Publications by authors named "Thierry Doll"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preferential amplification of a human mitochondrial DNA deletion in vitro and in vivo.

Sci Rep 2018 01 29;8(1):1799. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, CH-4056, Switzerland.

We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts to yield cell lines containing varying degrees of heteroplasmy for a m.13514 A > G mtDNA point mutation (2 lines) and for a ~6 kb single, large scale mtDNA deletion (3 lines). Long term culture of the iPSCs containing a single, large-scale mtDNA deletion showed consistent increase in mtDNA deletion levels with time. Higher levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy correlated with increased respiratory deficiency. To determine what changes occurred in deletion level during differentiation, teratomas comprising all three embryonic germ layers were generated from low (20%) and intermediate heteroplasmy (55%) mtDNA deletion clones. Regardless of whether iPSCs harbouring low or intermediate mtDNA heteroplasmy were used, the final levels of heteroplasmy in all teratoma germ layers increased to a similar high level (>60%). Thus, during human stem cell division, cells not only tolerate high mtDNA deletion loads but seem to preferentially replicate deleted mtDNA genomes. This has implications for the involvement of mtDNA deletions in both disease and ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20064-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789095PMC
January 2018

CGG Repeat-Induced FMR1 Silencing Depends on the Expansion Size in Human iPSCs and Neurons Carrying Unmethylated Full Mutations.

Stem Cell Reports 2016 12 10;7(6):1059-1071. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In fragile X syndrome (FXS), CGG repeat expansion greater than 200 triplets is believed to trigger FMR1 gene silencing and disease etiology. However, FXS siblings have been identified with more than 200 CGGs, termed unmethylated full mutation (UFM) carriers, without gene silencing and disease symptoms. Here, we show that hypomethylation of the FMR1 promoter is maintained in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from two UFM individuals. However, a subset of iPSC clones with large CGG expansions carries silenced FMR1. Furthermore, we demonstrate de novo silencing upon expansion of the CGG repeat size. FMR1 does not undergo silencing during neuronal differentiation of UFM iPSCs, and expression of large unmethylated CGG repeats has phenotypic consequences resulting in neurodegenerative features. Our data suggest that UFM individuals do not lack the cell-intrinsic ability to silence FMR1 and that inter-individual variability in the CGG repeat size required for silencing exists in the FXS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161530PMC
December 2016

Identification of Small Molecules Which Induce Skeletal Muscle Differentiation in Embryonic Stem Cells via Activation of the Wnt and Inhibition of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways.

Stem Cells 2016 Feb 17;34(2):299-310. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Developmental and Molecular Pathways, Basel, Switzerland.

The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a testing platform for small molecules that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Here we report the identification of two small molecules which drives mouse 129 ES cell differentiation to skeletal muscle with high efficiency without any genetic modification. Mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were used to screen a library of 1,000 small molecules to identify compounds capable of inducing high levels of Pax3 mRNA. Stimulation of EBs with SMIs (skeletal muscle inducer, SMI1 and SMI2) from the screen resulted in a high percentage of intensively twitching skeletal muscle fibers 3 weeks after induction. Gene expression profiling studies that were carried out for mode of actions analysis showed that SMIs activated genes regulated by the Wnt pathway and inhibited expression of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target genes. A combination of three small molecules known to modulate these three pathways acted similarly to the SMIs found here, driving ES cells from 129 as well as Balb/c and C57Bl/6 to skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMI drives ES cells to skeletal muscle via concerted activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of Smad2/3 signaling and Shh pathways. This provides important developmental biological information about skeletal muscle differentiation from embryonic stem cells and may lead to the development of new therapeutics for muscle disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2228DOI Listing
February 2016

Hematopoietic overexpression of FOG1 does not affect B-cells but reduces the number of circulating eosinophils.

PLoS One 2014 18;9(4):e92836. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland; Faculty of Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

We have identified expression of the gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator FOG-1 (Friend of GATA-1; Zfpm1, Zinc finger protein multitype 1) in B lymphocytes. We found that FOG-1 expression is directly or indirectly dependent on the B cell-specific coactivator OBF-1 and that it is modulated during B cell development: expression is observed in early but not in late stages of B cell development. To directly test in vivo the role of FOG-1 in B lymphocytes, we developed a novel embryonic stem cell recombination system. For this, we combined homologous recombination with the FLP recombinase activity to rapidly generate embryonic stem cell lines carrying a Cre-inducible transgene at the Rosa26 locus. Using this system, we successfully generated transgenic mice where FOG-1 is conditionally overexpressed in mature B-cells or in the entire hematopoietic system. While overexpression of FOG-1 in B cells did not significantly affect B cell development or function, we found that enforced expression of FOG-1 throughout all hematopoietic lineages led to a reduction in the number of circulating eosinophils, confirming and extending to mammals the known function of FOG-1 in this lineage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092836PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991581PMC
January 2015

Cells lacking β-actin are genetically reprogrammed and maintain conditional migratory capacity.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2012 Aug 22;11(8):255-71. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.

Vertebrate nonmuscle cells express two actin isoforms: cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin. Because of the presence and localized translation of β-actin at the leading edge, this isoform is generally accepted to specifically generate protrusive forces for cell migration. Recent evidence also implicates β-actin in gene regulation. Cell migration without β-actin has remained unstudied until recently and it is unclear whether other actin isoforms can compensate for this cytoplasmic function and/or for its nuclear role. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking β-actin display compensatory expression of other actin isoforms. Consistent with this preservation of polymerization capacity, β-actin knockout cells have unchanged lamellipodial protrusion rates despite a severe migration defect. To solve this paradox we applied quantitative proteomics revealing a broad genetic reprogramming of β-actin knockout cells. This also explains why reintroducing β-actin in knockout cells does not restore the affected cell migration. Pathway analysis suggested increased Rho-ROCK signaling, consistent with observed phenotypic changes. We therefore developed and tested a model explaining the phenotypes in β-actin knockout cells based on increased Rho-ROCK signaling and increased TGFβ production resulting in increased adhesion and contractility in the knockout cells. Inhibiting ROCK or myosin restores migration of β-actin knockout cells indicating that other actins compensate for β-actin in this process. Consequently, isoactins act redundantly in providing propulsive forces for cell migration, but β-actin has a unique nuclear function, regulating expression on transcriptional and post-translational levels, thereby preventing myogenic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M111.015099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412960PMC
August 2012

A modified RMCE-compatible Rosa26 locus for the expression of transgenes from exogenous promoters.

PLoS One 2012 13;7(1):e30011. Epub 2012 Jan 13.

Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Developmental and Molecular Pathways, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0030011PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3258265PMC
May 2012

Floxed allele for conditional inactivation of the GABAB(1) gene.

Genesis 2004 Nov;40(3):125-30

Pharmazentrum, University of Basel, Department of Clinical-Biological Sciences, Institute of Physiology, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

GABA(B) receptors are the G-protein-coupled receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA(B) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system. Their complete absence in mice causes premature lethality or--when mice are viable--epilepsy, impaired memory, hyperalgesia, hypothermia, and hyperactivity. A spatially and temporally restricted loss of GABA(B) function would allow addressing how the absence of GABA(B) receptors leads to these diverse phenotypes. To permit a conditional gene inactivation, we flanked critical exons of the GABA(B(1)) gene with lox511 sites. GABA(B(1)) (lox511/lox511) mice exhibit normal levels of GABA(B(1)) protein, are fertile, and do not display any behavioral phenotype. We crossed GABA(B(1)) (lox511/lox511) with Cre-deleter mice to produce mice with an unrestricted GABA(B) receptor elimination. These GABA(B(1)) (-/-) mice no longer synthesize GABA(B(1)) protein and exhibit the expected behavioral abnormalities. The conditional GABA(B(1)) allele described here is therefore suitable for generating mice with a site- and time-specific loss of GABA(B) function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gene.20073DOI Listing
November 2004