Publications by authors named "Thiam Tsui Tee"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hypolipidemic activities of xanthorrhizol purified from centrifugal TLC.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 09 27;478(3):1403-8. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Hyperlipidemia is defined as the presence of either hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia, which could cause atherosclerosis. Although hyperlipidemia can be treated by hypolipidemic drugs, they are limited due to lack of effectiveness and safety. Previous studies demonstrated that xanthorrhizol (XNT) isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb. reduced the levels of free fatty acid and triglyceride in vivo. However, its ability to inhibit cholesterol uptake in HT29 colon cells and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells are yet to be reported. In this study, XNT purified from centrifugal TLC demonstrated 98.3% purity, indicating it could be an alternative purification method. The IC50 values of XNT were 30.81 ± 0.78 μg/mL in HT29 cells and 35.07 ± 0.24 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Cholesterol uptake inhibition study using HT29 colon cells showed that XNT (15 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD uptake by up to 27 ± 3.1% relative to control. On the other hand, higher concentration of XNT (50 μg/mL) significantly suppressed the growth of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (5.9 ± 0.58%) compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (81.31 ± 0.55%). XNT was found to impede adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/mL, where 12.5 μg/mL significantly suppressed 36.13 ± 2.1% of lipid accumulation. We postulate that inhibition of cholesterol uptake, adipogenesis, preadipocyte and adipocyte number may be utilized as treatment modalities to reduce the prevalence of lipidemia. To conclude, XNT could be a potential hypolipidemic agent to improve cardiovascular health in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.08.136DOI Listing
September 2016

Xanthorrhizol: a review of its pharmacological activities and anticancer properties.

Cancer Cell Int 2015 21;15:100. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol (XNT) is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. It has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0255-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618344PMC
October 2015

Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Apr 23;420(4):834-8. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

School of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.03.083DOI Listing
April 2012

Antiproliferative property and apoptotic effect of xanthorrhizol on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Anticancer Res 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
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March 2009

Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231.

Cancer Cell Int 2009 Jan 2;9. Epub 2009 Jan 2.

Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study.

Results: Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapturetrade mark revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin.

Conclusion: This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-9-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630298PMC
January 2009

F16, a fraction from Eurycoma longifolia jack extract, induces apoptosis via a caspase-9-independent manner in MCF-7 cells.

Anticancer Res 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
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November 2007

Induction of apoptosis by Eurycoma longifolia jack extracts.

Anticancer Res 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13

School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
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November 2005