Publications by authors named "Thomas Besnard"

33 Publications

Haploinsufficiency of ARFGEF1 is associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and epilepsy with variable expressivity.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Inserm UMR1231 team GAD, University of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Purpose: ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARFGEFs) are a family of proteins implicated in cellular trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane through vesicle formation. Among them is ARFGEF1/BIG1, a protein involved in axon elongation, neurite development, and polarization processes. ARFGEF1 has been previously suggested as a candidate gene for different types of epilepsies, although its implication in human disease has not been well characterized.

Methods: International data sharing, in silico predictions, and in vitro assays with minigene study, western blot analyses, and RNA sequencing.

Results: We identified 13 individuals with heterozygous likely pathogenic variants in ARFGEF1. These individuals displayed congruent clinical features of developmental delay, behavioral problems, abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance image (MRI), and epilepsy for almost half of them. While nearly half of the cohort carried de novo variants, at least 40% of variants were inherited from mildly affected parents who were clinically re-evaluated by reverse phenotyping. Our in silico predictions and in vitro assays support the contention that ARFGEF1-related conditions are caused by haploinsufficiency, and are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion with variable expressivity.

Conclusion: We provide evidence that loss-of-function variants in ARFGEF1 are implicated in sporadic and familial cases of developmental delay with or without epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01218-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Haploinsufficiency of the Sin3/HDAC corepressor complex member SIN3B causes a syndromic intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 2;108(5):929-941. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Etablissement Français du Sang, 44000 Nantes, France; CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France; LabEx IGO, Nantes 44000, France.

Proteins involved in transcriptional regulation harbor a demonstrated enrichment of mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. The Sin3 (Swi-independent 3)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex plays a central role in histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression. Among the two vertebrate paralogs encoding the Sin3 complex, SIN3A variants cause syndromic intellectual disability, but the clinical consequences of SIN3B haploinsufficiency in humans are uncharacterized. Here, we describe a syndrome hallmarked by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features with variably penetrant autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations, corpus callosum defects, and impaired growth caused by disruptive SIN3B variants. Using chromosomal microarray or exome sequencing, and through international data sharing efforts, we identified nine individuals with heterozygous SIN3B deletion or single-nucleotide variants. Five individuals harbor heterozygous deletions encompassing SIN3B that reside within a ∼230 kb minimal region of overlap on 19p13.11, two individuals have a rare nonsynonymous substitution, and two individuals have a single-nucleotide deletion that results in a frameshift and predicted premature termination codon. To test the relevance of SIN3B impairment to measurable aspects of the human phenotype, we disrupted the orthologous zebrafish locus by genome editing and transient suppression. The mutant and morphant larvae display altered craniofacial patterning, commissural axon defects, and reduced body length supportive of an essential role for Sin3 function in growth and patterning of anterior structures. To investigate further the molecular consequences of SIN3B variants, we quantified genome-wide enhancer and promoter activity states by using H3K27ac ChIP-seq. We show that, similar to SIN3A mutations, SIN3B disruption causes hyperacetylation of a subset of enhancers and promoters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, these data demonstrate that SIN3B haploinsufficiency leads to a hitherto unknown intellectual disability/autism syndrome, uncover a crucial role of SIN3B in the central nervous system, and define the epigenetic landscape associated with Sin3 complex impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206166PMC
May 2021

Loss-of-function variants in ARHGEF9 are associated with an X-linked intellectual disability dominant disorder.

Hum Mutat 2021 May 14;42(5):498-505. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Service de Génétique Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

ARHGEF9 defects lead to an X-linked intellectual disability disorder related to inhibitory synaptic dysfunction. This condition is more frequent in males, with a few affected females reported. Up to now, sequence variants and gross deletions have been identified in males, while only chromosomal aberrations have been reported in affected females who showed a skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), suggesting an X-linked recessive (XLR) disorder. We report three novel loss-of-function (LoF) variants in ARHGEF9: A de novo synonymous variant affecting splicing (NM_015185.2: c.1056G>A, p.(Lys352=)) in one female; a nonsense variant in another female (c.865C>T, p.(Arg289*)), that is, also present as a somatically mosaic variant in her father, and a de novo nonsense variant in a boy (c.899G>A; p.(Trp300*)). Both females showed a random XCI. Thus, we suggest that missense variants are responsible for an XLR disorder affecting males and that LoF variants, mainly occurring de novo, may be responsible for an X-linked dominant disorder affecting males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24188DOI Listing
May 2021

Histone H3.3 beyond cancer: Germline mutations in cause a previously unidentified neurodegenerative disorder in 46 patients.

Sci Adv 2020 Dec 2;6(49). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Institut für Neurogenomik, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany.

Although somatic mutations in Histone 3.3 (H3.3) are well-studied drivers of oncogenesis, the role of germline mutations remains unreported. We analyze 46 patients bearing de novo germline mutations in histone 3 family 3A () or with progressive neurologic dysfunction and congenital anomalies without malignancies. Molecular modeling of all 37 variants demonstrated clear disruptions in interactions with DNA, other histones, and histone chaperone proteins. Patient histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) analysis revealed notably aberrant local PTM patterns distinct from the somatic lysine mutations that cause global PTM dysregulation. RNA sequencing on patient cells demonstrated up-regulated gene expression related to mitosis and cell division, and cellular assays confirmed an increased proliferative capacity. A zebrafish model showed craniofacial anomalies and a defect in Foxd3-derived glia. These data suggest that the mechanism of germline mutations are distinct from cancer-associated somatic histone mutations but may converge on control of cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc9207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821880PMC
December 2020

A dominant vimentin variant causes a rare syndrome with premature aging.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 09 17;28(9):1218-1230. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Service de Génétique Médicale, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093, Nantes, France.

Progeroid syndromes are a group of rare genetic disorders, which mimic natural aging. Unraveling the molecular defects in such conditions could impact our understanding of age-related syndromes such as Alzheimer's or cardiovascular diseases. Here we report a de novo heterozygous missense variant in the intermediate filament vimentin (c.1160 T > C; p.(Leu387Pro)) causing a multisystem disorder associated with frontonasal dysostosis and premature aging in a 39-year-old individual. Human vimentin p.(Leu387Pro) expression in zebrafish perturbed body fat distribution, and craniofacial and peripheral nervous system development. In addition, studies in patient-derived and transfected cells revealed that the variant affects vimentin turnover and its ability to form filaments in the absence of wild-type vimentin. Vimentin p.(Leu387Pro) expression diminished the amount of peripilin and reduced lipid accumulation in differentiating adipocytes, recapitulating key patient's features in vivo and in vitro. Our data highlight the function of vimentin during development and suggest its contribution to natural aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0583-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609319PMC
September 2020

Missense Variants in the Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Component Gene TRRAP Cause Autism and Syndromic Intellectual Disability.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 28;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden.

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407527PMC
March 2019

Biallelic pathogenic variants in the lanosterol synthase gene LSS involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis cause alopecia with intellectual disability, a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

Genet Med 2019 09 6;21(9):2025-2035. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Centre de Genetique et Centre de Reference Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs de l'Est, FHU-TRANSLAD, CHU Dijon, Dijon, France.

Purpose: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features.

Methods: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay.

Results: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance.

Conclusion: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0445-xDOI Listing
September 2019

Complex Compound Inheritance of Lethal Lung Developmental Disorders Due to Disruption of the TBX-FGF Pathway.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 02 10;104(2):213-228. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France; Inserm, CNRS, Univ Nantes, l'institut du thorax, 44000 Nantes, France.

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369446PMC
February 2019

New splicing pathogenic variant in EBP causing extreme familial variability of Conradi-Hünermann-Happle Syndrome.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 12 22;26(12):1784-1790. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Service de génétique, CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301 + 5 G > C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0217-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244079PMC
December 2018

Identification of a new exon and complex splicing alterations in familial erythrocytosis or von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Blood 2018 08 11;132(5):469-483. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Thrace, Greece.

Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive form of erythrocytosis associated with a homozygous p.Arg200Trp mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau () gene. Since this discovery, additional mutations have been identified in patients with congenital erythrocytosis, in a homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. is a major tumor suppressor gene, mutations in which were first described in patients presenting with VHL disease, which is characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors. Here, we identify a new cryptic exon (termed E1') deep in intron 1 that is naturally expressed in many tissues. More importantly, we identify mutations in E1' in 7 families with erythrocytosis (1 homozygous case and 6 compound-heterozygous cases with a mutation in E1' in addition to a mutation in coding sequences) and in 1 large family with typical VHL disease but without any alteration in the other exons. In this study, we show that the mutations induced a dysregulation of splicing with excessive retention of E1' and were associated with a downregulation of VHL protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate a pathogenic role for synonymous mutations in exon 2 that altered splicing through E2-skipping in 5 families with erythrocytosis or VHL disease. In all the studied cases, the mutations differentially affected splicing, correlating with phenotype severity. This study demonstrates that cryptic exon retention and exon skipping are new alterations and reveals a novel complex splicing regulation of the gene. These findings open new avenues for diagnosis and research regarding the VHL-related hypoxia-signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-03-838235DOI Listing
August 2018

Dual Molecular Effects of Dominant RORA Mutations Cause Two Variants of Syndromic Intellectual Disability with Either Autism or Cerebellar Ataxia.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 05 12;102(5):744-759. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire & Génomique, CHU de Rennes, 35033 Rennes, France.

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986661PMC
May 2018

De Novo Mutations in Protein Kinase Genes CAMK2A and CAMK2B Cause Intellectual Disability.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov;101(5):768-788

Nottingham Regional Genetics Service, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, The Gables, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK.

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673671PMC
November 2017

De Novo Missense Mutations in DHX30 Impair Global Translation and Cause a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov;101(5):716-724

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673606PMC
November 2017

WDR81 mutations cause extreme microcephaly and impair mitotic progression in human fibroblasts and Drosophila neural stem cells.

Brain 2017 Oct;140(10):2597-2609

Paris Descartes - Sorbonne Paris Cité University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France.

Microlissencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by congenital microcephaly and lissencephaly. Microlissencephaly is suspected to result from abnormalities in the proliferation or survival of neural progenitors. Despite the recent identification of six genes involved in microlissencephaly, the pathophysiological basis of this condition remains poorly understood. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing in seven subjects from five non-consanguineous families who presented with either microcephaly or microlissencephaly. This led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in WDR81, a gene previously associated with cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability and quadrupedal locomotion. Patient phenotypes ranged from severe microcephaly with extremely reduced gyration with pontocerebellar hypoplasia to moderate microcephaly with cerebellar atrophy. In patient fibroblast cells, WDR81 mutations were associated with increased mitotic index and delayed prometaphase/metaphase transition. Similarly, in vivo, we showed that knockdown of the WDR81 orthologue in Drosophila led to increased mitotic index of neural stem cells with delayed mitotic progression. In summary, we highlight the broad phenotypic spectrum of WDR81-related brain malformations, which include microcephaly with moderate to extremely reduced gyration and cerebellar anomalies. Our results suggest that WDR81 might have a role in mitosis that is conserved between Drosophila and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx218DOI Listing
October 2017

Biallelic Variants in OTUD6B Cause an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Associated with Seizures and Dysmorphic Features.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Apr 23;100(4):676-688. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Laboratory for Pediatric Brain Disease, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA.

Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that regulates many cellular processes including protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, cell signaling, and protein-protein interactions. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which reverse the process of ubiquitination, are important regulators of the ubiquitin system. OTUD6B encodes a member of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Herein, we report biallelic pathogenic variants in OTUD6B in 12 individuals from 6 independent families with an intellectual disability syndrome associated with seizures and dysmorphic features. In subjects with predicted loss-of-function alleles, additional features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, absent speech, hypotonia, growth retardation with prenatal onset, feeding difficulties, structural brain abnormalities, congenital malformations including congenital heart disease, and musculoskeletal features. Homozygous Otud6b knockout mice were subviable, smaller in size, and had congenital heart defects, consistent with the severity of loss-of-function variants in humans. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an affected subject showed reduced incorporation of 19S subunits into 26S proteasomes, decreased chymotrypsin-like activity, and accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Our findings suggest a role for OTUD6B in proteasome function, establish that defective OTUD6B function underlies a multisystemic human disorder, and provide additional evidence for the emerging relationship between the ubiquitin system and human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384096PMC
April 2017

Haploinsufficiency of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene TRIP12 causes intellectual disability with or without autism spectrum disorders, speech delay, and dysmorphic features.

Hum Genet 2017 04 1;136(4):377-386. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-017-1763-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543723PMC
April 2017

De Novo Disruption of the Proteasome Regulatory Subunit PSMD12 Causes a Syndromic Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Feb 26;100(2):352-363. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Service de Génétique, CHU de Tours, 2 Boulevard Tonnellé, 37044 Tours, France; INSERM UMR U930, Faculté de Médecine, Université François Rabelais, 37044 Tours, France.

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294671PMC
February 2017

A new mutation of ANO6 in two familial cases of Scott syndrome.

Br J Haematol 2018 03 23;180(5):750-752. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Service d'Hématologie biologique, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14439DOI Listing
March 2018

De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 09 18;99(3):720-727. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratories, Houston, TX 77021, USA. Electronic address:

SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.06.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011061PMC
September 2016

Germline De Novo Mutations in GNB1 Cause Severe Neurodevelopmental Disability, Hypotonia, and Seizures.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 05 21;98(5):1001-1010. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Service de Génétique Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nantes, Nantes 44093, France.

Whole-exome sequencing of 13 individuals with developmental delay commonly accompanied by abnormal muscle tone and seizures identified de novo missense mutations enriched within a sub-region of GNB1, a gene encoding the guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-1, Gβ. These 13 individuals were identified among a base of 5,855 individuals recruited for various undiagnosed genetic disorders. The probability of observing 13 or more de novo mutations by chance among 5,855 individuals is very low (p = 7.1 × 10(-21)), implicating GNB1 as a genome-wide-significant disease-associated gene. The majority of these 13 mutations affect known Gβ binding sites, which suggests that a likely disease mechanism is through the disruption of the protein interface required for Gα-Gβγ interaction (resulting in a constitutively active Gβγ) or through the disruption of residues relevant for interaction between Gβγ and certain downstream effectors (resulting in reduced interaction with the effectors). Strikingly, 8 of the 13 individuals recruited here for a neurodevelopmental disorder have a germline de novo GNB1 mutation that overlaps a set of five recurrent somatic tumor mutations for which recent functional studies demonstrated a gain-of-function effect due to constitutive activation of G protein downstream signaling cascades for some of the affected residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863562PMC
May 2016

De Novo Truncating Mutations in the Kinetochore-Microtubules Attachment Gene CHAMP1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability.

Hum Mutat 2016 Apr 4;37(4):354-8. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Inserm, UMR 1087, l'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

A rare syndromic form of intellectual disability with impaired speech was recently found associated with mutations in CHAMP1 (chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein 1), the protein product of which is directly involved in microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Through whole-exome sequencing in six unrelated nonconsanguineous families having a sporadic case of intellectual disability, we identified six novel de novo truncating mutations in CHAMP1: c.1880C>G p.(Ser627*), c.1489C>T; p.(Arg497*), c.1876_1877delAG; p.(Ser626Leufs*4), c.1043G>A; p.(Trp348*), c.1002G>A; p.(Trp334*), and c.958_959delCC; p.(Pro320*). Our clinical observations confirm the phenotypic homogeneity of the syndrome, which represents therefore a distinct clinical entity. Besides, our functional studies show that CHAMP1 protein variants are delocalized from chromatin and are unable to bind to two of its direct partners, POGZ and HP1. These data suggest a pathogenic mechanism of the CHAMP1-associated intellectual disability syndrome mediated by direct interacting partners of CHAMP1, several of which are involved in chromo/kinetochore-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22952DOI Listing
April 2016

Expanding the clinical spectrum of hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy and pulmonary fibrosis due to FAM111B mutations.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2015 Oct 15;10:135. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital La Timone, Aix Marseille Université, Provence, France.

Background: Hereditary Fibrosing Poikiloderma (HFP) with tendon contractures, myopathy and pulmonary fibrosis (POIKTMP [MIM 615704]) is a very recently described entity of syndromic inherited poikiloderma. Previously by using whole exome sequencing in five families, we identified the causative gene, FAM111B (NM_198947.3), the function of which is still unknown. Our objective in this study was to better define the specific features of POIKTMP through a larger series of patients.

Methods: Clinical and molecular data of two families and eight independent sporadic cases, including six new cases, were collected.

Results: Key features consist of: (i) early-onset poikiloderma, hypotrichosis and hypohidrosis; (ii) multiple contractures, in particular triceps surae muscle contractures; (iii) diffuse progressive muscular weakness; (iv) pulmonary fibrosis in adulthood and (v) other features including exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, liver impairment and growth retardation. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was informative and showed muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Histological examination of skeletal muscle revealed extensive fibroadipose tissue infiltration. Microscopy of the skin showed a scleroderma-like aspect with fibrosis and alterations of the elastic network. FAM111B gene analysis identified five different missense variants (two recurrent mutations were found respectively in three and four independent families). All the mutations were predicted to localize in the trypsin-like cysteine/serine peptidase domain of the protein. We suggest gain-of-function or dominant-negative mutations resulting in FAM111B enzymatic activity changes.

Conclusions: HFP with tendon contractures, myopathy and pulmonary fibrosis, is a multisystemic disorder due to autosomal dominant FAM111B mutations. Future functional studies will help in understanding the specific pathological process of this fibrosing disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-015-0352-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608180PMC
October 2015

Experience of targeted Usher exome sequencing as a clinical test.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2014 Jan 10;2(1):30-43. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

U827, Inserm Montpellier, F-34000, France ; Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, CHU Montpellier Montpellier, F-34000, France.

We show that massively parallel targeted sequencing of 19 genes provides a new and reliable strategy for molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome (USH) and nonsyndromic deafness, particularly appropriate for these disorders characterized by a high clinical and genetic heterogeneity and a complex structure of several of the genes involved. A series of 71 patients including Usher patients previously screened by Sanger sequencing plus newly referred patients was studied. Ninety-eight percent of the variants previously identified by Sanger sequencing were found by next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS proved to be efficient as it offers analysis of all relevant genes which is laborious to reach with Sanger sequencing. Among the 13 newly referred Usher patients, both mutations in the same gene were identified in 77% of cases (10 patients) and one candidate pathogenic variant in two additional patients. This work can be considered as pilot for implementing NGS for genetically heterogeneous diseases in clinical service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3907913PMC
January 2014

The contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes to a Spanish Usher syndrome type 2 cohort.

Mol Vis 2013 13;19:367-73. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

INSERM, U827, Montpellier F-34000, France.

Background: Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by moderate to severe hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. To date, three disease-causing genes have been identified, USH2A, GPR98, and DFNB31, of which USH2A is clearly the major contributor. The aim of this work was to determine the contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes in a Spanish cohort of USH2A negative patients using exhaustive molecular analysis, including sequencing, dosage, and splicing analysis.

Methods: Linkage analysis was performed to prioritize the gene to study, followed by sequencing of exons and intron-exon boundaries of the selected gene, GPR98 (90 exons) or DFNB31 (12 exons). Functional splicing analyses and comparative genomic hybridization array to detect large rearrangements were performed when appropriate.

Results: We confirmed that mutations in GPR98 contribute a significant but minor role to Usher syndrome type 2. In a group of patients referred for molecular diagnosis, 43 had been found to be positive for USH2A mutations, the remaining 19 without USH2A alterations were screened, and seven different mutations were identified in the GPR98 gene in seven patients (five in the homozygous state), of which six were novel. All detected mutations result in a truncated protein; deleterious missense mutations were not found. No pathological mutations were identified in the DFNB31 gene.

Conclusions: In Spain, USH2A and GPR98 are responsible for 95.8% and 5.2% of USH2 mutated cases, respectively. DFNB31 plays a minor role in the Spanish population. There was a group of patients in whom no mutation was found. These findings confirm the importance of including at least GPR98 analysis for comprehensive USH2 molecular diagnosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3580968PMC
September 2013

Non-USH2A mutations in USH2 patients.

Hum Mutat 2012 Mar 6;33(3):504-10. Epub 2012 Jan 6.

CHU Montpellier, Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, Montpellier, France.

We have systematically analyzed the two known minor genes involved in Usher syndrome type 2, DFNB31 and GPR98, for mutations in a cohort of 31 patients not linked to USH2A. PDZD7, an Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) related gene, was analyzed when indicated. We found that mutations in GPR98 contribute significantly to USH2. We report 17 mutations in 10 individuals, doubling the number of GPR98 mutations reported to date. In contrast to mutations in usherin, the mutational spectrum of GPR98 predominantly results in a truncated protein product. This is true even when the mutation affects splicing, and we have incorporated a splicing reporter minigene assay to show this, where appropriate. Only two mutations were found which we believe to be genuine missense changes. Discrepancy in the mutational spectrum between GPR98 and USH2A is discussed. Only two patients were found with mutations in DFNB31, showing that mutations of this gene contribute to only a very small extent to USH2. Close examination of the clinical details, where available, for patients in whom no mutation was found in USH2A, GPR98, or DFNB31, showed that most of them had atypical features. In effect, these three genes account for the vast majority of USH2 patients and their analysis provide a robust pathway for routine molecular diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22004DOI Listing
March 2012
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