Publications by authors named "Thilo S Lange"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

Sci Rep 2014 Jan 6;4:3574. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1α. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep03574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880958PMC
January 2014

PT19c, Another Nonhypercalcemic Vitamin D2 Derivative, Demonstrates Antitumor Efficacy in Epithelial Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Models.

Genes Cancer 2013 Nov;4(11-12):524-34

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D-based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ -4.05 to -6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D-derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1947601913507575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877664PMC
November 2013

Efficacy of a non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D2 derived anti-cancer agent (MT19c) and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

PLoS One 2012 3;7(4):e34443. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methodology/principal Finding: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR) antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein.

Significance: Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034443PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317945PMC
August 2012

Tetrathiomolybdate sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs doxorubicin, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C.

BMC Cancer 2012 Apr 13;12:147. Epub 2012 Apr 13.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Background: Our recent study showed that tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a drug to treat copper overload disorders, can sensitize drug-resistant endometrial cancer cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating anticancer drug doxorubicin. To expand these findings in the present study we explore TM efficacy in combination with a spectrum of ROS-generating anticancer drugs including mitomycin C, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin in ovarian cancer cells as a model system.

Methods: The effects of TM alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, fenretinide, or 5-fluorouracil were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the induction of apoptosis and ROS generation. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in signaling pathways.

Results: TM potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and modulated key regulators of apoptosis (PARP, caspases, JNK and p38 MAPK) in SKOV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. These effects were linked to the increased production of ROS, as shown in SKOV-3 cells. ROS scavenging by ascorbic acid blocked the sensitization of cells by TM. TM also sensitized SKOV-3 to mitomycin C, fenretinide, and 5-fluorouracil. The increased cytotoxicity of these drugs in combination with TM was correlated with the activity of ROS, loss of a pro-survival factor (e.g. XIAP) and the appearance of a pro-apoptotic marker (e.g. PARP cleavage).

Conclusions: Our data show that TM increases the efficacy of various anticancer drugs in ovarian cancer cells in a ROS-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353246PMC
April 2012

Purified cranberry proanthocyanidines (PAC-1A) cause pro-apoptotic signaling, ROS generation, cyclophosphamide retention and cytotoxicity in high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

Int J Oncol 2012 Jan 6;40(1):99-108. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Optimized purification of oligomeric proanthocyanidines (PAC) from cranberry generated PAC-1A which selectively affected the viability of various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines representing a spectrum of high-risk NB features. PAC-1A caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (∆Ψm) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which was directly correlated to the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins in SMS-KCNR cells. PAC-1A reduced the expression of pro-survival (Bcl-2, MCL-1, Bcl-xL) and increased levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad, Bid) Bcl family proteins, upregulated the activity of SAPK/JNK MAPK and downregulated expression or activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. PAC-1A increased the cellular uptake/retention of cyclophosphamide (CP). PAC-1A and CP synergistically increased cytotoxicity and expression of pro-apoptotic markers, reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Additional features of PAC-1A as an anticancer drug as shown in SMS-KCNR NB cells include delay of cell cycle progression and induction of cell death via TNF-family death receptor activity, thus, targeting both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PAC-1A partially blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase which correlated with a decrease of the G0/G1 subpopulation, upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of CDK6 and p27 expression. In summary, PAC-1A has demonstrated chemotherapeutic potential to treat a broad spectrum of NBs including highly malignant tumors that show resistance to standard chemotherapeutics and apoptotic stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1225DOI Listing
January 2012

Cytotoxic properties of Adamantyl isothiocyanate and potential in vivo metabolite adamantyl-N-acetylcystein in gynecological cancer cells.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2012 Jan 4;79(1):92-103. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

This study determined the in vitro potential of novel compounds adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate to treat gynecological cancers. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein is postulated to be an in vivo metabolite of adamantyl isothiocyanate as dietary isothiocyanates are converted to N-acetylcysteine-conjugates. A viability assay suggested that adamantyl isothiocyanate and adamantyl-N-acetylcystein are cytotoxic to cancer cells including gynecological cell lines. A NCI60 cancer cell assay revealed that growth-inhibition and cytotoxicity of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein were cell line, but not tissue type-specific. Cell cycle studies revealed that adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate arrest SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells in G2/M phase. By TUNEL, immunoblotting, and viability studies employing caspase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that reduction in SKOV-3 viability is a consequence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Cytotoxic action of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein in SKOV-3 and endometrial cancer (ECC-1, RL95-2, AN3CA, and KLE) cells required excess generation of reactive oxygen species which could be blocked by antioxidant co-treatment. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein treatment led to modified expression or activation of apoptotic and oncogenic proteins such as JNK/SAPK, AKT, XIAP, and EGF-R for SKOV-3 and JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 for ECC-1 cells. We suggest the further development of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein by sensitizing cells to the drug using signaling inhibitors or redox-modulating agents and by evaluating the drug efficacy in ovarian and endometrial in-vivo tumor models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01251.xDOI Listing
January 2012

Anti-angiogenic activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxic properties in ovarian cancer cells.

Int J Oncol 2012 Jan 12;40(1):227-35. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Cranberry extracts may provide beneficial health effects in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic properties are not understood. We report the effect of a proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich isolate from cranberry (PAC-1) as a therapeutic agent with dual activity to target both ovarian cancer viability and angiogenesis in vitro. PAC-1 treatment of chemotherapy-resistant SKOV-3 cells blocked cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway components. Cytotoxicity of PAC-1 was partially based on ROS generation and could be blocked by co-treatment with antioxidant glutathione. PAC-1 reduced the cell viability of both SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Furthermore, PAC-1 blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated receptor phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which correlated with the inhibition of endothelial tube formation in vitro. Our findings suggest that PAC-1 exerts potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic properties and that highly purified PAC from cranberry can be further developed to treat ovarian cancer in combinational or single-agent therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1198DOI Listing
January 2012

Description of the cytotoxic effect of a novel drug Abietyl-Isothiocyanate on endometrial cancer cell lines.

Invest New Drugs 2012 Aug 2;30(4):1460-70. Epub 2011 Aug 2.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

The objective of the present study was to determine the in-vitro effect of Abietyl-Isothiocyanate (ABITC), a representative of a new class of anti-cancer drugs, on endometrial cancer (EC) cell lines. ABITC at concentrations ≥1 μM displayed dose-dependent and selective cytotoxicity to EC cell lines (ECC-1, AN3CA, RL95-2) in comparison to other cancer cell lines. After treatment with ABITC, ECC-1 unlike control cells displayed hallmark features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. At concentrations below the IC50, ABITC exerted anti-proliferative effects by blocking cell-cycle progression through G0/G1 and S-phase. In addition, cells attempted to counteract drug treatment by pro-survival signaling such as deactivation of JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK and activation of AKT and ErK1/2. ABITC also altered EGF-receptor phosphorylation. At a concentration of 5 μM ABITC generated an excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and displayed pro-apoptotic signaling such as activation of caspase-8, JNK-SAPK and deactivation of PARP-1. Co-treatment with an antioxidant blocked the drug effects by reducing ROS generation, cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic signaling. In summary, novel isothiocyanate ABITC is an anti-proliferative and selectively cytotoxic drug to EC cells in-vitro. Key mechanisms during cell death are predominantly correlated to excess generation of ROS. We suggest the further development of ABITC as a potential therapeutic by studying the drug efficacy in EC in-vivo models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-011-9728-zDOI Listing
August 2012

Evaluation of the first Ergocalciferol-derived, non hypercalcemic anti-cancer agent MT19c in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cell lines.

Gynecol Oncol 2011 Nov 30;123(2):370-8. Epub 2011 Jul 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Objective: In human trials calcitriol and its analogs displayed unacceptable systemic toxicities including hypercalcemia. This study was designed to evaluate a novel non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D derivative (MT19c) and its anticancer effects in cultured ovarian cancer cell model.

Methods: We modified the Ergocalciferol structure to generate MT19c, a heterocyclic vitamin-D derivative. Hypercalcemic liabilities of MT19c were assessed by estimating the blood calcium levels in drug treated animals. VDR agonistic or antagonistic properties of MT19c were determined via a VDR-coactivator binding assay. The anticancer effects of MT19c were evaluated by (i) cytotoxicity studies in cancer cell lines and the National Cancer Institute (NCI(60)) cell lines, (ii) identification of apoptosis markers by microscopy and western blots, (iii) cell cycle analysis, and (iv) by studying the insulin receptor substrate-1/2 (IRS1/2) signaling in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) by western blotting.

Results: MT19c treatment did not cause hypercalcemia in mice and showed minor VDR antagonistic activity. In a NCI(60) screen MT19c revealed cell-type specific growth inhibition. MT19c displayed superior cytotoxicity to cisplatin, calcitriol, EB1089 and Iressa in SKOV-3 cell-lines and was comparable to Taxol in our in vitro assays. In SKOV-3 cells MT19c showed caspase dependent apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. MT19c did not alter VDR but downregulated the IGFR/IRS-1/2-MEK-ras-ERK1/2-pathway via activated TNFα-receptor/SAPK/JNK component.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate how structural optimization of the vitamin-D scaffold leads to identification of a non-hypercalcemic compound MT19c which exerts cytotoxicity in vitro based on a VDR-independent signaling pathway and displays potent anti-cancer activity in ovarian cancer cell models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.07.002DOI Listing
November 2011

Organometallic iron(III)-salophene exerts cytotoxic properties in neuroblastoma cells via MAPK activation and ROS generation.

PLoS One 2011 Apr 29;6(4):e19049. Epub 2011 Apr 29.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the specific effects of Iron(III)-salophene (Fe-SP) on viability, morphology, proliferation, cell cycle progression, ROS generation and pro-apoptotic MAPK activation in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. A NCI-DTP cancer screen revealed that Fe-SP displayed high toxicity against cell lines of different tumor origin but not tumor type-specificity. In a viability screen Fe-SP exhibited high cytotoxicity against all three NB cell lines tested. The compound caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, suppression of cells progressing through S phase, morphological changes, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane depolarization potential, induction of apoptotic markers as well as p38 and JNK MAPK activation, DNA degradation, and elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SMS-KCNR NB cells. In contrast to Fe-SP, non-complexed salophene or Cu(II)-SP did not raise ROS levels in NB or SKOV-3 ovarian cancer control cells. Cytotoxicity of Fe-SP and activation of caspase-3, -7, PARP, pro-apoptotic p38 and JNK MAPK could be prevented by co-treatment with antioxidants suggesting ROS generation is the primary mechanism of cytotoxic action. We report here that Fe-SP is a potent growth-suppressing and cytotoxic agent for in vitro NB cell lines and, due to its high tolerance in previous animal toxicity studies, a potential therapeutic drug to treat NB tumors in vivo.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019049PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084742PMC
April 2011

Tetrathiomolybdate induces doxorubicin sensitivity in resistant tumor cell lines.

Gynecol Oncol 2011 Jul 6;122(1):183-9. Epub 2011 May 6.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Objective: Doxorubicin is a potent anti-cancer agent with efficacy against a broad range of tumors, including endometrial cancer. Doxorubicin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in cytotoxicity. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a copper-chelating agent, is known to target a cellular antioxidant enzyme copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase. This study tests the hypothesis that TM can modulate antioxidants in tumor cells and render doxorubicin resistant tumor cells sensitive to doxorubicin.

Methods: The anti-cancer activities of doxorubicin and TM, as single agents and in combination, were assessed. Flow cytometric and immunoblot analysis were conducted to investigate the induction of apoptosis and changes in apoptotic signaling pathways.

Results: Doxorubicin-induced growth inhibition was observed in each endometrial cancer cell line (ECC-1, AN3CA, and KLE) tested with cell specificity. ECC-1 and KLE cells were found to have increased resistance to doxorubicin than AN3CA cells. Moreover, doxorubicin mediated apoptosis was greater in the AN3CA cell line than ECC-1 and KLE. The combination of doxorubicin with a sub-cytotoxic level of TM was significantly more effective at inducing apoptosis in doxorubicin resistant cell lines.

Conclusion: Our results highlight the therapeutic potential of TM to sensitize tumor cells to doxorubicin for endometrial cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.03.035DOI Listing
July 2011

Chemotherapeutic effect of calcidiol derivative B3CD in a neuroblastoma xenograft model.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2010 Aug 11;76(2):164-73. Epub 2010 May 11.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Bromoacetoxy-calcidiol (B3CD), a pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic agent in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines, displayed therapeutic potential in vivo as an anticancer drug in a NB xenograft mouse model. Tumors of all animals treated intraperitoneally with B3CD went into regression within 10-30 days of treatment, while tumors in control animals grew aggressively. The response mechanisms of NB cells to B3CD in vitro were studied and included differential targeting of cell cycle key regulators p21 and cyclin D1 on the transcriptional and expression level leading to arrest in G0/G1 phase. In contrast to the effect in ovarian cancer cells, B3CD-induced cell death in SMS-KCNR NB cells was only marginally mediated by the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Signaling induced by exogenous recombinant EGF leads to a partial restoration of the negative effects of B3CD on SMS-KCNR cell proliferation and survival. Upon combinational treatment of SMS-KCNR cells with B3CD and recombinant EGF, the EGF receptor (EGF-R) was highly activated. We suggest future studies to include analysis of the effects of B3CD in combination therapy with pharmacological inhibitors of cell cycle regulators or with EGF-R-targeting inhibitors, -toxins or -antibodies in vitro and their translation into in vivo models of tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.00988.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024052PMC
August 2010

Lipophilic aroylhydrazone chelator HNTMB and its multiple effects on ovarian cancer cells.

BMC Cancer 2010 Feb 25;10:72. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Background: Metal chelators have gained much attention as potential anti-cancer agents. However, the effects of chelators are often linked solely to their capacity to bind iron while the potential complexation of other trace metals has not been fully investigated. In present study, we evaluated the effects of various lipophilic aroylhydrazone chelators (AHC), including novel compound HNTMB, on various ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, NUTU-19).

Methods: Cell viability was analyzed via MTS cytotoxicity assays and NCI60 cancer cell growth screens. Apoptotic events were monitored via Western Blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy and TUNEL assay. FACS analysis was carried out to study Cell Cycle regulation and detection of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) RESULTS: HNTMB displayed high cytotoxicity (IC50 200-400 nM) compared to previously developed AHC (oVtBBH, HNtBBH, StBBH/206, HNTh2H/315, HNI/311; IC50 0.8-6 microM) or cancer drug Deferoxamine, a hexadentate iron-chelator (IC50 12-25 microM). In a NCI60 cancer cell line screen HNTMB exhibited growth inhibitory effects with remarkable differences in specificity depending on the cell line studied (GI50 10 nM-2.4 microM). In SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells HNTMB treatment led to chromatin fragmentation and activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis with specific down-regulation of Bcl-2. HNTMB caused delayed cell cycle progression of SKOV-3 through G2/M phase arrest. HNTMB can chelate iron and copper of different oxidation states. Complexation with copper lead to high cytotoxicity via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while treatment with iron complexes of the drug caused neither cytotoxicity nor increased ROS levels.

Conclusions: The present report suggests that both, non-complexed HNTMB as a chelator of intracellular trace-metals as well as a cytotoxic HNTMB/copper complex may be developed as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of ovarian and other solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836302PMC
February 2010

Apoptotic and chemotherapeutic properties of iron (III)-salophene in an ovarian cancer animal model.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2009 Sep 21;3:17-26. Epub 2009 Sep 21.

Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

The cytotoxicity of organometallic compounds iron(III)-, cobalt(III)-, manganese(II)-, and copper(II)-salophene (-SP) on platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines was compared. Fe-SP displayed selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) at ~1 muM) against SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cell lines while Co-SP caused cytotoxic effects only at higher concentrations (IC(50) at 60 muM) and Cu-SP effects were negligible. High cytotoxicity of Mn-SP (30-60 muM) appeared to be nonspecific because the Mn-chloride salt reduced cell viability similarly. The effect of Fe-SP at 1 muM proved to be ovarian cancer cell selective when compared to a panel of cell lines derived from different tumors. The first irreversible step in the induction of cell death by Fe-SP occurred after 3 hrs as indicated by the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) and was mainly linked to apoptotic, not necrotic events. To evaluate the toxicity of Fe-SP in vivo we conducted an acute toxicity study in rats. The LD(50) of Fe-SP is >2000 mg/kg orally and >5.5 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection. An ovarian cancer animal model showed that the chemotherapeutic relevant dose of Fe-SP in rats is 0.5-1 mg/kg body weight. The present report suggests that Fe-SP is a potential therapeutic drug to treat ovarian cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769229PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/dddt.s4582DOI Listing
September 2009

Induction of cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by 1-t-butyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M) in nervous system cancer cells.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2009 Feb 6;2:61-9. Epub 2009 Feb 6.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Our group has recently developed 1-(t)butyl carbamoyl, 7-methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (NB7M), a novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate analog. We now describe its selective cytotoxicity in both central nervous system (CNS) and neuroblastoma (NB) cancer cells. In an effort to understand its mechanism of action we examined the effects of NB7M on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and pro-survival/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in neuroblastoma cells. NB7M proved highly cytotoxic to NB cell lines (SMS-KCNR, SK-N- SH, SH-SY5Y, IMR-32) with IC(50) values ranging from 1.0-2.0 microM, whereas lung fibroblasts were less affected (IC(50) > or =10 microM). In the NCI 60 cell screen 1-dose assay, NB7M (10 microM) reduced the growth (-89 to -27 % growth) of CNS cancer cell lines SF-268, SF-295, SNB-75 (glioblastoma), SF-539 (gliosarcoma), and U251 (astroglioma) while SNB-19 glioblastoma cells were relatively resistant (19% growth). Hoechst staining of SMS-KCNR cells treated with NB7M (3 microM) for 24 hrs exhibited significant chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, whereas Annexin-v/7AAD staining revealed that the majority of cells accumulated in the early-apoptotic and late-apoptotic/necrotic stages. NB7M treatment of SMS-KCNR and SH-SY5Y cells also led to the cleavage of procaspases-3, and PARP-1 while causing activation of pro-apoptotic MAPKs and down-regulation of pro-survival factors AKT and PI-3K. Furthermore, NB7M treatment caused S-phase arrest in SMSKCNR and G1-phase arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. NB7M is active against CNS cancers and NB.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761180PMC
February 2009

A coumarin derivative (RKS262) inhibits cell-cycle progression, causes pro-apoptotic signaling and cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells.

Invest New Drugs 2011 Feb 29;29(1):63-72. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Coumarin derivative RKS262 belongs to a new class of potential anti-tumor agents. RKS262 was identified by structural optimization of Nifurtimox which is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials to treat high-risk neuroblastoma. In a NCI(60) cell-line assay RKS262 exhibited significant cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells and a variety of other cell lines exceeding effects of commercial drugs such as cisplatin, 5-FU, cyclophosphamide or sapacitabine. Various leukemia cell-lines were most sensitive (GI(50): ~ 10 nM) while several non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and few cell lines from other tissues were relatively resistant (GI(50) > 1 µM) to RKS262 treatment. The mechanism of cytotoxicity was examined using ovarian cancer cell-line OVCAR-3 as a model. RKS262 treatment resulted in a reduced mitochondria-transmembrane-depolarization potential. RKS262 effects included up-regulation of apoptotic markers and were not correlated with activation of pro-apoptotic MAP-Kinases (p38, SAP/JNK). RKS262 exerted strong inhibitory effects on oncogene ras, down-regulated DNA-pk KU-80 subunit expression and caused activation of Akt. A signature effect of RKS262 is the regulation of the mitochondrial Bcl2-family pathway. Pro-apoptotic factors Bid, Bad and Bok were up-regulated while expression of pro-survival factors Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 was inhibited. Moreover, at sub-cytotoxic doses RKS262 delayed OVCAR-3 cell-cycle progression through G2 phase and up-regulated p27 while cyclin-D1 and Cdk-6 were down-regulated, indicating that RKS262 is a specific cyclin/CDK inhibitor. In summary, RKS262 has been identified as a molecule belonging to a new class of potential chemotherapeutic agents affecting the viability of multiple cancer cell-lines and causing selective adverse effects on the viability of ovarian cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-009-9335-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801487PMC
February 2011

Effect of a vitamin D(3) derivative (B3CD) with postulated anti-cancer activity in an ovarian cancer animal model.

Invest New Drugs 2010 Oct 7;28(5):543-53. Epub 2009 Jul 7.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Calcidiol derivative B3CD qualifies as a potential anti-cancer drug in vivo employing an ovarian cancer xenograft model in mice. In addition, the selectivity of B3CD on viability and proliferation of platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to control cell lines was analyzed in vitro. B3CD displayed cell line-specific cytotoxicity screened against a panel of ovarian and other carcinoma cell lines, endothelial and control cells. B3CD, at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, revealed stronger effects on the proliferation of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells vs. primary fibroblasts as determined by BrdU incorporation analysis. Treatment with B3CD at 0.5 microM resulted in highly condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei in SKOV-3 cells but not in primary fibroblasts. B3CD induced cell death at low drug concentrations (< or = 0.5 microM) in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells is mediated by the p38 MAPK signaling pathway: B3CD induced p38 MAPK expression and activation in SKOV-3 cells and inhibition of p38 signaling counteracted B3CD induced cell death in vitro. An ovarian cancer cell animal model (human SKOV-3 cell derived xenografts in nude mice) revealed that tumor growth in few B3CD treated mice accelerated while the majority of B3CD treated mice displayed delayed tumor growth or full tumor regression. B3CD possesses anti-ovarian cancer properties in vitro and in vivo. We propose the further development of non-calcemic bromoacetoxy derivatives of vitamin D(3) as potential anti-cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-009-9284-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904825PMC
October 2010

Iron(III)-salophene: an organometallic compound with selective cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

PLoS One 2008 May 28;3(5):e2303. Epub 2008 May 28.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: In this pioneer study to the biological activity of organometallic compound Iron(III)-salophene (Fe-SP) the specific effects of Fe-SP on viability, morphology, proliferation, and cell-cycle progression on platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines were investigated.

Methodology/principal Findings: Fe-SP displayed selective cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 (ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma) cell lines at concentrations between 100 nM and 1 microM, while the viability of HeLa cells (epithelial cervix adenocarcinoma) or primary lung or skin fibroblasts was not affected. SKOV-3 cells in contrast to fibroblasts after treatment with Fe-SP revealed apparent hallmarks of apoptosis including densely stained nuclear granular bodies within fragmented nuclei, highly condensed chromatin and chromatin fragmentation. Fe-SP treatment led to the activation of markers of the extrinsic (Caspase-8) and intrinsic (Caspase-9) pathway of apoptosis as well as of executioner Caspase-3 while PARP-1 was deactivated. Fe-SP exerted effects as an anti-proliferative agent with an IC(50) value of 300 nM and caused delayed progression of cells through S-phase phase of the cell cycle resulting in a complete S-phase arrest. When intra-peritoneally applied to rats Fe-SP did not show any systemic toxicity at concentrations that in preliminary trials were determined to be chemotherapeutic relevant doses in a rat ovarian cancer cell model.

Conclusion/significance: The present report suggests that Fe-SP is a potent growth-suppressing agent in vitro for cell lines derived from ovarian cancer and a potential therapeutic drug to treat such tumors in vivo.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002303PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386551PMC
May 2008

A novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells.

Gynecol Oncol 2008 May 7;109(2):240-9. Epub 2008 Mar 7.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gysnecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Objective: A novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate derivative (7Me-IEITC) was defined as a potent growth-suppressing agent to cell lines derived from ovarian cancers. Key mechanisms of the cellular response in vitro were studied and suggest a potential of 7Me-IEITC as a therapeutic drug.

Methods: The viability of ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3) in comparison to pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines, primary fibroblast and immortalized trophoblasts after treatment with 7Me-IEITC was analyzed. Morphological and apoptotic responses of SKOV-3 were studied by fluorescence microscopy (DAPI staining, TUNEL assay). SKOV-3 proliferation was estimated by a standardized BrdU incorporation assay. The phosphorylation of MAP-Kinases, pro-survival factors and the activation of caspases and PARP-1 were analyzed by western blotting. Changes of the mitochondrial transmembrane-potential and in cell-cycle progression were studied by FACS analysis. MAP-Kinase and caspase inhibitors were employed in cytotoxicity studies.

Results: 7Me-IEITC selectively reduced the viability of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, BXPC-3 and PC-3 cells (IC(50) values < or = 5 microM), while the viability of fibroblasts or trophoblasts remained un-affected at concentrations below 20 microM. 7Me-IEITC treatment down-regulated pro-survival kinases and transcription factors (STAT-3, IKKalpha and NF-kappaB), caused rapid loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane-potential and inactivation of PARP-1 along with activation of caspases. The use of p38 MAP-Kinase-and caspase inhibitors suppressed the cytotoxicity of the drug. 7Me-IEITC acted as an anti-proliferative agent and arrested the cell-cycle progression of SKOV-3 in G2/M phase.

Conclusion: 7Me-IEITC is a potent and growth-suppressing agent to cell lines derived from ovarian cancers by causing deactivation of survival signals, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2008.01.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2747483PMC
May 2008

Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties of 3-bromoacetoxy calcidiol in high-risk neuroblastoma.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2007 Oct;70(4):302-10

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

The cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of 3-Bromoacetoxy Calcidiol (B3CD), a derivative of vitamin D3 precursor calcidiol, on human neuroblastoma (NB) cells were examined. NB, predominantly a tumor of early childhood, is the most common extracranial solid tumor. Despite aggressive treatments, survival for advanced stages remains low and novel treatment strategies are needed. B3CD-induced apoptosis in various neuroblastic cells via caspases-3 and -9 activation. B3CD upregulated mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, caused cytochrome c release, downregulated N-Myc expression and activated pro-survival marker Akt. Accordingly, B3CD treatment dose dependently reduced the viability of NB cells with IC50 values between 1 and 3 microm. The cytotoxicity of B3CD was significantly higher than for the calcemic parent-compound vitamin D3 (IC50 between 10 and 30 microm). Further studies revealed that B3CD treatment inhibits the proliferation of NB cells at low concentrations (IC50 between 30 and 100 nm). Cell cycle analysis showed a dramatic increase in the apoptotic sub-diploidal population along with a cell cycle block. In summary, the present study shows that B3CD is toxic to NB cells via suppression of cell proliferation and cell viability by caspase activation and regulation of survival signals. These results suggest that B3CD could be developed as a treatment for NB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2007.00567.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2519607PMC
October 2007

Effect of indole ethyl isothiocyanates on proliferation, apoptosis, and MAPK signaling in neuroblastoma cell lines.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007 Nov 19;17(21):5846-52. Epub 2007 Aug 19.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Several indole ethyl isothiocyanate (IEITC) analogs were designed, synthesized, and screened to evaluate their cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma (NB) cells in-vitro. In NB, predominantly a tumor of early childhood, survival remains low despite aggressive treatments. Therefore, novel treatment strategies are greatly needed. The objective of the present study was to study the therapeutic potential of IEITC by analyzing the cytotoxic, anti-proliferative, and apoptotic effects on NB cell lines. 7-Methyl-indole-3-ethyl isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) proved to be cytotoxic to various NB cell lines (SMS-KCNR, SK-N-SH, SH-SY5Y, and IMR-32) with an IC(50) at 2.5-5.0 microM, while primary control cells (lung fibroblasts) were not affected. 7Me-IEITC led to the activation of apoptotic markers caspase-3, -8, and -9, caused activation of pro-apoptotic p38 MAPK and SAP/JNK, and down-regulated pro-survival factor AKT in SMS-KCNR cells. Moreover, 7Me-IEITC displayed anti-proliferative effects (IC(50) at 600 nM) and caused an arrest in cell cycle progression. This wide effect of 7Me-IEITC on NB cell signaling and survival suggests that it could be developed as a therapeutic agent against neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2093989PMC
November 2007