Publications by authors named "Thom E Snijders"

7 Publications

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The Effect of Functional Pelvic Tilt on the Three-Dimensional Acetabular Cup Orientation in Total Hip Arthroplasty Dislocations.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keck Medical Center of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Anterior and posterior pelvic tilt appears to play a role in total hip arthroplasty (THA) stability. When changing from the standing to the sitting position, the pelvis typically rotates posteriorly while the hips flex and this affects the femoro-acetabular positions. This case-control study compares changes in 3-D acetabular cup orientation during functional pelvic tilt between posterior THA dislocations vs stable THAs.

Methods: Standing and sitting 3-D cup orientation was compared between fifteen posterior dislocations vs 233 prospectively followed stable THAs. 3-D cup orientation was calculated using previously validated trigonometric algorithms on biplanar radiographs. Those algorithms combine the angles in the three anatomical planes (coronal inclination, transverse version, and sagittal ante-inclination) in the standing position with the change in sagittal pelvic tilt from standing to sitting to calculate the 3-D orientation in the sitting position.

Results: The standing cup orientation of the dislocated THAs was only characterized by a lower coronal inclination (P = .039). Compared with the controls, from standing to sitting, they showed less posterior pelvic tilt (P < .001). This led to a significant lower coronal inclination (P < .001) and sagittal ante-inclination (P < .001) in the sitting position but similar transverse version (P = .366).

Conclusions: Comparing posterior THA dislocations to stable THAs, there is a lower increase of all three orientation angles from standing to sitting. This leads to a decreased sitting coronal inclination and sagittal ante-inclination which may lead to an increased risk of impingement ensued by THA instability. By contrast, the transverse version was not significantly different in both positions. This confirms the importance of biplanar data on functional cup orientation.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic, Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.12.055DOI Listing
January 2021

The Effect of Postural Pelvic Dynamics on the Three-dimensional Orientation of the Acetabular Cup in THA Is Patient Specific.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Mar;479(3):561-571

T. E. Snijders, A. de Gast, Clinical Orthopedic Research Center midden-Nederland, Diakonessenhuis, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Background: Sagittal pelvic dynamics mainly consist of the pelvis rotating anteriorly or posteriorly while the hips flexes, and this affects the femoroacetabular or THA configuration. Thus far, it is unknown how the acetabular cup of the THA in the individual patient reorients with changing sagittal pelvic dynamics.

Questions/purposes: The aim of this study was to validate a method that establishes the three-dimensional (3-D) acetabular cup orientation with changing sagittal pelvic dynamics and describe these changes during functional pelvic dynamics.

Methods: A novel trigonometric mathematical model, which was incorporated into an easy-to-use tool, was tested. The model connected sagittal tilt, transverse version, and coronal inclination of the acetabular cup during sagittal pelvic tilt. Furthermore, the effect of sagittal pelvic tilt on the 3-D reorientation of acetabular cups was simulated for cups with different initial positions. Twelve pelvic CT images of patients who underwent THA were taken and rotated around the hip axis to different degrees of anterior and posterior sagittal pelvic tilt (± 30°) to simulate functional pelvic tilt in various body positions. For each simulated pelvic tilt, the transverse version and coronal inclination of the cup were manually measured and compared with those measured in a mathematical model in which the 3-D cup positions were calculated. Next, this model was applied to different acetabular cup positions to simulate the effect of sagittal pelvic dynamics on the 3-D orientation of the acetabular cup in the coronal and transverse plane. After pelvic tilt was applied, the intraclass correlation coefficients of 108 measured and calculated coronal and transverse cup orientation angles were 0.963 and 0.990, respectively, validating the clinical use of the mathematical model.

Results: The changes in 3-D acetabular cup orientation by functional pelvic tilt differed substantially between cups with different initial positions; the change in transverse version was much more pronounced in cups with low coronal inclination (from 50° to -29°) during functional pelvic tilt than in cups with a normal coronal inclination (from 39° to -11°) or high coronal inclination (from 31° to 2°). However, changes in coronal inclination were more pronounced in acetabular cups with high transverse version.

Conclusion: Using a simple algorithm to determine the dynamic 3-D reorientation of the acetabular cup during functional sagittal pelvic tilt, we demonstrated that the 3-D effect of functional pelvic tilt is specific to the initial acetabular cup orientation and thus per THA patient.

Clinical Relevance: Future studies concerning THA (in)stability should not only include the initial acetabular cup orientation, but also they need to incorporate the effect of sagittal pelvic dynamics on the individual 3-D acetabular cup orientation. Clinicians can also use the developed tool, www.3d-hip.com, to calculate the acetabular cup's orientation in other instances, such as for patients with spinopelvic imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899699PMC
March 2021

A vitamin E blended highly cross-linked polyethylene acetabular cup results in less wear: 6-year results of a randomized controlled trial in 199 patients.

Acta Orthop 2020 12 24;91(6):705-710. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Clinical Orthopedic Research Center - mN, Zeist.

Background and purpose - Survivorship of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) monoblock cup has been limited due to periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening, secondary to wear of the UHMWPE. In response, a vitamin E blended highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cup was developed. This study set out to compare the wear and clinical 6-year outcomes of vitamin E blended HXLPE with UHMWPE in an isoelastic monoblock cup in patients with hip osteoarthritis who underwent uncemented THA. The 2-year results have been reported previously. Patients and methods - For this randomized controlled trial 199 patients were included. 102 patients received the vitamin E blended HXLPE uncemented acetabular cup and 97 patients the uncemented UHMWPE monoblock cup. Clinical and radiographic parameters were obtained preoperatively, directly postoperatively, and at 3, 12, 24, and 72 months. Wear rates were compared using the femoral head penetration (FHP) rate. Results - 173 patients (87%) completed the 6-year follow-up. The mean NRS scores for rest pain, load pain, and patient satisfaction were 0.3 (SD 1), 0.6 (SD 1), and 8.6 (SD 1) respectively. The mean Harris Hip Score was 93 (SD 12). The FHP rate was lower in the vitamin E blended HXLPE cup (0.028 mm/year) compared with the UHMWPE cup (0.035 mm/year) (p = 0.002). No adverse reactions associated with the clinical application of vitamin E blended HXLPE were observed. 15 complications occurred, equally distributed between the two cups. The 6-year survival to revision rate was 98% for both cups. There was no aseptic loosening. Interpretation - This study shows the superior performance of the HXLPE blended with vitamin E acetabular cup with clinical and radiographic results similar to the UHMWPE acetabular cup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2020.1807220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023918PMC
December 2020

2-year results of an RCT of 2 uncemented isoelastic monoblock acetabular components: lower wear rate with vitamin E blended highly cross-linked polyethylene compared to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

Acta Orthop 2020 06 26;91(3):254-259. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Clinical Orthopedic Research Center-mN, Zeist, the Netherlands.

- The long-term survival of arthroplasty components may be limited by polyethylene wear-related problems such as periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) blended with vitamin E was introduced to improve oxidative stability and to avoid long-term embrittlement. This study clinically compares the tribological behavior and clinical outcome of vitamin E blended HXLPE with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in an isoelastic monoblock cup for uncemented total hip arthroplasty. - In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 199 patients were included: 102 patients received the vitamin E blended HXLPE cup, 97 patients the UHMWPE cup. Clinical and radiographic parameters were obtained preoperatively, directly postoperative and at 3, 12, and 24 months. Wear rates were compared using the mean linear femoral head penetration (FHP) rate. - 188 patients (94%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Mean patient satisfaction was higher in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group (8.9 [1]) than in in the control group (8.5 [2], p = 0.03). The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was higher in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group (95 [8]) than in the control group (92 [11], p = 0.3). The FHP rate was lower in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group: 0.046 mm/year compared with 0.056 mm/year in the control group (p = 0.05). No adverse reactions associated with the clinical application of vitamin E blended HXLPE were observed during follow-up, with an excellent 2-year survival to revision rate of 98% for both cups. - This study shows the superior performance of the HXLPE blended with vitamin E acetabular cup with lower linear femoral head penetration rates and better clinical results compared with the UHMWPE acetabular cup after 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2020.1730073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023900PMC
June 2020

Restoring femoral offset and leg length; the potential of a short curved stem in total hip arthroplasty.

J Orthop 2019 Sep-Oct;16(5):396-399. Epub 2019 May 2.

Clinical Orthopedic Research Center - mN, Diakonessenhuis Zeist, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a very successful procedure in orthopedics. Still polyethylene wear and gait deficits are limiting the clinical success.It is important to reconstruct leg length (LL) and femoral offset (FO) anatomically in order to have the best possible result of a THA. Gait deficits can arise due to leg length discrepancy as well as changes in the abductor moment arm. In THA, LL and FO are strongly determined by the orientation, size and geometry of the femoral stem.

Methods: This radio-anatomical study used the data of a prospective cases series of 112 patients who underwent 126 primary THAs and had completed a 1-year follow-up examination. FO and LL were compared between the conventional straight stem in vivo and a computed simulated implantation of a short curved stem, using the pre- and postoperative pelvic radiographs of the same patients.

Results: In this simulation of the short curved stem statistically significantly restored native FO (p = 0.010) and LL (p = 0.000) better, compared to the conventional straight stem.

Conclusions: Thus, the short curved stem restores FO and LL better, and could potentially prevent gait deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2019.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512581PMC
May 2019

Non-equivalent Results from Different Anteversion Measurements Methods for the Evaluation of the Acetabular Cup Orientation in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 1;11(2):241-247. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Clinical Orthopedic Research Center - mN, Diakonessenhuis Zeist, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Objective: To determine the comparability among 10 radiographic anteversion methods for acetabular cup orientation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) found in the literature and the "gold" standard of assessing the anteversion with CT.

Methods: This is a retrospective study that blindly compares 10 different conventional radiographic anteversion measurements with the "gold" standard, the measurement of anteversion on the transverse plane of the 3-D images made with CT. The patient archiving and communications system (PACS) was systematically searched for subjects that had undergone a CT angiogram of the abdomen and lower extremities, including the pelvis, had at least one THA in situ and had undergone anterior-posterior (AP) and cross-lateral pelvic radiography between January 2013 and August 2016 in the Diakonessenhuis Hospital Utrecht/Zeist, a non-academic institution. CT scans of patients (n = 16) were systematically collected. Three observers independently measured cup anteversion from radiographs, using a total of 10 different methods, and measured the "gold" standard on CT images. The outcomes of the 10 radiographic anteversion were compared in terms of linear correlation with the "gold" standard on CT images.

Results: The correlations of the radiographic measured anteversions with the "gold" standard measured on CT images were 0.528 for the method of Liaw, 0.556 for Wan, 0.562 for the cross-lateral method, 0.586 for Hassan, 0.594 for Dorr, 0.602 for Lewinnek, 0.624 for Widmer, 0.671 for the lateral CT, 0.747 for Ackland, and 0.771 for the method of Riten Pradham.

Conclusion: Anteversion measurement methods represent different projectional angles of the acetabular cup in different planes around different axes. Therefore, they differ from the "gold" standard and are not interchangeable, as is shown by this study. We consider the anatomical anteversion in the transverse plane rotating around the longitudinal axis as the "gold" standard and recommend avoiding using the term anteversion for other projectional angles in different planes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594505PMC
April 2019

Lack of consensus on optimal acetabular cup orientation because of variation in assessment methods in total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review.

Hip Int 2019 Jan 17;29(1):41-50. Epub 2018 May 17.

1 Clinical Orthopedic Research Centre - mN, Zeist, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction:: Dislocation is 1 of the main reasons for revision of total hip arthroplasty but dislocation rates have not changed in the past decades, compromising patients' well-being. Acetabular cup orientation plays a key role in implant stability and has been widely studied. This article investigates whether there is a consensus on optimal cup orientation, which is necessary when using a navigation system.

Methods:: A systematic search of the literature in the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases was performed (March 2017) to identify articles that investigated the direct relationship between cup orientation and dislocation, including a thorough evaluation of postoperative cup orientation assessment methods.

Results:: 28 relevant articles evaluating a direct relation between dislocation and cup orientation could not come to a consensus. The key reason is a lack of uniformity in the assessment of cup orientation. Cup orientation is assessed with different imaging modalities, different methodologies, different definitions for inclination and anteversion, several reference planes and distinct patient positions.

Conclusions:: All available studies lack uniformity in cup orientation assessment; therefore it is impossible to reach consensus on optimal cup orientation. Using navigation systems for placement of the cup is inevitably flawed when using different definitions in the preoperative planning, peroperative placement and postoperative evaluation. Further methodological development is required to assess cup orientation. Consequently, the postoperative assessment should be uniform, thus differentiating between anterior and posterior dislocation, use the same definitions for inclination and anteversion with the same reference plane and with the patient in the same position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120700018759306DOI Listing
January 2019