Publications by authors named "Thomas A Summers"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Delayed Captopril Administration Mitigates Hematopoietic Injury in a Murine Model of Total Body Irradiation.

Sci Rep 2019 02 18;9(1):2198. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

The increasing potential for accidental radiation exposure from either nuclear accidents or terrorist activities has escalated the need for radiation countermeasure development. We previously showed that a 30-day course of high-dose captopril, an ACE inhibitor, initiated 1-4 h after total body irradiation (TBI), improved Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS) and increased survival in mice. However, because of the time likely required for the deployment of a stockpiled radiation countermeasure to a radiation mass casualty site, there is a need for therapies that can be administered 24-48 hours after initial exposure. Using C57BL/6 mice exposed to an LD of Co TBI (7.75-7.9 Gy, 0.615 Gy/min), we show that low-dose captopril administration, initiated as late as 48 h post-TBI and continued for 14 days, significantly enhanced overall survival similarly to high-dose, rapid administration. Captopril treatment did not affect radiation-induced cell cycle arrest genes or the immediate loss of hematopoietic precursors. Reduced mortality was associated with the recovery of bone marrow cellularity and mature blood cell recovery at 21-30 days post-irradiation. Captopril reduced radiation-induced cytokines EPO, G-CSF, and SAA in the plasma. Finally, delayed captopril administration mitigated brain micro-hemorrhage at 21 days post-irradiation. These data indicate that low dose captopril administered as late as 48 h post-TBI for only two weeks improves survival that is associated with hematopoietic recovery and reduced inflammatory response. These data suggest that captopril may be an ideal countermeasure to mitigate H-ARS following accidental radiation exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38651-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379397PMC
February 2019

Captopril mitigates splenomegaly and myelofibrosis in the Gata1 murine model of myelofibrosis.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 09 4;22(9):4274-4282. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative therapy for primary myelofibrosis (MF), while the JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib. Has been approved only for palliation. Other therapies are desperately needed to reverse life-threatening MF. However, the cell(s) and cytokine(s) that promote MF remain unclear. Several reports have demonstrated that captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme that blocks the production of angiotensin II (Ang II), mitigates fibrosis in heart, lung, skin and kidney. Here, we show that captopril can mitigate the development of MF in the Gata1 mouse model of primary MF. Gata1 mice were treated with 79 mg/kg/d captopril in the drinking water from 10 to 12 months of age. At 13 months of age, bone marrows were examined for fibrosis, megakaryocytosis and collagen expression; spleens were examined for megakaryocytosis, splenomegaly and collagen expression. Treatment of Gata1 mice with captopril in the drinking water was associated with normalization of the bone marrow cellularity; reduced reticulin fibres, splenomegaly and megakaryocytosis; and decreased collagen expression. Our findings suggest that treating with the ACE inhibitors captopril has a significant benefit in overcoming pathological changes associated with MF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111823PMC
September 2018

Midkine and pleiotrophin concentrations in needle biopsies of breast and lung masses.

Cancer Biomark 2017 Sep;20(3):299-307

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background/objective: Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are two closely related heparin-binding growth factors which are overexpressed in a wide variety of human cancers. We hypothesized that the concentrations of these factors in washout of biopsy needles would be higher in breast and lung cancer than in benign lesions.

Methods: Seventy subjects underwent pre-operative core needle biopsies of 78 breast masses (16 malignancies). In 11 subjects, fine needle aspiration was performed ex vivo on 7 non-small cell lung cancers and 11 normal lung specimens within surgically excised lung tissue. The biopsy needle was washed with buffer for immunoassay.

Results: The MDK/DNA and the PTN/DNA ratio in most of the malignant breast masses were similar to the ratios in benign masses except one lobular carcinoma in situ (24-fold higher PTN/DNA ratio than the average benign mass). The MDK/DNA and PTN/DNA ratio were similar in most malignant and normal lung tissue except one squamous cell carcinoma (38-fold higher MDK/DNA ratio than the average of normal lung tissue).

Conclusions: Both MDK and PTN are readily measurable in washout of needle biopsy samples from breast and lung masses and levels are highly elevated only in a specific subset of these malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-170145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296221PMC
September 2017

Multispectral Imaging Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells in Negatively Enriched Peripheral Blood Samples.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1634:219-234

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio State University, 151 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

A variety of biomarkers are present on cells in peripheral blood of patients with a variety of disorders, including solid tumor malignancies. While rare, characterization of these cells for specific protein levels with the advanced technology proposed, will lead to future validation studies of blood samples as "liquid biopsies" for the evaluation of disease status and therapeutic response. While circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been isolated in the blood samples of patients with solid tumors, the exact role of CTCs as clinically useful predictive markers is still debated. Current commercial technology has significant bias in that a positive selection technology is used that preassumes specific cell surface markers (such as EpCAM) are present on CTCs. However, CTCs with low EpCAM expression have been experimentally demonstrated to be more likely to be missed by this method. In contrast, this application uses a previously developed, technology that performs a purely negative enrichment methodology on peripheral blood, yielding highly enriched blood samples that contain CTCs as well as other, undefined cell types. The focus of this contribution is the use of multispectral imaging of epifluorescent, microscopic images of these enriched cells in order to help develop clinically relevant liquid biopsies from peripheral blood samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7144-2_19DOI Listing
April 2018

RRx-001 Priming of PD-1 Inhibition in the Treatment of Small Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: A Rare Gynecological Tumor.

Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):276-280. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

aWalter Reed National Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Small cell carcinoma of the vagina is rare, so rare in fact that the total number reported in English-language journals is less than 30. Due to this extremely low incidence, no specific treatment guidelines have been established, and most of what is clinically known is derived from a handful of single case reports. However, as befitting its highly aggressive histologic features, which are reminiscent of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), first-line treatment is modeled after SCLC. Herein is reported the case of a 51-year-old African-American patient with metastatic biopsy-proven small cell carcinoma of the vagina that progressed through multiple therapies: first-line cisplatin and etoposide (making it platinum-resistant) and radiotherapy, followed by the tumor macrophage-stimulating agent RRx-001 in a clinical trial called QUADRUPLE THREAT, which per protocol preceded a mandated rechallenge with cisplatin and etoposide. RECIST v.1.1 tumor progression on both RRx-001 and cisplatin/etoposide was accompanied by central necrosis in several of the enlarged lymph nodes and hepatic metastases, which may have been evidence of pseudoprogression, accounting for her ongoing longer-than-expected survival, since the necrotic tissue may have primed the activity of the PD-1 inhibitor. The lack of response to RRx-001 is hypothesized to have correlated with sparse tumor macrophage infiltration, seen on pre- and post-treatment biopsies, since the mechanism of action of RRx-001 relates to stimulation of tumor-associated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000464101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422722PMC
March 2017

RRx-001: a systemically non-toxic M2-to-M1 macrophage stimulating and prosensitizing agent in Phase II clinical trials.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2017 01;26(1):109-119

g Murtha Cancer Center , Walter Reed National Military Medical Center ; Bethesda , MD , USA.

Introduction: According to Hanahan and Weinberg, cancer manifests as six essential physiologic hallmarks: (1) self-sufficiency in growth signals, (2) insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, (3) evasion of programmed cell death, (4) limitless replicative potential, (5) sustained angiogenesis, and (6) invasion and metastasis. As a facilitator of these traits as well as immunosuppression and chemoresistance, the presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may serve as the seventh hallmark of cancer. Anticancer agents that successfully reprogram TAMs to target rather than support tumor cells may hold the key to better therapeutic outcomes. Areas covered: This article summarizes the characteristics of the macrophage-stimulating agent RRx-001, a molecular iconoclast, sourced from the aerospace industry, with a particular emphasis on the cell-to-cell transfer mechanism of action (RBCs to TAMs) underlying its antitumor activity as well as its chemo and radioprotective properties, consolidated from various preclinical and clinical studies. Expert opinion: RRx-001 is macrophage-stimulating agent with the potential to synergize with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy while simultaneously protecting normal tissues from their cytotoxic effects. Given the promising indications of activity in multiple tumor types and these normal tissue protective properties, RRx-001 may be used to treat a broad spectrum of malignancies, if it is approved in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2017.1268600DOI Listing
January 2017

Heterogeneous atypical cell populations are present in blood of metastatic breast cancer patients.

Breast Cancer Res 2014 Mar 6;16(2):R23. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Introduction: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are commonly isolated from the blood by targeting the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) through positive selection. However, EpCAM can be downregulated during metastatic progression, or it can be initially not present. We designed the present prospective trial to characterize CTCs as well as other circulating cell populations in blood samples from women with metastatic breast cancer without EpCAM-dependent enrichment and/or isolation technology.

Methods: A total of 32 patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled, and blood samples were processed using a previously described negative depletion immunomagnetic methodology. Samples from healthy volunteers were run as controls (n = 5). Multistep sequential labeling was performed to label and fix cell-surface markers followed by permeabilization for cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and 19. Multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) analysis was conducted using a BD LSR II flow cytometer or a BD FACSAria II or FACSAria III cell sorter. Immunocytochemical staining on postenrichment specimens for DAPI, EpCAM, CD45, CK, epidermal growth factor receptor and vimentin was performed. Expression of these markers was visualized using confocal microscopy (CM).

Results: CD45-negative/CK-positive (CD45- CK+) populations with EpCAM + and EpCAM - expression were identified with both FCM and CM from the negatively enriched patient samples. In addition, EpCAM + and EpCAM - populations that were CK + and coexpressing the pan-hematopoietic marker CD45 were also noted. There were more CK + EpCAM - events/ml than CK + EpCAM + events/ml in both the CD45- and CD45+ fractions (both statistically significant at P ≤ 0.0005). The number of CK + CD45- and CK + CD45+ events per milliliter in blood samples (regardless of EpCAM status) was higher in patient samples than in normal control samples (P ≤ 0.0005 and P ≤ 0.026, respectively). Further, a significant fraction of the CK + CD45+ events also expressed CD68, a marker associated with tumor-associated macrophages. Higher levels of CD45-CK + EpCAM - were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0292).

Conclusions: Metastatic breast cancer patients have atypical cells that are CK + EpCAM - circulating in their blood. Because a substantial number of these patients do not have EpCAM + CTCs, additional studies are needed to evaluate the role of EpCAM - circulating cells as a prognostic and predictive marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr3622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4053256PMC
March 2014

The tug sign: an endoscopic feature of eosinophilic esophagitis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2013 Dec;108(12):1938-9

Gastroenterology Service, Department of Medicine Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2013.252DOI Listing
December 2013

Splenic manifestations of chronic autoimmune disorder: a report of five cases with histiocytic necrotizing change in four cases.

Histopathology 2013 Jul 15;63(1):19-28. Epub 2013 May 15.

Joint Pathology Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Aims: Autoimmune diseases (AD) are associated with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Changes in the spleen have not been characterized completely in AD; we describe splenectomy specimens from five patients with chronic AD, highlighting the presence of necrotizing histiocytosis.

Methods And Results: Of the patients (three males and two females; mean 40 years), four had systemic lupus erythematosus; one had rheumatoid arthritis. All had moderate splenomegaly (213-803 g, mean 421 g). Four cases exhibited necrosis with apoptosis and karyorrhectic debris occurring in the white pulp and minimal acute inflammation; one showed florid follicular hyperplasia. Splenic involvement ranged from focal to extensive. Plasma cells were negative for IgG4. Haematoxylin bodies were not identified. Stains for infectious organisms were negative. Immunohistochemical studies showed that lymphocytes surrounding the necrosis were a mixture of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; CD123-positive plasmacytoid dendritic cells were not present, and staining for kappa and lambda light chains showed no clonality. 16S rDNA PCR was performed; no amplification was seen in three of four cases tested for bacteria specific rDNA. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization studies highlighted rare positive cells in four cases.

Conclusions: Splenomegaly in AD is thought to be hyperplasic, but we present four cases showing histiocytic necrosis, a finding which should be considered part of the spectrum of AD in the spleen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.12143DOI Listing
July 2013

Evidence-based Guidelines for Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening (PRSBS) for Colorectal Cancer: Lessons learned from the US Armed Forces: Consensus and Future Directions.

J Cancer 2013 1;4(3):172-92. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

1. Bon Secours Cancer Institute, Richmond VA ; 2. Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD ; 3. United States Military Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD ; 4. INCORE, International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy, Munich, Germany.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (U.S.), with estimates of 143,460 new cases and 51,690 deaths for the year 2012. Numerous organizations have published guidelines for CRC screening; however, these numerical estimates of incidence and disease-specific mortality have remained stable from years prior. Technological, genetic profiling, molecular and surgical advances in our modern era should allow us to improve risk stratification of patients with CRC and identify those who may benefit from preventive measures, early aggressive treatment, alternative treatment strategies, and/or frequent surveillance for the early detection of disease recurrence. To better negotiate future economic constraints and enhance patient outcomes, ultimately, we propose to apply the principals of personalized and precise cancer care to risk-stratify patients for CRC screening (Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening, PRSBS). We believe that genetic, molecular, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities impact oncological outcomes in general, those related to CRC, in particular. This document highlights evidence-based screening recommendations and risk stratification methods in response to our CRC working group private-public consensus meeting held in March 2012. Our aim was to address how we could improve CRC risk stratification-based screening, and to provide a vision for the future to achieving superior survival rates for patients diagnosed with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.5834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584831PMC
March 2013

Multiparameter analysis, including EMT markers, on negatively enriched blood samples from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

PLoS One 2012 26;7(7):e42048. Epub 2012 Jul 26.

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been hypothesized as a mechanism by which cells change phenotype during carcinogenesis, as well as tumor metastasis. Whether EMT is involved in cancer metastasis has a specific, practical impact on the field of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Since the generally accepted definition of a CTC includes the expression of epithelial surface markers, such as EpCAM, if a cancer cell loses its epithelial surface markers (which is suggested in EMT), it will not be separated and/or identified as a CTC. We have developed, and previously reported on the use of, a purely negative enrichment technology enriching for CTCs in the blood of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). This methodology does not depend on the expression of surface epithelial markers. Using this technology, our initial data on SCCHN patient blood indicates that the presence of CTCs correlates with worse disease-free survival. Since our enrichment is not dependent on epithelial markers, we have initiated investigation of the presence of mesenchymal markers in these CTC cells to include analysis of: vimentin, epidermal growth factor receptor, N-cadherin, and CD44. With the aid of confocal microscopy, we have demonstrated not only presumed CTCs that express and/or contain: a nucleus, cytokeratins, vimentin, and either EGFR, CD44, or N-cadherin, but also cells that contain all of the aforementioned proteins except cytokeratins, suggesting that the cells have undergone the EMT process. We suggest that our negative depletion enrichment methodology provides a more objective approach in identifying and evaluating CTCs, as opposed to positive selection approaches, as it is not subjective to a selection bias and can be tailored to accommodate a variety of cytoplasmic and surface markers which can be evaluated to identify a multitude of phenotypic patterns within CTCs from individual patients, including so-called EMT as presented here.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042048PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406036PMC
November 2012

Gray zone lymphoma: chromosomal aberrations with immunophenotypic and clinical correlations.

Mod Pathol 2011 Dec 5;24(12):1586-97. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The term gray zone lymphoma has been applied to tumors that demonstrate transitional morphologic and immunophenotypic features between classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, especially primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Histopathological and genetic data are limited for these unusual cases. We analyzed cases of gray zone lymphoma (n=27), mediastinal composite lymphoma (n=3) and mediastinal synchronous/metachronous lymphoma (n=3) by morphology, immunophenotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mediastinal involvement was assured in 24/33 patients (73%). The patient cohort showed a male predominance (M:F ratio; 20:13) and a median age of 32 years (range, 16-91 years). Patients with mediastinal disease were significantly younger (median age: 29.5 years) than patients presenting without evident mediastinal disease (median age: 55 years). Gains including amplifications in 2p16.1 (REL/BCL11A locus) were observed in 33% of all patients, whereas alterations affecting the JAK2/PDL2 locus in 9p24.1 were present in 55%. Further studies revealed rearrangement of the CIITA locus at 16p13.13 in 8/30 cases (27%) and 7/26 cases (27%) demonstrated gains of 8q24 (MYC). Genetic aberrations involving 2p16.1, 9p24.1 and 8q24 showed a higher incidence in cases with evident mediastinal involvement. However, this was not statistically significant when compared with cases without known mediastinal involvement. Twelve of the 27 cases of gray zone lymphoma were morphologically more reminiscent of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas the other gray zone lymphomas presented with morphological features more closely resembling large B-cell lymphoma. Both morphological groups of gray zone lymphoma were similarly positive for Cyclin E (75 and 93%) and p63 (50 and 53%, respectively) expression. These findings further support a close relationship between gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, and suggest that some cases of gray zone lymphoma without mediastinal disease may share similar genetic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2011.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368823PMC
December 2011

Consensus recommendations for advancing breast cancer: risk identification and screening in ethnically diverse younger women.

J Cancer 2011 Apr 20;2:210-27. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

1. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

A need exists for a breast cancer risk identification paradigm that utilizes relevant demographic, clinical, and other readily obtainable patient-specific data in order to provide individualized cancer risk assessment, direct screening efforts, and detect breast cancer at an early disease stage in historically underserved populations, such as younger women (under age 40) and minority populations, who represent a disproportionate number of military beneficiaries. Recognizing this unique need for military beneficiaries, a consensus panel was convened by the USA TATRC to review available evidence for individualized breast cancer risk assessment and screening in young (< 40), ethnically diverse women with an overall goal of improving care for military beneficiaries. In the process of review and discussion, it was determined to publish our findings as the panel believes that our recommendations have the potential to reduce health disparities in risk assessment, health promotion, disease prevention, and early cancer detection within and in other underserved populations outside of the military. This paper aims to provide clinicians with an overview of the clinical factors, evidence and recommendations that are being used to advance risk assessment and screening for breast cancer in the military.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079919PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.2.210DOI Listing
April 2011

Hairy cell leukemia diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis.

Leuk Lymphoma 2011 Jun 21;52 Suppl 2:6-10. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Hematopathology Section, Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1500, USA.

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a disease with distinctive clinical findings, as well as a unique morphology and immunophenotype. These features typically allow for a reliable and reproducible diagnosis in nearly all situations. However, certain morphological features of HCL, such as villous cytoplasmic projections or characteristic tissue specific infiltrative patterns, including red pulp expansion with pseudosinuses, may be seen in other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. A methodical and thorough approach evaluating the clinical, cytological, histological, architectural, and immunophenotypic features is described and will aid in rendering the appropriate diagnosis. This is paramount as current data indicate that hairy cell leukemia - variant and other splenic B-cell lymphomas must be distinguished from HCL, as the response to therapy differs in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2011.565435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331060PMC
June 2011

The small cell variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010 Nov;134(11):1706-10

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Services, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic neoplasms that are characterized by immunopositivity for CD30 and the presence, in varying degrees, of large, pleomorphic "hallmark" cells. Primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas are a subset of this group. Numerous heterogeneous histomorphologic patterns have been described in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and all patterns tend to have a better prognosis than that found in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative cases. We provide a short review of the small cell variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma to facilitate the diagnosis of this difficult-to-recognize entity, which may be confused with reactive processes, commonly presents with disseminated disease, and pursues an aggressive clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1043/2008-0624-RSR.1DOI Listing
November 2010

Cutaneous involvement in the lymphoepithelioid variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (Lennert lymphoma). Report of a case and review of the literature.

J Cutan Pathol 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:25-30

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA.

Lennert lymphoma (LL), or the lymphoepithelioid variant of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, is an uncommon entity with rarely seen or reported presentations in the skin. Cutaneous involvement of LL has been characterized by asymptomatic, non-ulcerated, red to violet papules, nodules and small plaques (less than 5 cm) on the trunk and extremities. Histologically, there are localized cellular lymphoid infiltrates in the dermis that tend to localize around blood vessels or skin appendages. Key to the diagnosis of LL is the presence of epithelioid histiocytes and atypical small lymphoid cells without increased vascularity or epidermotropism. Immunophenotyping shows a dense monoclonal T-cell population commonly associated with aberrant loss of T-cell-associated antigens. T-cell receptor gene rearrangements are also identified. Patients typically present with advanced stage and have a low 5-year survival. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous involvement by LL at the time of initial presentation that persisted after initiation of chemotherapy and was finally verified as secondary cutaneous involvement of LL 1 year later histologically, immunophenotypically and by T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2008.01203.xDOI Listing
October 2009

Lupus mastitis: a clinicopathologic review and addition of a case.

Adv Anat Pathol 2009 Jan;16(1):56-61

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20307, USA.

Lupus mastitis (LM) is a rare presentation of lupus erythematosus profundus or lupus panniculitis, an unusual and rare clinical variant of lupus erythematosus itself in which the inflammatory reaction occurs primarily in the deep subcutaneous adipose. Although not required for diagnosis, essentially all cases of LM present with systemic or discoid lupus. The etiology is uncertain. Histologically it is defined by a lymphocytic lobular panniculitis and a characteristic hyaline sclerosis of the adipose tissue. Treatment is primarily medical due to exacerbation of disease by surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion, and familiarity of the histologic findings, is therefore required to make an accurate diagnosis and prevent further unwarranted diagnostic procedures. Herein, we provide a literature-based review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of LM and its treatment and prognosis with the addition of a case for the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0b013e3181915ff7DOI Listing
January 2009