Publications by authors named "Thomas Brümmendorf"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The IL-33/ST2 pathway contributes to intestinal tumorigenesis in humans and mice.

Oncoimmunology 2016;5(1):e1062966. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bern , Bern, Switzerland.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistep process and is modulated by inflammation. However, the inflammatory pathways that support intestinal tumors at different stages remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-33 signaling plays a role in intestinal inflammation, yet its contribution to the pathogenesis of CRC is unknown. Using immunohistochemistry on 713 resected human CRC specimens, we show here that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are expressed in low-grade and early-stage human CRCs, and to a lesser extent in higher-grade and more advanced-stage tumors. In a mouse model of CRC, ST2-deficiency protects from tumor development. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) chimera studies indicate that engagement of the IL-33/ST2 pathway on both the radio-resistant and radio-sensitive compartment is essential for CRC development. Mechanistically, activation of IL-33/ST2 signaling compromises the integrity of the intestinal barrier and triggers the production of pro-tumorigenic IL-6 by immune cells. Together, this data reveals a tumor-promoting role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1062966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760343PMC
June 2015

Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(10):e77652. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077652PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813701PMC
August 2014

FGFR genetic alterations predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398, a selective pan-FGFR inhibitor.

Cancer Discov 2012 Dec 20;2(12):1118-33. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Global Discovery Chemistry, 2Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: Patient stratification biomarkers that enable the translation of cancer genetic knowledge into clinical use are essential for the successful and rapid development of emerging targeted anticancer therapeutics. Here, we describe the identification of patient stratification biomarkers for NVP-BGJ398, a novel and selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor. By intersecting genome-wide gene expression and genomic alteration data with cell line-sensitivity data across an annotated collection of cancer cell lines called the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, we show that genetic alterations for FGFR family members predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398. For the first time, we report oncogenic FGFR1 amplification in osteosarcoma as a potential patient selection biomarker. Furthermore, we show that cancer cell lines harboring FGF19 copy number gain at the 11q13 amplicon are sensitive to NVP-BGJ398 only when concomitant expression of β-klotho occurs. Thus, our findings provide the rationale for the clinical development of FGFR inhibitors in selected patients with cancer harboring tumors with the identified predictors of sensitivity.

Significance: The success of a personalized medicine approach using targeted therapies ultimately depends on being able to identify the patients who will benefit the most from any given drug. To this end, we have integrated the molecular profiles for more than 500 cancer cell lines with sensitivity data for the novel anticancer drug NVP-BGJ398 and showed that FGFR genetic alterations are the most significant predictors for sensitivity. This work has ultimately endorsed the incorporation of specific patient selection biomakers in the clinical trials for NVP-BGJ398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0210DOI Listing
December 2012

Functional inactivation of the genome-wide association study obesity gene neuronal growth regulator 1 in mice causes a body mass phenotype.

PLoS One 2012 23;7(7):e41537. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified at least 32 novel loci for obesity and body mass-related traits. However, the causal genetic variant and molecular mechanisms of specific susceptibility genes in relation to obesity are yet to be fully confirmed and characterised. Here, we examined whether the candidate gene NEGR1 encoding the neuronal growth regulator 1, also termed neurotractin or Kilon, accounts for the obesity association. To characterise the function of NEGR1 for body weight control in vivo, we generated two novel mutant mouse lines, including a constitutive NEGR1-deficient mouse line as well as an ENU-mutagenised line carrying a loss-of-function mutation (Negr1-I87N) and performed metabolic phenotypic analyses. Ablation of NEGR1 results in a small but steady reduction of body mass in both mutant lines, accompanied with a small reduction in body length in the Negr1-I87N mutants. Magnetic resonance scanning reveals that the reduction of body mass in Negr1-I87N mice is due to a reduced proportion of lean mass. Negr1-I87N mutants display reduced food intake and physical activity while normalised energy expenditure remains unchanged. Expression analyses confirmed the brain-specific distribution of NEGR1 including strong expression in the hypothalamus. In vitro assays show that NEGR1 promotes cell-cell adhesion and neurite growth of hypothalamic neurons. Our results indicate a role of NEGR1 in the control of body weight and food intake. This study provides evidence that supports the link of the GWAS candidate gene NEGR1 with body weight control.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0041537PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402391PMC
November 2012

Characterization of the mechanism of action of the pan class I PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 across a broad range of concentrations.

Mol Cancer Ther 2012 Aug 31;11(8):1747-57. Epub 2012 May 31.

NIBR Oncology Disease Area, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel CH4002, Switzerland.

The pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120 was found, at high concentrations, to cause cell death in various cellular systems, irrespective of their level of PI3K addiction. Transcriptional and biochemical profiling studies were used to identify the origin of these unexpected and apparently PI3K-independent effects. At 5- to 10-fold, the concentration needed to half-maximally inhibit PI3K signaling. BKM120 treatment caused changes in expression of mitotic genes and the induction of a robust G(2)-M arrest. Tubulin polymerization assays and nuclear magnetic resonance-binding studies revealed that BKM120 inhibited microtubule dynamics upon direct binding to tubulin. To assess the contribution of this off-target activity vis-à-vis the antitumor activity of BKM120 in PI3K-dependent tumors, we used a mechanistic PI3K-α-dependent model. We observed that, in vivo, daily treatment of mice with doses of BKM120 up to 40 mg/kg led to tumor regressions with no increase in the mitotic index. Thus, strong antitumor activity can be achieved in PI3K-dependent models at exposures that are below those necessary to engage the off-target activity. In comparison, the clinical data indicate that it is unlikely that BKM120 will achieve exposures sufficient to significantly engage the off-target activity at tolerated doses and schedules. However, in preclinical settings, the consequences of the off-target activity start to manifest themselves at concentrations above 1 μmol/L in vitro and doses above 50 mg/kg in efficacy studies using subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice. Hence, careful concentration and dose range selection is required to ensure that any observation can be correctly attributed to BKM120 inhibition of PI3K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-1021DOI Listing
August 2012

An expression module of WIPF1-coexpressed genes identifies patients with favorable prognosis in three tumor types.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2009 Jun 28;87(6):633-44. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Department of Computational Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) predisposes patients to leukemia and lymphoma. WAS is caused by mutations in the protein WASP which impair its interaction with the WIPF1 protein. Here, we aim to identify a module of WIPF1-coexpressed genes and to assess its use as a prognostic signature for colorectal cancer, glioma, and breast cancer patients. Two public colorectal cancer microarray data sets were used for discovery and validation of the WIPF1 co-expression module. Based on expression of the WIPF1 signature, we classified more than 400 additional tumors with microarray data from our own experiments or from publicly available data sets according to their WIPF1 signature expression. This allowed us to separate patient populations for colorectal cancers, breast cancers, and gliomas for which clinical characteristics like survival times and times to relapse were analyzed. Groups of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and glioma patients with low expression of the WIPF1 co-expression module generally had a favorable prognosis. In addition, the majority of WIPF1 signature genes are individually correlated with disease outcome in different studies. Literature gene network analysis revealed that among WIPF1 co-expressed genes known direct transcriptional targets of c-myc, ESR1 and p53 are enriched. The mean expression profile of WIPF1 signature genes is correlated with the profile of a proliferation signature. The WIPF1 signature is the first microarray-based prognostic expression signature primarily developed for colorectal cancer that is instrumental in other tumor types: low expression of the WIPF1 module is associated with better prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-009-0467-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688022PMC
June 2009

Genome-wide expression patterns of invasion front, inner tumor mass and surrounding normal epithelium of colorectal tumors.

Mol Cancer 2007 Dec 14;6:79. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Department of Computational Molecular Biology, Berlin, Germany.

Colorectal tumors have characteristic genome-wide expression patterns that allow their distinction from normal colon epithelia and facilitate clinical prognosis. The expression heterogeneity within a primary colorectal tumor has not been studied on a genome scale yet. Here we investigated three compartments of colorectal tumors, the invasion front, the inner tumor mass, and surrounding normal epithelial tissue by microdissection and microarray-based expression profiling. In both tumor compartments many genes were differentially expressed when compared to normal epithelium. The sets of significantly deregulated genes in both compartments overlapped to a large extent and revealed various interesting known and novel pathways that could have contributed to tumorigenesis. Cells from the invasion front and inner tumor mass, however, did not show significant differences in their expression profile, neither on the single gene level nor on the pathway level. Instead, gene expression differences between individuals are more pronounced as all patient-matched tumor samples clustered in close proximity to each other. With respect to invasion front and inner tumor mass we conclude that the specific tumor cell micro-environment does not have a strong influence on expression patterns: largely similar genome-wide expression programs operate in the invasion front and interior compartment of a colorectal tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-6-79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2222649PMC
December 2007

A genome-wide map of aberrantly expressed chromosomal islands in colorectal cancer.

Mol Cancer 2006 Sep 18;5:37. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Department of Computational Molecular Biology, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Cancer development is accompanied by genetic phenomena like deletion and amplification of chromosome parts or alterations of chromatin structure. It is expected that these mechanisms have a strong effect on regional gene expression.

Results: We investigated genome-wide gene expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal epithelial tissues from 25 patients using oligonucleotide arrays. This allowed us to identify 81 distinct chromosomal islands with aberrant gene expression. Of these, 38 islands show a gain in expression and 43 a loss of expression. In total, 7.892 genes (25.3% of all human genes) are located in aberrantly expressed islands. Many chromosomal regions that are linked to hereditary colorectal cancer show deregulated expression. Also, many known tumor genes localize to chromosomal islands of misregulated expression in CRC.

Conclusion: An extensive comparison with published CGH data suggests that chromosomal regions known for frequent deletions in colon cancer tend to show reduced expression. In contrast, regions that are often amplified in colorectal tumors exhibit heterogeneous expression patterns: even show a decrease of mRNA expression. Because for several islands of deregulated expression chromosomal aberrations have never been observed, we speculate that additional mechanisms (like abnormal states of regional chromatin) also have a substantial impact on the formation of co-expression islands in colorectal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-5-37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1601966PMC
September 2006

Transcriptional census of 36 microdissected colorectal cancers yields a gene signature to distinguish UICC II and III.

Int J Cancer 2006 Oct;119(8):1829-36

Department of General, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

UICC stage II and III colorectal cancers (CRC) differ fundamentally in prognosis and therapeutic concepts. To analyze differential gene expression between both stages and to establish a relationship between molecular background and clinical presentation, tumor material from 36 unselected consecutive patients presenting with sporadic CRC, 18 UICC stage II and 18 UICC stage III, were laser microdissected to separate epithelial tumor cells. Gene expression levels were measured using U133A Affymetrix gene arrays. Twelve CRC associated signal transduction pathways as well as all 22,000 probe sets were screened for differential gene expression. We identified a signature consisting of 45 probe sets that allowed discrimination between UICC stage II and stage III with a rate of correct classification of about 80%. The most distinctive elements in this signature were the gene GSTP-binding elongation factor (GSPT2) and the transcription factor HOXA9. Differential expression of these genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (p(HOXA9) = 0.04, p(GSTP2) = 0.02). Despite the reliability of the presented data, there was no substantial differential expression of genes in cancer-related pathways. However, the comparison with recently published data corroborates the 45 gene signature showing structural agreement in the direction of fold changes of gene expression levels for our set of genes chosen to discriminate between both stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22027DOI Listing
October 2006

Neurotractin/kilon promotes neurite outgrowth and is expressed on reactive astrocytes after entorhinal cortex lesion.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2005 Aug;29(4):580-90

Max-Delbrueck-Centre for Molecular Medicine, Developmental Neurobiology Group, D-13092 Berlin, Germany.

The IgLON subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily consists of four members that are thought to be important in neural cell-cell recognition. Here, we cloned and characterized the murine IgLON subgroup member neurotractin/kilon, in the context of brain development and axonal regeneration. Neurotractin/kilon was found to be upregulated during brain development and is expressed on neurites of primary hippocampal neurons. To elucidate a potential role for neurotractin/kilon during regeneration in the CNS, we performed lesions in the entorhinal cortex, and showed that the expression of neurotractin/kilon is induced on reactive astrocytes. Notably, the expression on reactive astrocytes appears specifically in the denervated outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, where regenerative axon sprouting occurs. In vitro assays demonstrated that neurotractin/kilon attracts hippocampal axons in the stripe assay and that astroglial neurotractin/kilon promotes neurite outgrowth. These results suggest a function for neurotractin/kilon as a trans-neural growth-promoting factor for outgrowing axons following hippocampal denervation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2005.04.010DOI Listing
August 2005

Gene expression profiles of microdissected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2003 Oct 27;443(4):508-17. Epub 2003 Aug 27.

Department of Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Germany.

In a search for new molecular markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we compared the gene expression profiles of seven pancreatic carcinomas and one carcinoma of the papilla Vateri with those of duct cells from three non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. In addition, the human pancreatic duct cell line and five PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2, HPAF) were examined. RNA was extracted from microdissected tissue or cultured cell lines and analysed using a custom-made Affymetrix Chip containing 3023 genes, of which 1000 were known to be tumour associated. Hierarchical clustering revealed 81 differentially expressed genes. Of all the genes, 26 were downregulated in PDAC and 14 were upregulated in PDAC. In PDAC cell lines versus normal pancreatic duct cells, 21 genes were downregulated and 20 were upregulated. Of these 81 differentially expressed genes, 15 represented human genes previously implicated in the tumourigenesis of PDAC. From the genes that were so far not known to be associated with PDAC tumorigenesis, we selected ADAM9 for further validation because of its distinct overexpression in tumour tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, the over-expressed gene, ADAM9, was present in 70% of the PDACs analysed. In conclusion, using microarray technology we were able to identify a set of genes whose aberrant expression was associated with PDAC and may be used to target the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-003-0884-1DOI Listing
October 2003

Disease-associated mutations in L1 CAM interfere with ligand interactions and cell-surface expression.

Hum Mol Genet 2002 Jan;11(1):1-12

Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and Cambridge University Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK.

Mutations in the L1CAM gene cause a highly variable neurological disease described as X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA syndrome or spastic paraplegia type I. Over one-third of the mutations identified in affected boys are missense, unique to individual families and distributed primarily across the large extracellular domain of the L1 protein. We have examined the effects of 25 missense mutations on binding to homophilic (L1) and heterophilic (TAX-1) ligands as well as on intracellular trafficking. All but three of these result in reduced ligand binding or impaired movement to the surface of COS and CHO cells. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that most missense mutations found in affected families have functional consequences. Furthermore, mutations that are predicted to affect the structure of individual extracellular domains are more likely to affect intracellular processing and/or ligand binding than those mutations affecting surface properties of the molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/11.1.1DOI Listing
January 2002