland County Council, Eskilstuna, and Uppsala University, Uppsala - both in Sweden (L.R.); and

Background: A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70).

Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50.

Results: In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups.

Conclusions: In our trial, HZ/su was found to reduce the risks of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among adults 70 years of age or older. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01165177 and NCT01165229 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1603800DOI Listing
September 2016

Long-term immunogenicity and safety of an investigational herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults.

Vaccine 2016 Feb 1;34(6):863-8. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

GSK Vaccines, King of Prussia, PA, USA.

Background: An investigational subunit vaccine containing the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) and the AS01B adjuvant system is being evaluated for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) in older adults. A phase II trial evaluating different formulations of this vaccine (containing 25μg, 50μg, or 100μg gE) was conducted in adults ≥60 years of age and showed that all formulations elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses for up to 3 years after vaccination. In this follow-up study in subjects who received two doses of the 50μg gE/AS01B formulation (HZ/su), we assessed the persistence of the immune responses for up to 6 years after vaccination.

Methods: This phase II, open-label, multicenter, single-group trial conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden, and the Netherlands followed 129 subjects who had received two doses (2 months apart) of HZ/su during the initial trial. Vaccine-induced immune responses (frequencies of gE-specific CD4(+) T cells expressing ≥2 activation markers and serum anti-gE antibody concentrations) were evaluated at 48, 60, and 72 months after the first HZ/su dose.

Results: Six years after vaccination with HZ/su, gE-specific cell-mediated immune responses and anti-gE antibody concentrations had decreased by 20-25% from month 36, but remained higher than the prevaccination values. At month 72, the gE-specific cell-mediated immune response was 3.8 times higher than the prevaccination value (477.3 vs. 119.4 activated gE-specific CD4(+) T cells per 10(6) cells), and the anti-gE antibody concentration was 7.3 times higher than the prevaccination value (8159.0 vs. 1121.3mIU/mL). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported between months 36 and 72.

Conclusions: gE-specific cellular and humoral immune responses persisted for 6 years after two-dose vaccination with HZ/su in healthy older adults. No safety concerns were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.073DOI Listing
February 2016

Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults.

N Engl J Med 2015 May 28;372(22):2087-96. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

The authors' affiliations are listed in the Appendix.

Background: In previous phase 1-2 clinical trials involving older adults, a subunit vaccine containing varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system (called HZ/su) had a clinically acceptable safety profile and elicited a robust immune response.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in 18 countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HZ/su in older adults (≥50 years of age), stratified according to age group (50 to 59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years). Participants received two intramuscular doses of the vaccine or placebo 2 months apart. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared with placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster in older adults.

Results: A total of 15,411 participants who could be evaluated received either the vaccine (7698 participants) or placebo (7713 participants). During a mean follow-up of 3.2 years, herpes zoster was confirmed in 6 participants in the vaccine group and in 210 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate, 0.3 vs. 9.1 per 1000 person-years) in the modified vaccinated cohort. Overall vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 97.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.7 to 99.0; P<0.001). Vaccine efficacy was between 96.6% and 97.9% for all age groups. Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after vaccination were more frequent in the vaccine group. There were solicited or unsolicited reports of grade 3 symptoms in 17.0% of vaccine recipients and 3.2% of placebo recipients. The proportions of participants who had serious adverse events or potential immune-mediated diseases or who died were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: The HZ/su vaccine significantly reduced the risk of herpes zoster in adults who were 50 years of age or older. Vaccine efficacy in adults who were 70 years of age or older was similar to that in the other two age groups. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ZOE-50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01165177.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501184DOI Listing
May 2015

Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in HIV-infected adults: a phase 1/2a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

J Infect Dis 2015 Apr 3;211(8):1279-87. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ), even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Because concerns exist about the use of live-attenuated vaccines in immunocompromised individuals, a subunit vaccine may be an appropriate alternative.

Methods: This phase 1/2, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational HZ subunit vaccine (HZ/su). Three cohorts of HIV-infected adults aged ≥18 years were enrolled: 94 ART recipients with a CD4(+) T-cell count of ≥200 cells/mm(3), 14 ART recipients with a CD4(+) T-cell count of 50-199 cells/mm(3), and 15 ART-naive adults with a CD4(+) T-cell count of ≥500 cells/mm(3). Subjects received 3 doses of HZ/su (50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] combined with AS01B adjuvant) or 3 doses of saline at months 0, 2, and 6.

Results: One month after dose 3, serum anti-gE antibody concentrations and frequencies of gE-specific CD4(+) T cells were higher following HZ/su vaccination than after receipt of saline (P < .0001). Median cell-mediated immune responses peaked after dose 2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted until the end of the study (month 18). No vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported. No sustained impact on HIV load or CD4(+) T-cell count was noted following vaccinations.

Conclusions: HZ/su was immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile in HIV-infected adults.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01165203.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371767PMC
April 2015

A phase 1/2 study of an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit vaccine in autologous hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Blood 2014 Nov 18;124(19):2921-9. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, King of Prussia, PA.

Recombinant herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines may be an alternative to the live-attenuated HZ vaccine for immunocompromised individuals. This was a phase 1/2, randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study in adults with multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B- or T-cell), Hodgkin lymphoma, or acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant 50 to 70 days earlier. Subjects (N = 121) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive (at months 0, 1, 3) three doses of 50 μg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) adjuvanted with AS01B, 3 doses of gE adjuvanted with AS01E, 1 dose of saline followed by 2 doses of gE/AS01B, or 3 doses of saline. One month after the last dose (6 months after transplant), frequencies of CD4(+) T cells expressing ≥2 activation markers after induction with gE and anti-gE antibody concentrations were higher with all gE/AS01 regimens than with saline. Both responses persisted up to 1 year in subjects vaccinated with gE/AS01. Immune responses were higher in the gE/AS01B 3-dose group than in the gE/AS01B 2-dose group but not higher than in the gE/AS01E 3-dose group. One serious adverse event (pneumonia) was considered vaccine related. Both formulations and both schedules were immunogenic and well tolerated in this population. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00920218.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-04-573048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4327150PMC
November 2014

HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence in the united states among asymptomatic women unaware of any herpes simplex virus infection (Herpevac Trial for Women).

South Med J 2014 Feb;107(2):79-84

From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, EMMES Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, the Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy, and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, and GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that the epidemiology of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) is changing because fewer HSV-1 infections are acquired in childhood and increased sexual transmission of HSV-1 is reported. The objective of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of type-specific antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the United States.

Methods: We used the Western blot antibody screening data from a large phase III vaccine efficacy trial (Herpevac Trial for Women) to assess the seroprevalence of type-specific antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the United States.

Results: The antibody status of 29,022 women (>31,000 women interviewed and then had their blood drawn for the HSV testing [29,022 women]) between the ages of 18 and 30 years in the United States revealed that increasing age was associated with increasing seroprevalence to HSV. Overall, in asymptomatic women unaware of any HSV infection, HSV-1/-2 status was positive/negative in 45%, negative/positive in 5%, positive/positive in 7%, negative/negative in 38%, and indeterminate in 5%. HSV-1 infections were more common in Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women and in the US northeast and in individuals living in urban areas. HSV-2 was more common in non-Hispanic black women, the US south, and in urban areas.

Conclusions: Seronegative status for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was the second most common finding after positive antibody to HSV-1 but negative antibody to HSV-2. Despite recent changes in genital herpes epidemiology, most women acquired HSV-1 but not HSV-2 infections before 18 years of age. Among participants screened for study participation and who were unaware of any HSV infection, progressively higher prevalence of the HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody was observed in older subjects. Many women who test positive for HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 are unaware of their status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SMJ.0000000000000062DOI Listing
February 2014

Safety and immunogenicity of three different formulations of an adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine in older adults: a phase II, randomized, controlled study.

Vaccine 2014 Mar 6;32(15):1745-53. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, King of Prussia, PA, USA.

Background: This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of different formulations and schedules of a candidate subunit herpes zoster vaccine containing varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) with or without the adjuvant system AS01B.

Methods: In this phase II, single-blind, randomized, controlled study, adults aged ≥60years (N=714) received one dose of 100μggE/AS01B, two doses, two months apart, of 25, 50, or 100μggE/AS01B, or two doses of unadjuvanted 100μggE/saline. Frequencies of CD4(+) T cells expressing ≥2 activation markers following induction with gE were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and serum anti-gE antibody concentrations by ELISA.

Results: Frequencies of gE-specific CD4(+) T cells were >3-fold higher after two doses of all gE/AS01B formulations than after one dose of 100μggE/AS01B or two doses of 100μggE/saline. Frequencies were comparable after two doses of 25, 50, or 100μggE/AS01B. Serum anti-gE antibody concentrations were comparable after two doses of 50 or 100μggE/AS01B and higher than in the other groups. Immune responses persisted for at least 36 months. Reactogenicities of all gE/AS01B formulations were similar but greater than with gE/saline.

Conclusions: The three formulations of gE/AS01B were immunogenic and well tolerated in adults aged ≥60years. Two vaccinations with gE/AS01B induced higher immune responses than one and the dose of gE impacted humoral but not cellular immune responses (NCT00434577).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.019DOI Listing
March 2014

Correlate of immune protection against HSV-1 genital disease in vaccinated women.

J Infect Dis 2014 Mar 27;209(6):828-36. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy & Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA.

Background: Previously we conducted a double-blind controlled, randomized efficacy field trial of gD-2 HSV vaccine adjuvanted with ASO4 in 8323 women. Subjects had been previously selected to be seronegative for HSV-1 and HSV-2. We found that vaccine was 82% protective against HSV-1 genital disease, but offered no significant protection against HSV-2 genital disease.

Methods: To better understand the results of the efficacy study, post-vaccination anti-gD-2 antibody concentrations from all HSV infected subjects and matched uninfected controls were measured. Three models were used to determine whether thes responses correlated with protection against HSV infection or disease. Similarly, cellular immune responses from a subset of subjects and matched controls were evaluated for a correlation with HSV protection.

Results: Antibodies to gD-2 correlated with protection against HSV-1 infection with higher antibody concentration associated with higher efficacy. Cellular immune responses to gD-2 did not correlate with protection.

Conclusions: The protection against HSV-1 infection observed in the Herpevac Trial for Women was associated with antibodies directed against the vaccine. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00057330.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jit651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3935479PMC
March 2014

Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine against herpes zoster in adults >=50 years of age.

J Infect Dis 2013 Dec 31;208(12):1953-61. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Background: An adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) subunit vaccine candidate for herpes zoster is in development. In this trial we compared the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of the vaccine antigen combined with different adjuvant doses.

Methods: This was a phase II, observer-blind, randomized, multinational study. Adults ≥50 years old were randomized 4:4:2:1 to be vaccinated at months 0 and 2 with gE combined with a higher (AS01B) or lower (AS01E) dose adjuvant, unadjuvanted gE, or saline. Following each dose, solicited events were recorded for 7 days and unsolicited adverse events for 30 days. Serious adverse events were collected for 1 year. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed at baseline and following each dose.

Results: No vaccine-related severe adverse events were reported. Solicited adverse events were generally mild to moderate and transient. For all gE-based vaccines, pain was the most common local symptom and fatigue the most common general symptom. Immune responses were significantly enhanced by AS01B and AS01E compared to unadjuvanted gE and were significantly stronger for gE/AS01B than for gE/AS01E.

Conclusions: AS01 improved the immunogenicity of gE while retaining acceptable safety and reactogenicity profiles. The enhancement of gE-specific cellular and humoral responses was adjuvant dose dependent.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00802464.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jit365DOI Listing
December 2013

Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su): a phase-I, open-label study in Japanese adults.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2013 Jul 12;9(7):1425-9. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines; King of Prussia, PA USA.

An adjuvanted recombinant subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) containing varicella zoster virus envelope glycoprotein E was developed for the prevention of herpes zoster and its complications. This study evaluated safety and reactogenicity of HZ/su in an ethnic Japanese population. This was a phase I, open-label and single-center study conducted between March and November of 2010 in Australia. Twenty healthy ethnic Japanese subjects, aged 18-30 y and 50-69 y (1:1) were enrolled. Subjects were administered two doses of HZ/su vaccine according to a 0, 2-mo schedule. Local and general solicited symptoms were recorded for 7 d post-vaccination. Unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 30 d post-vaccination. Serious adverse events (SAEs), new onset of autoimmune disease (NOAD), other potential immune mediated disorders and HZ cases were recorded throughout the study period. All 20 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for safety. A total of 18 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity: 10 in the 18-30 y age group and 8 in the 50-69 y age group. The most commonly reported local and general solicited symptoms were pain and fatigue in both groups. Back pain (in the 18-30 y age group) and chills (in the 50-69 y age group) were the most frequently reported unsolicited symptoms. There were no reports of death, SAEs, NOADs, other autoimmune mediated inflammatory disorder or suspected HZ cases. This study indicated that the two-dose regimen of HZ/su exhibited a clinically acceptable safety profile in healthy young and older ethnic Japanese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.24269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890214PMC
July 2013

Immunogenicity and safety of different formulations of an adjuvanted glycoprotein D genital herpes vaccine in healthy adults: a double-blind randomized trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2013 Jun 22;9(6):1254-62. Epub 2013 Feb 22.

Center for Vaccinology; Ghent University and Hospital; Ghent, Belgium.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of genital and neonatal herpes and is highly prevalent worldwide. Previous phase I and II studies showed the immunogenicity and safety of the candidate prophylactic HSV-2 glycoprotein D-based subunit vaccine (gD2-AS04), containing aluminum hydroxide and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as adjuvant (AS04), in healthy adults. The primary objective of the study presented here was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of five different vaccine formulations: 3 different antigen doses [20, 40 or 80 μg of truncated glycoprotein D from HSV-2 strain (gD-2t)], different aluminum salts [AlPO₄ or Al(OH)₃], different preservatives or different volumes of vaccine (0.5 or 1 ml). One hundred and fifty healthy men and women aged 18-45 years, with negative serological markers for HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection, were vaccinated with one of 5 formulations of the gD2-AS04 candidate vaccine according to a 0-, 1-, 6-month schedule. No statistically significant difference was observed in humoral or cellular immune responses between different antigen doses or the different aluminum salts, preservatives or volumes of vaccine. The gD2-AS04 vaccine was well tolerated by study participants for the duration of the study period. Local symptoms were more frequently reported than general symptoms, with muscle stiffness and/or injection site redness being the most frequently reported. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was comparable in all groups. Based on these results the gD2-AS04 formulation, containing 20 μg of gD-2t, was selected for evaluation of prophylactic efficacy in further clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.24043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901814PMC
June 2013