Publications by authors named "Thomas Aparicio"

124 Publications

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination for patients with solid cancer: Review and point of view of a French oncology intergroup (GCO, TNCD, UNICANCER).

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 1;150:232-239. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Digestive Oncology Department, CHU Reims University Hospital, TNCD, Reims, France.

The impacts of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on cancer care are multiple, entailing a high risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with cancer treated by chemotherapy. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines represent an opportunity to decrease the rate of severe COVID-19 cases in patients with cancer and also to restore normal cancer care. Patients with cancer to be targeted for vaccination are difficult to define owing to the limited contribution of these patients in the phase III trials testing the different vaccines. It seems appropriate to vaccinate not only patients with cancer with ongoing treatment or with a treatment having been completed less than 3 years ago but also household and close contacts. High-risk patients with cancer who are candidates for priority access to vaccination are those treated by chemotherapy. The very high-priority population includes patients with curative treatment and palliative first- or second-line chemotherapy, as well as patients requiring surgery or radiotherapy involving a large volume of lung, lymph node and/or haematopoietic tissue. When possible, vaccination should be carried out before cancer treatment begins. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can be performed during chemotherapy while avoiding periods of neutropenia and lymphopenia. For organisational reasons, vaccination should be performed in cancer care centres with messenger RNA vaccines (or non-replicating adenoviral vaccines in non-immunocompromised patients). Considering the current state of knowledge, the benefit-risk ratio strongly favours SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of all patients with cancer. To obtain more data concerning the safety and effectiveness of vaccines, it is necessary to implement cohorts of vaccinated patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015403PMC
April 2021

[Vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with solid cancer: Review and point of view from a French oncology inter-group (CGO, TNCD, UNICANCER)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CHU de Reims, Reims, service d'oncologie digestive, TNCD, Rue du Général Koenig, 51100 Reims, France.

The COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact at all stages of cancer treatment. Risk of death from COVID-19 in patients treated for a cancer is high. COVID-19 vaccines represent a major issue to decrease the rate of severe forms of the COVID-19 cases and to maintain a normal cancer care. It is difficult to define the target population for vaccination due to the limited data available and the lack of vaccine doses available. It appears theoretically important to vaccinate patients with active cancer treatment or treated since less than three years, as well as their family circle. In France, patients actually defined at "high risk" for priority access to vaccination are those with a cancer treated by chemotherapy. A panel of experts recently defined another "very high-priority" population, which includes patients with curative or palliative first or second-line chemotherapy, as well as patients requiring surgery or radiotherapy involving a large lung volume, lymph nodes and/or of hematopoietic tissue. Ideally, it is best to vaccinate before cancer treatment. Despite the lack of published data, COVID-19 vaccines can also be performed during chemotherapy by avoiding periods of bone marrow aplasia and if possible, to do it in cancer care centers. It is necessary to implement cohorts with immunological and clinical monitoring of vaccinated cancer patients. To conclude, considering the current state of knowledge, the benefit-risk ratio strongly favours COVID-19 vaccination of all cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041180PMC
April 2021

PREVALENCE AND PROGNOSIS OF MICROSATELLITE INSTABILITY IN OESOGASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA, NORDICAP 16-01.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 11:101691. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Service de gastro entérologie, Hôpital Saint Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: The prevalence and prognosis association of microsatellite instability (MSI) in oesogastric junction and gastric adenocarcinoma (OGC) have been reported with conflicting results.

Methods: Patients with OGC from 2010 to 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective multicenter study. MSI was determined by genotyping. MLH1 promoter methylation and BRAF V600E mutation were screened in the MSI tumors.

Results: Among 315 tumors analyzed, 39 (12.4%) were of the MSI phenotype. Compared to MSS tumors, MSI tumors were more frequent in patients >70 years (17% vs 9%, p=0.048) and in gastric antral primary (20% versus 5% in junction tumor and 12% in fundus tumor. Among 29 MSI tumors analyzed, 28 had a loss of MLH1 protein expression and 27 had MLH1 promotor hypermethylation. None had a BRAF V600E mutation. The 4-year cumulative incidence of recurrence for patients with resected tumour was significantly lower in dMMR tumors versus pMMR tumors (17% versus 47%,p=0.01). For the patients with unresectable tumor the median overall survival was 11 months in MSS group and 14 months in MSI group (p=0.24).

Conclusion: MSI prevalence in OGC was 12.4%, associated with antral localization and advanced age. Patients with MSI tumors had a lower cumulative incidence of recurrence after surgery. MSI phenotype was mainly associated with loss of MLH1 protein expression, MLH1 promotor hypermethylation and had no BRAF V600E mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101691DOI Listing
April 2021

The Activity of Crizotinib in Chemo-Refractory MET-Amplified Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinomas: Results from the AcSé-Crizotinib Program.

Target Oncol 2021 May 13;16(3):381-388. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: The AcSé-crizotinib program provides extensive screening of crizotinib-targeted genomic alteration in several malignancies. We here report the results in patients with esogastric MET-amplified adenocarcinomas.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of crizotinib in patients with pretreated esogastric MET-amplified adenocarcinoma who have no alternative treatment options.

Patients And Methods: MET expression was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples with immunohistochemistry scores ≥ 2+. Patients with chemo-refractory tumors showing ≥ 6 MET copies were eligible for crizotinib 250 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the objective response rate after two cycles of crizotinib.

Results: MET was prospectively analyzed in 570 esogastric adenocarcinomas. Amplifications were found in 35/570 adenocarcinomas (29/523 gastric and 6/47 esophageal). Nine patients were treated with crizotinib. The objective response rate after two cycles was 33.3% (95% CI 7.5-70), the best overall response rate was 55.6% (95% CI 21.2-86.3), with median progression-free survival of 3.2 months (95% CI 1.0-5.4), and overall survival of 8.1 months (95% CI 1.7-24.6). Safety was consistent with that previously reported for crizotinib.

Conclusions: Large-scale screening for MET-amplified esogastric adenocarcinomas is feasible. MET amplification was observed in 5.5% of gastric and 12.8% of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Crizotinib shows encouraging results in selected patients. Thus, c-MET inhibition for MET-amplified tumors deserves further evaluation.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02034981.

Date Of Registration: 14 January 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-021-00811-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Bevacizumab as maintenance therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis of individual patients' data from 3 phase III studies.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 30;97:102202. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Asklepios Tumorzentrum Hamburg AK Altona, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The real impact of bevacizumab maintenance as single agent in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains unclear. SAKK-41/06 and PRODIGE-9 failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority and superiority of bevacizumab versus no maintenance, respectively, while AIO-KRK-0207 showed the non-inferiority of maintenance bevacizumab versus bevacizumab and fluoropyrimidines for time to strategy failure.

Methods: Bibliography electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for English published clinical trials prospectively randomizing mCRC patients to receive bevacizumab maintenance or not after first-line chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Individual patients' data (IPD) were provided by investigators for all included trials. Primary end-points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), both from the start of induction and maintenance. Univariate and multivariate analyses for PFS and OS were performed.

Results: Three phase III studies - PRODIGE-9, AIO-KRK-0207 and SAKK-41/06 - were included. Considering the different timing of randomization, IPD of patients not progressed during induction and starting maintenance phase entered the analysis. 909 patients were included, 457 (50%) received bevacizumab maintenance. Median PFS from induction start was 9.6 and 8.9 months in bevacizumab group versus no maintenance group, respectively (HR 0.78; 95%CI: 0.68-0.89; p < 0.0001). Subgroups analysis for PFS showed a significant interaction according for RAS status (p = 0.048), with a maintenance benefit limited to RAS wild-type patients. No difference in terms of OS was observed.

Conclusions: Despite the statistically significant PFS improvement for bevacizumab maintenance, the absolute benefit appears limited. Subgroup analysis shows a differential effect of bevacizumab maintenance in favor of RAS wild-type patients. Considering these results, maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine with or without bevacizumab remains the first option. Single agent bevacizumab maintenance can be considered in selected cases, such as cumulative toxicity or patient's refusal, in particular for RAS wild-type patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2021.102202DOI Listing
March 2021

Hepatocellular carcinoma: French Intergroup Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up (SNFGE, FFCD, GERCOR, UNICANCER, SFCD, SFED, SFRO, AFEF, SIAD, SFR/FRI).

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 26;45(2):101590. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CHU Reims, Reims, France.

Introduction: This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines regarding the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) published in March 2019.

Method: It is a collaborative work under the auspices of most of the French medical societies involved in the management of HCC. It is based on the previous guidelines published in 2017. Recommendations are graded in 3 categories according to the level of evidence of data found in the literature.

Results: The diagnosis and staging of HCC is essentially based on clinical, biological and imaging features. A pathological analysis obtained by a biopsy of tumoral and non-tumoral liver is recommended. HCCs can be divided into 2 groups, taking into account not only the tumor stage, but also liver function. HCCs accessible to curative treatments are tumors that are in Milan criteria or with an AFP score ≤ 2, mainly treated by surgical resection, local ablation or liver transplantation. Intermediate and advanced HCCs with no liver insufficiency, accessible only to palliative treatments, benefit from TACE, SIRT or systemic therapy according to the presence or absence of macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread.

Conclusion: Such recommendations are in permanent optimization and each individual case must be discussed in a multidisciplinary expert board.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.101590DOI Listing
March 2021

MRI-Based Radiomics Input for Prediction of 2-Year Disease Recurrence in Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 7;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Radiation Oncology Department, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, 33600 Pessac, France.

Purpose: Chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC). Despite excellent results for T1-2 stages, relapses still occur in around 35% of locally advanced tumors. Recent strategies focus on treatment intensification, but could benefit from a better patient selection. Our goal was to assess the prognostic value of pre-therapeutic MRI radiomics on 2-year disease control (DC).

Methods: We retrospectively selected patients with non-metastatic ASCC treated at the CHU Bordeaux and in the French FFCD0904 multicentric trial. Radiomic features were extracted from T2-weighted pre-therapeutic MRI delineated sequences. After random division between training and testing sets on a 2:1 ratio, univariate and multivariate analysis were performed on the training cohort to select optimal features. The correlation with 2-year DC was assessed using logistic regression models, with AUC and accuracy as performance gauges, and the prediction of disease-free survival using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: A total of 82 patients were randomized in the training ( = 54) and testing sets ( = 28). At 2 years, 24 patients (29%) presented relapse. In the training set, two clinical (tumor size and CRT length) and two radiomic features (FirstOrder_Entropy and GLCM_JointEnergy) were associated with disease control in univariate analysis and included in the model. The clinical model was outperformed by the mixed (clinical and radiomic) model in both the training (AUC 0.758 versus 0.825, accuracy of 75.9% versus 87%) and testing (AUC 0.714 versus 0.898, accuracy of 78.6% versus 85.7%) sets, which led to distinctive high and low risk of disease relapse groups (HR 8.60, = 0.005).

Conclusion: A mixed model with two clinical and two radiomic features was predictive of 2-year disease control after CRT and could contribute to identify high risk patients amenable to treatment intensification with view of personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827348PMC
January 2021

Impact of time-varying cumulative bevacizumab exposures on survival: re-analysis of data from randomized clinical trial in patients with metastatic colo-rectal cancer.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 Jan 9;21(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

INSERM, U1231, EPICAD team, Equipe EPICAD, 7, Bld Jeanne d'Arc, Dijon, France.

Background: As cancer treatment, biotherapies can be as effective as chemotherapy while reducing the risk of secondary effects, so that they can be taken over longer periods than conventional chemotherapy. Thus, some trials aimed at assessing the benefit of maintaining biotherapies during chemotherapy-free intervals (CFI). For example, the recent PRODIGE9 trial assessed the effect of maintaining bevacizumab during CFI in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. However, its analysis was hindered by a small difference of exposure to the treatment between the randomized groups and by a large proportion of early drop outs, leading to a potentially unbalanced distribution of confounding factors among the trial completers. To address these limitations, we re-analyzed the PRODIGE9 data to assess the effects of different exposure metrics on all-cause mortality of patients with mCRC using methods originally developed for observational studies.

Methods: To account for the actual patterns of drug use by individual patients and for possible cumulative effects, we used five alternative time-varying exposure metrics: (i) cumulative dose, (ii) quantiles of the cumulative dose, (iii) standardized cumulative dose, (iv) Theoretical Blood Concentration (TBC), and (v) Weighted Cumulative Exposure (WCE). The last two metrics account for the timing of drug use. Treatment effects were estimated using adjusted Hazard Ratio from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: After excluding 112 patients who died during the induction period, we analyzed data on 382 patients, among whom 320 (83.8%) died. All time-varying exposures improved substantially the model's fit to data, relative to using only the time-invariant randomization group. All exposures indicated a protective effect for higher cumulative bevacizumab doses. The best-fitting WCE and TBC models accounted for both the cumulative effects and the different impact of doses taken at different times.

Conclusions: All time-varying analyses, regardless of the exposure metric used, consistently suggested protective effects of higher cumulative bevacizumab doses. However, the results may partly reflect the presence of a confusion bias. Complementing the main ITT analysis of maintenance trials with an analysis of potential cumulative effects of treatment actually taken can provide new insights, but the results must be interpreted with caution because they do not benefit from the randomization.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00952029 . Registered 8 August 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01202-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796644PMC
January 2021

PRODIGE 59-DURIGAST trial: A randomised phase II study evaluating FOLFIRI + Durvalumab ± Tremelimumab in second-line of patients with advanced gastric cancer.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Apr 6;53(4):420-426. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Service d'Oncologie Médicale, CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; Service d'Hépato-gastroentérologie, CHU de Poitiers et Université de Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, Poitiers 86021, France. Electronic address:

Gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas present poor overall survival (OS). First-line chemotherapy regimen for patients with HER2-negative tumours is based on a doublet or triplet of fluoropyrimidine plus platinum salt ± taxane. Second-line chemotherapy (Docetaxel or Irinotecan) improves OS which nonetheless remains poor (around 5 months). The first results of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1) combined with chemotherapy in metastatic gastric and GEJ cancers were discordant in recent phase III trials. Data on dual-blockade (anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4) plus chemotherapy are lacking. DURIGAST is a randomised, multicenter, non-comparative, phase II study, evaluating safety and efficacy of FOLFIRI plus Durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) versus FOLFIRI plus Durvalumab and Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4) as second-line treatment of advanced gastric and GEJ adenocarcinoma. The primary objective is the rate of patients alive and without progression at 4 months. The main inclusion criteria are: patients with advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma, pre-treated with fluoropyrimidine + platinum salt ± taxane. Due to a lack of data on FOLFIRI, Durvalumab and Tremelimumab combination, a 2-step safety run-in phase has been performed before the randomised phase II. The safety run-in phase did not show any safety issue and the randomised phase II starts in September 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.11.036DOI Listing
April 2021

Management of digestive cancers during the COVID-19 second wave: A French intergroup point of view (SNFGE, FFCD, GERCOR, UNICANCER, SFCD, SFED, SFRO, ACHBT, SFR).

Dig Liver Dis 2021 03 17;53(3):306-308. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Digestive Oncology Department, Reims University Hospital, Reims, France.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has major impact of healthcare systems, including cancer care pathways. The aim of this work is to discuss in a multidisciplinary approach the therapeutic and/or strategies adaptations for patients treated for a digestive cancer during the European second wave of COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A collaborative work was performed by several French societies to answer how to preserve digestive cancer care with no loss of chance during the second wave of COVID-19. In this context, all recommendations are graded as expert's agreement according to level evidence found in literature until October 2020 and the experience of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: As far as possible, no therapeutic modification should be carried out. If necessary, therapeutic adjustments may be considered if they do not constitute a loss of chance for patients. Considering the level of evidence all therapeutic modifications need to be discussed in multidisciplinary tumor board meeting and with patient consent. By contrast to first wave cancer prevention, cancer screening, supportive care and clinical trials should be continued.

Conclusion: Recommendations proposed could limit cancer excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic but should be adapted according to the situation in each hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.11.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836265PMC
March 2021

Panel gene profiling of small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from the NADEGE prospective cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 4;148(7):1731-1742. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. Large genomic analyses with prognostic assessments are lacking. The NADEGE cohort has enrolled 347 patients with all stage SBA from 2009 to 2012. Next-generation sequencing investigates the presence of 740 hotspot somatic mutations in a panel of 46 genes involved in carcinogenesis. The mismatch repair (MMR) status was assessed by immunochemistry. We have collected 196 tumour samples and 125 had conclusive results for mutation analysis. The number of mutations was 0 in 9.6% of tumours, only 1 in 32.0%, 2 in 26.4% and ≥3 in 32.0%. Overall, at least one genomic alteration was observed in 90.4% of tumour. The most frequent genomic alteration was in KRAS (44.0%), TP53 (38.4%), PIK3CA (20.0%), APC (18.4%), SMAD4 (14.4%) and ERBB2 (7.2%) genes. KRAS mutations were more frequent in synchronous metastatic tumours than in localised tumours (72.7% vs 38.2%, P = .003). There was no significant difference in the mutation rates according to primary location for the most frequently altered gene. ATM, FGFR3 and FGFR1 gene alterations were associated with Lynch syndrome and IDH1 mutations with Crohn disease. dMMR tumours were associated with younger age, localised tumours, less KRAS but more SMARCB1 mutations. No genomic alteration was associated with overall survival. There is a trend for better survival in patient with dMMR tumours. In conclusion, there is a different genomic alteration profile in SBA according to predisposing diseases. No association between genomic alterations and prognoses was observed except for a trend of better prognoses associated with dMMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33392DOI Listing
April 2021

Panel gene profiling of small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from the NADEGE prospective cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 4;148(7):1731-1742. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. Large genomic analyses with prognostic assessments are lacking. The NADEGE cohort has enrolled 347 patients with all stage SBA from 2009 to 2012. Next-generation sequencing investigates the presence of 740 hotspot somatic mutations in a panel of 46 genes involved in carcinogenesis. The mismatch repair (MMR) status was assessed by immunochemistry. We have collected 196 tumour samples and 125 had conclusive results for mutation analysis. The number of mutations was 0 in 9.6% of tumours, only 1 in 32.0%, 2 in 26.4% and ≥3 in 32.0%. Overall, at least one genomic alteration was observed in 90.4% of tumour. The most frequent genomic alteration was in KRAS (44.0%), TP53 (38.4%), PIK3CA (20.0%), APC (18.4%), SMAD4 (14.4%) and ERBB2 (7.2%) genes. KRAS mutations were more frequent in synchronous metastatic tumours than in localised tumours (72.7% vs 38.2%, P = .003). There was no significant difference in the mutation rates according to primary location for the most frequently altered gene. ATM, FGFR3 and FGFR1 gene alterations were associated with Lynch syndrome and IDH1 mutations with Crohn disease. dMMR tumours were associated with younger age, localised tumours, less KRAS but more SMARCB1 mutations. No genomic alteration was associated with overall survival. There is a trend for better survival in patient with dMMR tumours. In conclusion, there is a different genomic alteration profile in SBA according to predisposing diseases. No association between genomic alterations and prognoses was observed except for a trend of better prognoses associated with dMMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33392DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality among solid cancer patients and impact of the disease on anticancer treatment: A French nationwide cohort study (GCO-002 CACOVID-19).

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 8;141:62-81. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Saint Louis Hospital, APHP, Université de Paris, Paris, FFCD, France.

Background: Cancer patients are thought to have an increased risk of developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and of dying from the disease. In this work, predictive factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality in cancer patients were investigated.

Patients And Methods: In this large nationwide retro-prospective cohort study, we collected data on patients with solid tumours and COVID-19 diagnosed between March 1 and 11th June 2020. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality and COVID-19 severity, defined as admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and/or mechanical ventilation and/or death, was one of the secondary end-points.

Results: From April 4 to 11th June 2020, 1289 patients were analysed. The most frequent cancers were digestive and thoracic. Altogether, 424 (33%) patients had a severe form of COVID-19 and 370 (29%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with death were male sex (odds ratio 1.73, 95%CI: 1.18-2.52), The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale (ECOG PS) ≥ 2 (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 2.27-4.61), updated Charlson comorbidity index (OR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01-1.16) and admission to ICU (OR 3.62, 95%CI 2.14-6.11). The same factors, age along with corticosteroids before COVID-19 diagnosis, and thoracic primary tumour site were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. None of the anticancer treatments administered within the previous 3 months had any effect on mortality or COVID-19 severity, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the subgroup of patients with detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was associated with a slight increase of the risk of death (OR 1.53; 95%CI: 1.00-2.34; p = 0.05). A total of 431 (39%) patients had their systemic anticancer treatment (such as chemotherapy, targeted or immune therapy) interrupted or stopped following diagnosis of COVID-19.

Conclusions: Mortality and COVID-19 severity in cancer patients are high and are associated with general characteristics of patients. We found no deleterious effects of recent anticancer treatments, except for cytotoxic chemotherapy in the RT-PCR-confirmed subgroup of patients. In almost 40% of patients, the systemic anticancer therapy was interrupted or stopped after COVID-19 diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.09.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543792PMC
December 2020

Personalized four-category staging for predicting prognosis in patients with small bowel Adenocarcinoma: an international development and validation study.

EBioMedicine 2020 Oct 24;60:102979. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease;145 Middle Shandong Road, Shanghai 200001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) classification showed superiority over 8 edition N staging in predicting survival of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) patients. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Tumor, LODDS, and Metastasis (TLM) staging of SBA.

Methods: Totally 1789 SBA patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1988-2010, 437 patients from SEER database between 2011-2013 and 166 patients from multicenters were categorized into development, validation and test cohort, respectively. The TLM staging was developed in the development cohort using Ensemble Algorithm for Clustering Cancer Data (EACCD) method. C-index was used to assess the performance of the TLM staging in predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) and was compared with the traditional 8 edition TNM staging.

Findings: Four-category TLM staging designed for the development cohort showed higher discriminatory power than TNM staging in predicting CSS in the development cohort (0.682 vs. 0.650, P < 0.001), validation cohort (0.682 vs. 0.654, P = 0.022), and test cohort (0.659 vs. 0.611, P = 0.023), respectively. TLM staging continued to show its higher predictive efficacy than the 8 TNM in TNM stage II/III patients or in patients with lymph node yield less than 8.

Interpretation: TLM staging showed a better prognostic performance than the 8 TNM staging especially TNM stage II/III or patients with lymph node yield less than 8 and therefore, could serve to complement the TNM staging in patients with SBA.

Funding: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519244PMC
October 2020

Aflibercept in Combination With FOLFIRI as First-line Chemotherapy in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC): A Phase II Study (FFCD 1302).

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2020 12 12;19(4):285-290. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Hopital European George Pompidou, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: FOLFIRI (irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) + aflibercept improves median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Our aim was to investigate efficacy and tolerability of this combination in the first line.

Patients And Methods: Patients with untreated documented mCRC received aflibercept plus FOLFIRI every 14 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity in an open, phase II single-arm, multicenter trial. The primary endpoint was the 6-month PFS rate. Secondary endpoints were OS and tolerability. A 2-step Simon design was used with H: 55% and H= 75%. Data were analyzed in intention to treat.

Results: Forty-one patients were included, and 40 were analyzed (1 consent withdrawal) in 9 French centers between October 2014 and February 2017. The median age was 65 years (range, 46-81 years), 55% had ≥ 2 metastatic sites, and 50% and 15% had RAS and BRAF mutations, respectively. Twenty-two (54.5%; 95% confidence interval, 38.9%-68.5%) patients were alive and non-progressive at 6 months. FOLFIRI + aflibercept was considered ineffective, resulting in the cessation of inclusions. The median follow-up was 34 months. The overall response rate was 55%, and the disease control rate was 80%. The median duration of treatment was 5.3 months; the median PFS and OS were 8.2 and 18.6 months, respectively. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal (47.5%) and vascular (32.5%). Of the patients, 87.5% had at least 1 dose modification.

Conclusion: Although the primary objective was not met, first-line FOLFIRI + aflibercept for mCRC leads to median PFS and OS close to those reported with classical doublet and targeted agents, but with significant toxicities needing dose reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2020.06.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Maintenance treatment with fluoropyrimidine plus bevacizumab versus fluoropyrimidine alone after induction chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: The BEVAMAINT - PRODIGE 71 - (FFCD 1710) phase III study.

Dig Liver Dis 2020 10 31;52(10):1143-1147. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

University hospital Saint Louis, APHP, Paris, France.

Background: Maintenance treatments with fluoropyrimidine alone or combined with bevacizumab after induction chemotherapy are two standard options in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, no trial has compared these two maintenance regimens.

Methods: BEVAMAINT is a multicenter, open-label, randomized phase III trial comparing fluoropyrimidine alone or plus bevacizumab as maintenance treatment after induction polychemotherapy in mCRC. The primary endpoint is the time-to-treatment failure (TTF), calculated from date of randomization to first radiological progression, death, start of a new chemotherapy regimen (different from induction or maintenance chemotherapy) or end of maintenance treatment without introduction of further chemotherapy. We expect a 2-month TTF improvement from 6 months in the monotherapy arm to 8 months in the combination arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75). Based on a two-sided α risk of 5% and a power of 80%, using Schoenfeld method, 379 events are required (planned enrolment, 400 patients). Patients with mCRC, whose disease is measurable according to RECIST 1.1 criteria and controlled (objective response or stable disease) - but remains unresectable - after 4 to 6 months of induction polychemotherapy (doublet or triplet chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR or bevacizumab), and who have recovered from limiting adverse events of induction polychemotherapy are eligible for randomization. Randomization is stratified according to center, response to induction chemotherapy (objective response vs stable disease), ECOG performance status (0-1 vs 2), maintenance fluoropyrimidine (5-fluorouracil vs capecitabine) and primary tumor status (resected vs not). Capecitabine or bolus and infusional 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid (simplified LV5FU2 regimen) are both accepted for maintenance chemotherapy, at investigator's discretion. Clinical evaluation, tumor imaging, carcinoembryonic antigen and circulating tumor DNA dosages are planned at enrolment and every 9 weeks. The maintenance treatment will be discontinued in the event of unbearable toxicity, progression or patient refusal. After maintenance discontinuation, reintroduction of induction polychemotherapy is recommended; otherwise a second-line treatment is started. The enrolment has begun in January 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.06.034DOI Listing
October 2020

Sarcopenia: An important prognostic factor for males treated for a locally advanced esophageal carcinoma.

Dig Liver Dis 2020 09 31;52(9):1047-1052. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hopital Saint Louis, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sarcopenia is a prognostic factor of esophageal carcinoma (EC) before surgery, with less convincing data reported before chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

Material And Methods: All patients with a locally advanced EC who had been treated with upfront CRT, between 2010 and 2015, were included. The decision of surgery was made after CRT (40-50 Gy). Muscle mass was measured on a single third lumbar vertebra CT-scan slice. Sarcopenia was internationally defined as skeletal muscle index of ≤39cm2/m2 for women and ≤55cm2/m2 for men. Results were additionally analyzed according to clinical parameters, with a cut-off based on the mean skeletal muscle lumbar index (SMI) of the population studied.

Results: Overall, 104 patients were included (male: 69%). Mean SMI was 35cm2/m2 for women and 46cm2/m2 for men, with 81% of patients being sarcopenic (n = 84). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate, of 34.6%, was not significantly associated with sarcopenia in the whole population. In men, there was, however, a highly significant correlation between SMI and OS (p = 0.003), which remained significant upon multivariate analysis (p = 0.02). When using the mean SMI as cut-off, sarcopenia was significantly associated with 3-year OS (43.3% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.02).

Conclusion: A high sarcopenia level appears negatively associated with OS in male EC patients treated with upfront CRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.04.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Baseline Splenic Volume as a Prognostic Biomarker of FOLFIRI Efficacy and a Surrogate Marker of MDSC Accumulation in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 31;12(6). Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Medical Oncology, Georges François Leclerc Cancer Center-UNICANCER, 1 rue Professeur Marion, 21000 Dijon, France.

Background: Predictive biomarkers of response to chemotherapy plus antiangiogenic for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are lacking. The objective of this study was to test the prognostic role of splenomegaly on baseline CT scan.

Methods: This study is a sub-study of PRODIGE-9 study, which included 488 mCRC patients treated by 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) and bevacizumab in first line. The association between splenic volume, and PFS and OS was evaluated by univariate and multivariable Cox analyses. The relation between circulating monocytic Myeloid derived suppressor cells (mMDSC) and splenomegaly was also determined.

Results: Baseline splenic volume > 180 mL was associated with poor PFS (median PFS = 9.2 versus 11.1 months; log-rank = 0.0125), but was not statistically associated with OS (median OS = 22.6 versus 28.5 months; log-rank = 0.1643). The increase in splenic volume at 3 months had no impact on PFS (HR 0.928; log-rank = 0.56) or on OS (HR 0.843; log-rank = 0.21). Baseline splenic volume was positively correlated with the level of baseline circulating mMDSC ( = 0.48, -value = 0.031).

Conclusion: Baseline splenomegaly is a prognostic biomarker in patients with mCRC treated with FOLFIRI and bevacizumab, and a surrogate marker of MDSC accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352427PMC
May 2020

COVID-19 epidemic: Proposed alternatives in the management of digestive cancers: A French intergroup clinical point of view (SNFGE, FFCD, GERCOR, UNICANCER, SFCD, SFED, SFRO, SFR).

Dig Liver Dis 2020 06 14;52(6):597-603. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, IRON group, Rouen University Hospital, F 76000 Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Patients treated for malignancy are considered at risk of severe COVID-19. This exceptional pandemic has affected countries on every level, particularly health systems which are experiencing saturation. Like many countries, France is currently greatly exposed, and a complete reorganization of hospitals is ongoing. We propose here adaptations of diagnostic procedures, therapies and care strategies for patients treated for digestive cancer during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Methods: French societies of gastroenterology and gastrointestinal (GI) oncology carried out this study to answer two main questions that have arisen (i) how can we limit high-risk situations for GI-cancer patients and (ii) how can we limit contact between patients and care centers to decrease patients' risk of contamination while continuing to treat their cancer. All recommendations are graded as experts' agreement according to the level of evidence found in the literature until March 2020.

Results: A proposal to adapt treatment strategies was made for the main GI oncology situations. Considering the level of evidence and the heterogeneous progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, all proposals need to be considered by a multidisciplinary team and implemented with patient consent.

Conclusion: COVID-19 epidemic may significantly affect patients treated for digestive malignancies. Healthcare teams need to consider adapting treatment sequences when feasible and according to the epidemic situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.03.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255323PMC
June 2020

Efficacy of Anti-EGFR in Microsatellite Instability Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Depending on Sporadic or Familial Origin.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr;113(4):496-500

Gastroenterology Department, Poitiers University Hospital and University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) efficacy in patients with microsatellite instability (MSI) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) according to sporadic vs familial origin is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 128 patients with MSI mCRC treated with first-line chemotherapy ± anti-EGFR. Among them, 61 and 67 patients were respectively categorized as familial and sporadic based on mismatch repair protein immunostaining, BRAF mutational status, and MLH1 promoter methylation status. We observed that addition of anti-EGFR to chemotherapy was associated with a statistically significant improvement of progression-free survival for familial (median = 5.0 vs 10.2 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23 to 0.94; P = .03) but not for sporadic (median = 4.4 vs 5.4 months, HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.39 to 1.60; P = .52) MSI mCRC patients. In multivariate analysis, the survival benefit of adding anti-EGFR to chemotherapy remained statistically significant for familial MSI cases (P = .04). These findings deserve to be confirmed in a prospective study and could help decision making in MSI mCRC without access or resistant to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023852PMC
April 2021

Single-arm phase II trial to evaluate efficacy and tolerance of regorafenib monotherapy in patients over 70 with previously treated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma FFCD 1404 - REGOLD.

J Geriatr Oncol 2020 11 22;11(8):1255-1262. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology Department, University Hospital Dijon, Dijon, France; EPICAD INSERM LNC-UMR 1231, Université de Bourgogne et Franche Comté, Dijon, France.

Background: Regorafenib significantly increases overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated but gives toxicities.

Objectives: to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib at it's approved dose in the older population.

Patients And Methods: This multicenter single-arm phase II enrolled patients ≥70 years old after the failure of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, anti-VEGF, and anti-EGFR treatment. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR) 2 months after initiation of regorafenib (160 mg/day, 3 weeks on/1 week off).

Results: Forty-three patients were enrolled, with a median age of 77 years. The 2 months DCR was 31.4% in the 35 evaluable patients. For the 42 patients that received at least one dose of regorafenib, median progression-free survival and OS were 2.2 and 7.5 months. The median time to autonomy degradation and quality of life degradation was 3.1 and 3.2 months, respectively. A grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events was observed in 35/42 patients, notably: fatigue (45.2%), hand-foot skin reaction (19.0%), hypertension (21.4%), and diarrhea (7.1%). There is a trend to achieve DCR in patients ≤80 years and a trend to discontinue the study due to toxicity in patients with ECOG ≥1, over 80 years and with impaired baseline autonomy.

Conclusion: Treatment with regorafenib in pretreated patients ≥70 years is feasible and demonstrate similar efficacy that was observed in previous studies in young patients. Fatigue is the most frequent severe adverse event. However, caution should be taken for older patients with ECOG ≥1, over 80 years, and with impaired baseline autonomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2020.04.001DOI Listing
November 2020

Surgical and regional treatments for colorectal cancer metastases in older patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(4):e0230914. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Geriatrics, CHU La Milétrie, Poitiers University Hospital, Grand Poitiers, France.

Objective: The present study explored the existing literature to describe the outcomes of surgical and regional treatments for colorectal cancer metastases (mCRC) in older patients.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published since 2000 that investigated the short- and long-term outcomes of regional treatments (surgical or non-surgical) for mCRC in patients aged ≥65 years. Pooled data analyses were conducted by calculating the risk ratio (RR), mean differences (MD) and hazard ratio (HR) between older and younger patients or between two different approaches in older patients.

Results: After screening 266 articles, 29 were included in this review. These studies reported the outcomes of surgery (n = 19) and non-surgical local ablation treatments (n = 3) for CRC metastases in older vs. younger patients or compared the outcomes of different interventions in older patients (n = 7). When comparing older vs. younger patients undergoing liver surgery for mCRC, pooled data analysis showed higher postoperative mortality [RR = 2.53 (95%CI: 2.00-3.21)] and shorter overall survival [HR = 1.17 (95%CI: 1.07-1.18)] in older patients, whereas no differences in operative outcomes, postoperative complications and disease-free survival were found. When comparing laparoscopy vs. open surgery for liver resection in older mCRC patients, laparoscopy was associated with fewer postoperative complications [RR = 0.27 (95%CI: 0.10-0.73)].

Conclusion: Liver resection for mCRC should not be disregarded a priori in older patients, who show similar operative and postoperative outcomes as younger patients. However, clinicians should consider that they are at increased risk of postoperative mortality and have a worse overall survival, which may reflect comorbidities and frailty.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230914PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176093PMC
July 2020

Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in adjuvant randomised trials for patients with localised colon cancer: Results of the DATECAN initiative.

Eur J Cancer 2020 05 12;130:63-71. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The variability of definitions for time-to-event (TTE) end-points impacts the conclusions of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). The Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer (DATECAN) initiative aims to provide consensus definitions for TTE end-points used in RCTs. Here, we formulate guidelines for adjuvant colon cancer RCTs.

Methods: We performed a literature review to identify TTE end-points and events included in their definition in RCT publications. Then, a consensus was reached among a panel of international experts, using a formal modified Delphi method, with 2 rounds of questionnaires and an in-person meeting.

Results: Twenty-four experts scored 72 events involved in 6 TTE end-points. Consensus was reached for 24%, 57% and 100% events after the first round, second round and in-person meeting. For RCTs not using overall survival as their primary end-point, the experts recommend using disease-free survival (DFS) rather than recurrence-free survival (RFS) or time to recurrence (TTR) as the primary end-point. The consensus definition of DFS includes all causes of death, second primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), anastomotic relapse and metastatic relapse as an event, but not second primary non-CRCs. Events included in the RFS definition are the same as for DFS with the exception of second primary CRCs. The consensus definition of TTR includes anastomotic or metastatic relapse, death with evidence of recurrence and death from CC cause.

Conclusion: Standardised definitions of TTE end-points ensure the reproducibility of the end-points between RCTs and facilitate cross-trial comparisons. These definitions should be integrated in standard practice for the design, reporting and interpretation of adjuvant CC RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409551PMC
May 2020

Development, validation and clinical impact of a prediction model for 6-month mortality in older cancer patients: the GRADE.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 03 10;12(5):4230-4246. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Université Paris-Est, UPEC, DHU A-TVB, IMRB- EA 7376 CEpiA (Clinical Epidemiology And Ageing Unit), Créteil F-94000, France.

Background: To develop, validate, and assess the clinical impact of a clinical score to predict a 6-month mortality risk among older cancer patients.

Results: The mean age was 81.2 ± 6.1 years (women: 54%, various cancers, metastatic cancer: 45%). The score, namely the GRADE, included two geriatric variables (unintentional weight loss, impaired mobility), two oncological variables (cancer site, cancer extension), and exclusively supportive care. Up to a 14% risk of early death, the decision curves suggest that cancer treatment should be instated.

Conclusion: We have developed and validated a simple score, easy to implement in daily oncological practice, to predict early death among older cancer patients which could guide oncologists in their treatment decisions.

Methods: 603 outpatients prospectively included in the Physical Frailty in Elderly Cancer patients cohort study. We created a multivariate prediction model by evaluating the strength of the individual components of the Geriatric Assessment regarding risk of death at 6 months. Each component was evaluated by univariate analysis and the significant variables ( ≤ 0.20) were carried on as covariates in the multivariate cox proportion hazard analysis. The beta coefficients from the model were used to build a point-based scoring system. Clinical impact was assessed using decision curves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093177PMC
March 2020

[Localized MSI/dMMR gastric cancer patients, perioperative immunotherapy instead of chemotherapy: The GERCOR NEONIPIGA phase II study is opened to recruitment].

Bull Cancer 2020 Apr 10;107(4):438-446. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

AP-HP, Sorbonne Université, hôpital Saint-Antoine, department of medical oncology, 75012 Paris, France.

Introduction: Perioperative chemotherapy is the standard strategy for localized gastric cancers. Nevertheless, this strategy seems to be inefficient, if not deleterious, for patients with tumors harboring microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), a tumor phenotype predictive for the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICKi).

Aim: The GERCOR NEONIPIGA single-arm phase II study (NCT04006262; EUDRACT 2018-004712-22) aims at evaluating the efficacy of a peri-operative strategy with nivolumab and ipilimumab in neoadjuvant setting, then nivolumab alone after surgery for patients with resectable MSI/dMMR gastric cancer.

Material And Methods: Main inclusion criteria are: gastric and oesogastric junction adenocarcinoma (GOA), T2-T4, all N stage and M0, MSI/dMMR. Patients will be treated with nivolumab 240mg Q2W, 6 infusions, and ipilimumab 1mg/kg Q6W, 2 infusions in neoadjuvant setting. Following surgery, patients with TRG 1-2-3 (Mandard tumor regression grade), acceptable tolerance of neoadjuvant treatment and postoperative ECOG performance status 0-1, will be treated with adjuvant nivolumab 480mg Q4W, 9 infusions.

Results: The primary endpoint is pathological complete response rate (pCR-R). Based on a Fleming design, with α=5% and β=20%, 27 patients have to be evaluated (H0=5%; H1=20%). Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival and safety.

Conclusion: This study is planned to include 32 patients to evaluate the pCR-R with the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab in neoadjuvant setting for MSI/dMMR localized GOA. The MSI/MMR status should be systematically assessed on diagnostic biopsies of all GOA. If it meets its primary endpoint, the GERCOR NEONIPIGA study might mark a turning point in the management of localized MSI/dMMR GOA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.11.016DOI Listing
April 2020

Treatment guidelines of metastatic colorectal cancer in older patients from the French Society of Geriatric Oncology (SoFOG).

Dig Liver Dis 2020 05 3;52(5):493-505. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Geriatry, Georges Pompidou Hospital, APHP, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Several guidelines dedicated to metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are available. Since 2013 no recent guidelines are specifically dedicated to older patients and based on a systematic review.

Materials And Methods: A multidisciplinary Task Force with digestive oncologists, geriatricians and methodologists from the SoFOG was formed in 2016 to update recommendations on medical treatment of mCRC based on a systematic review of publications from 2000 to 2018. Search strategy has followed a standardized protocol from the formulation of clinical questions and definition of a search algorithm to the selection of complete articles for recommendations.

Results: The four selected key questions were: For which older patients with mCRC can we considered: (1) Any chemotherapy, (2) Mono or poly-chemotherapy, (3) Anti-angiogenic therapy, (4) Other targeted therapy. Main recommendations for older patients are: (1) Omission of chemotherapy should be discussed with a geriatrician for patients with severe comorbidities, advanced dementia, uncontrolled psychiatric disorder or severe loss of autonomy. (2) If tumor response is not the main aim, a mono-chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil combined with bevacizumab is recommended as first-line. (3) For patients with symptoms related to metastases or with a planned metastasis ablation, a doublet chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab or anti-EGFR antibody in the context of a RAS wild type tumor is recommended as first-line. Preliminary data suggest that regorafenib may be used, in its registered indication, in patients under 80 with a performance status of 0 and no autonomy alterations and that trifluridine-tipiracil may be used with a tight supervising of hematological function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.12.145DOI Listing
May 2020

Predictive factors for early progression during induction chemotherapy and chemotherapy-free interval: analysis from PRODIGE 9 trial.

Br J Cancer 2020 03 4;122(7):957-962. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Oncology Department, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon, France.

Background: Identifying patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who will have an early disease progression during induction chemotherapy (IC) and identifying patients who may have a chemotherapy-free interval (CFI) after IC are two major challenges.

Methods: A logistic model was used to identify factors associated with early progression during IC and with short duration of the first CFI in 488 patients enrolled in the PRODIGE 9 trial. Independent factors were defined with a threshold 0.10.

Results: In multivariate analysis, baseline leukocytes >10 × 10/L (OR = 1.98 [1.02-3.8], p = 0.04), and stable or increasing CEA at 2 months (OR = 3.61 [1.68-7.75], p = 0.01) were independent factors associated with progression during IC. Male gender (OR = 1.725 [0.92-3.325], p = 0.09) and no tumour response at first evaluation (OR = 1.90 [0.96-3.76], p = 0.07) were significantly associated with a short CFI. The presence of BRAF V600E mutation was also associated with short CFI (OR = 4.59 [0.95; 22.3], p = 0.058).

Conclusion: High baseline leukocyte count and the lack of CEA decrease level at first evaluation were associated with early progression, and could be in favour of early chemotherapy intensification. Male gender, no tumour response at first evaluation and BRAF mutation are associated with a short CFI, and may be considered for maintenance chemotherapy after IC.

Clinical Trial Number: NCT00952029.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0735-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109054PMC
March 2020

Prognosis and chemosensitivity of deficient MMR phenotype in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: An AGEO retrospective multicenter study.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 13;147(1):285-296. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Sorbonne University and Medical Oncology Department, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) and/or microsatellite instability-high (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRC) represent about 5% of metastatic CRC (mCRC). Prognosis and chemosensitivity of dMMR/MSI mCRC remain unclear. This multicenter study included consecutive patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC from 2007 to 2017. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) in a population receiving first-line chemotherapy. Associations between chemotherapy regimen and survival were evaluated using a Cox regression model and inverse of probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) methodology in order to limit potential biases. Overall, 342 patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC were included. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) on first-line chemotherapy were 6.0 and 26.3 months, respectively. For second-line chemotherapy, median PFS and OS were 4.4 and 21.6 months. Longer PFS (8.1 vs. 5.4 months, p = 0.0405) and OS (35.1 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.0747) were observed for irinotecan-based chemotherapy compared to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The association was no longer statistically significant using IPTW methodology. In multivariable analysis, anti-VEGF as compared to anti-EGFR was associated with a trend to longer OS (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-3.19, p = 0.0518), whatever the backbone chemotherapy used. Our study shows that dMMR/MSI mCRC patients experienced short PFS with first-line chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy. OS was not different according to the chemotherapy regimen used, but a trend to better OS was observed with anti-VEGF. Our study provides some historical results concerning chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI mCRC in light of the recent nonrandomized trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32879DOI Listing
July 2020

Small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from a nationwide prospective ARCAD-NADEGE cohort study of 347 patients.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 22;147(4):967-977. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Oncology, Saint Antoine Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. We conducted a prospective cohort to describe the prevalence, survival and prognostic factors in unselected SBA patients. The study enrolled patients with all stages of newly diagnosed or recurrent SBA at 74 French centres between January 2009 and December 2012. In total, 347 patients were analysed; the median age was 63 years (range 23-90). The primary tumour was in the duodenum (60.6%), jejunum (20.7%) and ileum (18.7%). The prevalence of predisposing disease was 8.7%, 6.9%, 1.7%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Crohn disease, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, celiac disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, respectively. At diagnosis, 58.9%, 5.5% and 35.6% of patients had localised and resectable, locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease, respectively. Crohn disease was significantly associated with younger age, poor differentiation and ileum location, whereas Lynch syndrome with younger age, poor differentiation, early stage and duodenum location. Adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin-based in 89.9%) was performed in 61.5% of patients with locally resected tumours. With a 54-months median follow-up, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87.9%, 78.2% and 55.5% in Stages I, II and III, respectively. The median OS of patients with Stage IV was 12.7 months. In patients with resected tumours, poor differentiation (p = 0.047) and T4 stage (p = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death. In conclusion, our study showed that the prognosis of advanced SBA remains poor. Tumour characteristics differed according to predisposing disease. In SBA-resected tumours, the prognostic factors for OS were grade and T stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32860DOI Listing
August 2020