Publications by authors named "Thiago Santos Rosa"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of dynamic and isometric resistance training protocols on metabolic profile in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, 28106, Physical Education, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

To compare the effect of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: control (CTL; n=65), DRT (n=65), and IRT (n=67). Patients were tested for fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and NO were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Patients underwent to strength and body composition assessments. Subjects allocated in both DRT and IRT groups took part in a 24-week resistance training program, three times per week. Each training session was approximately one hour before dialysis and consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at low intensity. Total workload was higher in the DRT as compared with the IRT. This heightened workload related to better glycemic homeostasis in HD patients as measured by regulation of insulin, adiponectin, and leptin, while improvement of triglycerides, free-fat mass, and muscle strength. Additionally, NO levels were increased on DRT group. NO was significantly correlated with glucose intolerance (r=-0.42, p=0.0155) and workload (r=0.46, p=0.0022). The IRT group only improved strength (p<0.05). 24-week of DRT improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and NO in HD patients. Although IRT seems to play an important role in increasing strength, DRT might be a better choice to promote metabolic adjustments in HD patients. Clinical Trial http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3gpg5w/; nº RBR-3gpg5w Novelty Bullets: -DRT might be a better choice for metabolic improvements in CKD patients. -Exercise-training might treat metabolic imbalance in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0900DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of pre-dialysis resistance training on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older community-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Sarcopenia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with negative outcomes in older people, including inflammatory profile and anemia biomarkers.

Aims: To investigate the effects of pre-dialysis resistance training (RT) on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older patients with CKD.

Methods: A total of 107 patients with CKD (65.4 ± 3.7 years) were randomly allocated into four groups: sarcopenic RT (n = 37), non-sarcopenic RT (n = 20), sarcopenic control (n = 28), and non-sarcopenic control (n = 22). DXA and handgrip strength were used to classify sarcopenia according to EWGSOP-2. Treatment groups underwent a 24-week intervention with RT before each dialysis session, three times per week. Blood sample analysis for ferritin, hepcidin, iron availability, and inflammatory profile (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10) was conducted. All-cause mortality was recorded over 5 years.

Results: Sarcopenic RT group increased iron availability after the intervention, while their counterparts decreased. Ferritin and hepcidin significantly decreased in sarcopenic RT group. RT elicited a reduction in both TNFα and IL-6, while increasing IL-10 in both intervention groups. The rate of sarcopenic subjects substantially decreased after the intervention period (from 37 to 17 in the RT group; p = 0.01). The proportion of deaths was higher (P = 0.033) for sarcopenic subjects (Controls 35.7% vs RT 29.7%) when compared to non-sarcopenic subjects (Controls 18% vs RT 10%). The proportion of deaths decreased according to the randomization group (X2 = 8.704; P < 0.1).

Conclusions: The 24-week RT intervention elicited a better sarcopenia status, better inflammatory profile, and improved anemia biomarkers. Sarcopenia was associated with higher mortality rate in older patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02799-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Improving the prognosis of renal patients: The effects of blood flow-restricted resistance training on redox balance and cardiac autonomic function.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 3;106(4):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improve redox balance and positively impact the autonomic cardiac modulation in chronic kidney disease patients? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improved antioxidant defence (paraoxonase 1), decreased the pro-oxidative myeloperoxidase, improved cardiac autonomic function and slowed the decrease in renal function. We draw attention to the important clinical implications for the management of redox balance and autonomic cardiac function in chronic kidney disease patients.

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to cardiovascular diseases secondary to abnormalities in both autonomic cardiac function and redox balance [myeloperoxidase (MPO) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ratio]. Although aerobic training improves both autonomic balance and redox balance in patients with CKD, the cardioprotective effects of resistance training (RT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), remain unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of RT and RT+BFR on antioxidant defence (PON1), pro-oxidative status (MPO), cardiac autonomic function (quantified by heart rate variability analysis) and renal function. Conservative CKD (stages 1 to 5 who do not need hemodialysis) patients (n = 105, 33 female) of both sexes were randomized into three groups: control (CTL; 57.6 ± 5.2 years; body mass index, 33.23 ± 1.62 kg/m ), RT (58.09 ± 6.26 years; body mass index 33.63 ± 2.05 kg/m ) and RT+BFR (58.06 ± 6.47 years; body mass index, 33.32 ± 1.87 kg/m ). Patients completed 6 months of RT or RT+BFR on three non-consecutive days per week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professionals. Training loads were adjusted every 2 months. Heart rate variability was recorded with a Polar-RS800 and data were analysed for time and frequency domains using Kubios software. The redox balance markers were PON1 and MPO, which were analysed in plasma samples. Renal function was estimated as estimated glomerular filtration rate. The RT and RT+BFR decreased pro-oxidative MPO (RT, ∼34 ng/ml and RT+BFR, ∼27 ng/ml), improved both antioxidant defence (PON1: RT, ∼23 U/L and RT+BFR, ∼31 U/L) and cardiac autonomic function (R-R interval: RT, ∼120.4 ms and RT+BFR, ∼117.7 ms), and slowed the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.0001). Redox balance markers were inversely correlated with heart rate variability time-domain indices. Our data indicated that both training models were effective as non-pharmacological tools to increase the antioxidant defences, decrease oxidative stress and improve the cardiac autonomic function of CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089341DOI Listing
April 2021

Cut-Off Values in the Prediction of Success in Olympic Distance Triathlon.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 18;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Cut-off points and performance-related tools are needed for the development of the Olympic distance triathlon. The purposes of the present study were (i) to determine cut-off values to reach the top three positions in an Olympic distance triathlon; (ii) to identify which discipline present the highest influence on overall race performance and if it has changed over the decades. Data from 1989 to 2019 ( = 52,027) from all who have competed in an official Olympic distance triathlon events (World Triathlon Series and Olympics) were included. The cut-off value to achieve a top three position was calculated. Linear regressions were applied for performance trends overall and for the top three positions of each race. Men had cut-off values of: swimming = 19.5 min; cycling = 60.7 min; running = 34.1 min. Women's cut-off values were: swimming = 20.7 min; cycling = 71.6 min; running = 38.1 min. The running split seemed to be the most influential in overall race time regardless of rank position or sex. In conclusion, cut-offs were established, which can increase the chances of achieving a successful rank position in an Olympic triathlon. Cycling is the discipline with the least influence on overall performance for both men and women in the Olympic distance triathlon. This influence pattern has not changed in the last three decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766989PMC
December 2020

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Blood Flow Restriction Training Blunts Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Humans.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 02;53(2):249-257

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effect of 6 months of periodized resistance training (RT) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) in patients with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), uremic parameters, cytokines, and klotho-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis.

Methods: A total of 105 subjects were randomized in three groups of 35 each: control (CTL), RT, and RT + BFR. A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, and body mass index). Muscle strength (one-repetition maximum) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of training in all patients for the analysis of markers of renal function and integrity, as well as for the determination of the inflammatory profile. Statistical significances were adopted with P < 0.05.

Results: Both training therapies attenuated the decline of GFR (P < 0.05). The majority of CTL patients declined to stage 3 CKD (88.5%), whereas fewer incidents were noted with RT (25.7%) and RT + BFR (17.1%). Improved uremic parameters as well as inflammation (IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17a, IL-18, and TNF-α) and klotho-FGF23 axis in RT and RT + BFR (P < 0.05) were observed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was not changed (P > 0.05) but presented a large effect size (Cohen's d), demonstrating a propensity for improvement.

Conclusion: Six months of periodized RT with and without BFR in patients with stage 2 CKD attenuated the progression of the disease by maintaining GFR, improving uremic parameters, cytokine profile regulation, and klotho-FGF23 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002465DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of high-velocity and traditional resistance exercise on serum antioxidants and inflammation biomarkers in older women: A randomized crossover trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 24;139:111026. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Contrary to the production of oxidant and inflammation biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes decrease with age and the adaptive response to oxidative stress is reduced. The effects of the different resistance exercise protocols to attenuate these conditions are largely unexplored.

Objective: We compared the acute effects of traditional resistance exercise (TRE) and high velocity RE (HVRE) on inflammatory biomarkers and antioxidant activity in elderly women.

Methods: Fourteen elderly women (67 ± 7 years) were randomly assigned to TRE or HVRE. Blood samples were collected to measure inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymes at three time-points (pre-exercise, post-exercise, 30 min post-exercise).

Results: TRE and HVRE induced acute reductions over time on tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble receptor of IL-6 (sIL-6R), as well in catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase antioxidant levels without differences between groups. In addition, TRE and HVRE groups displayed acute increments in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10/IL-6 ratio over time, while the HVRE protocol displayed higher IL-10 values post-exercise and 30 min post-exercise time points as compared with TRE. Based on magnitude based inference, subjects from the HVRE group demonstrated superior responsiveness for IL-6 and IL-10 as compared with the TRE group. All participants from the HVRE group displayed a minimal clinical important difference on IL-10 levels as compared to only two persons from the TRE group.

Conclusion: Both RE protocols were capable of positive changes in inflammatory and antioxidant status in elderly subjects, but HVRE demonstrated a superior response on IL-10. The HVRE may be incorporated to exercise recommendation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111026DOI Listing
October 2020

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Sprint and endurance training in relation to redox balance, inflammatory status and biomarkers of aging in master athletes.

Nitric Oxide 2020 09 18;102:42-51. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Studies have shown a positive influence of intense athletic training on several biomarkers of aging, but it remains unclear whether this influence is dependent of exercise-training-mode. This study compared redox balance, cytokine levels and biomarkers of aging between master sprinters and endurance athletes, as well as in young and middle-aged individuals as controls.

Methods: Participants were male master sprinters (SA, 50 ± 8.9yrs; n = 13) and endurance runners (EA, 53 ± 8.2yrs; n = 18) with remarkable athletic experience (~25yrs of practice), besides untrained young (YC, 22.7 ± 3.9yrs; n = 17) and age-matched controls (MC, 45.5 ± 9.8yrs; n = 12). Anamnesis, anthropometrics, biomarkers of aging, inflammation status and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in all participants.

Results: An increased pro-oxidant activity (elevated protein carbonyl; isoprostanes and 8-OHdG) was observed for MC in comparison to remaining groups (p < 0.05). However, SA presented a better antioxidant capacity than both MC and EA, while nitrite/nitrate (NO) availability was higher for EA and lower for the MC (p < 0.05). Both groups of athletes presented a better anti-inflammatory status than MC (increased IL-10 and lowered IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNF-RI), but worse than YC (increased TNF-α, sTNF-RI, and sIL-6R) (p < 0.05). Telomere length was shorter in MC, which also had lower levels of irisin and klotho, and elevated FGF-23 (p < 0.05). ADMA levels were higher in MC and SA, while irisin was lower in EA when compared to SA and YC (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Master athletes presented better redox balance and inflammatory status, with decreased biomarkers of aging compared to control. Regarding exercise mode, a better NO- profile, as a marker of endothelial function, was observed for EA, whereas SA had a better redox balance, cytokines profile and attenuated biomarkers of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Faster and Healthier: Relationship between Telomere and Performance in Master Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2020 May 11;41(5):339-344. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia - UCB, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and decreased telomere length (TL). However, the lifestyle of master athletes can lead to a reduced risk of these conditions, and thus attenuates aging and performance deterioration. We aimed to analyze the relationships between TL and relative performance (RP), and their relation to adiposity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in endurance (END) and sprint/power (SPW) master athletes (MAs). Twenty-two world-class MAs visited the laboratory for anamnesis, anthropometrics, and blood sampling. Inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were assessed using commercial kits. Relative TL was determined in leukocytes through qPCR analyses. A positive association was observed between RP and TL in both groups (SPW: 0.641; END: 0.685) and the whole sample (0.594). The IL6/IL10 ratio presented an inverse correlation with RP in the whole sample (-0.580). Body mass index also demonstrated a negative correlation with TL for the END group (-0.690) and the whole sample analysis (-0.455). Moreover, the IL6/IL10 ratio was negatively associated with strength/power training hours (=-0.464), whereas the CAT/TBARS ratio was negatively associated with aerobic training hours (-0.482). In conclusion, TL of MAs was associated with RP regardless of the training model (endurance or sprint/power), and inflammation and adiposity were associated with shorter telomeres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1088-5279DOI Listing
May 2020

Oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and body composition of master athletes: The interplay.

Exp Gerontol 2020 02 9;130:110806. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Unhealthy aging is associated with increased adiposity, inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), but the interactions between them have been poorly investigated in people growing old under vigorous lifelong exercise regimens. Therefore, we compared and analyzed the relationships between markers of inflammation, OS and adiposity in master athletes (MA), young (YC) and middle-aged controls (MC). Fifty-nine participants (MA, n = 30, 51.56 ± 8.61 yrs, minimum of 20 yrs of training; YC, n = 17, 22.70 ± 3.92 yrs; MC, n = 12, 45.54 ± 9.86 yrs) underwent body composition measurements, blood sampling for inflammation and OS measurements, and provided information regarding general health and training status. The MA and YC demonstrated higher catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and higher CAT/TBARS (TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and SOD/TBARS ratios. The cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and their soluble receptors sTNF-RI and sIL-6R were lower in YC compared to MC and MA (p < 0.05). Moreover, MA showed lower levels of sTNF-RI, IL-6 and sIL-6R and higher IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 ratio compared to MC (p < 0.05). The body fat was negatively associated with antioxidant enzymes (CAT: r = -0.448 and SOD: r = -0.413) and IL-10 (r = -0.585) and positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α: r = 0.278; sTNF-RI: r = 0.709; IL-6: r = 0.720: sIL-6R: r = 0.430) (p < 0.05). Further, CAT and SOD activities were inversely associated with inflammatory parameters (sTNF-RI, IL-6 and sIL-6R; p < 0.05). In conclusion, markers of OS and inflammation did not differ between MA and YC and were associated with adiposity. Moreover, MA were leaner than MC, similarly to YC. Thus, lifelong training clearly attenuates inflammation, OS, and adiposity, supporting an attenuated and healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.110806DOI Listing
February 2020

Isometric Exercise with Large Muscle Mass Improves Redox Balance and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 05;52(5):1187-1195

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, BRAZIL.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic, oxidative stress (OS), and nitric oxide (NO) responses to a submaximal isometric exercise session (IES) involving large muscle mass.

Methods: Fourteen hypertensive (HTG: age = 35.9 ± 8.1 yr, height = 1.73 ± 0.10 m, total body mass = 78.0 ± 15.8 kg) and 10 normotensive (NTG: age = 41.1 ± 9.4 yr, height = 1.71 ± 0.12 m, total body mass = 82.3 ± 22.4 kg) participants performed two experimental sessions in the leg press and bench press: (i) control session and (ii) 8 sets × 1 min contraction at 30% maximal voluntary isometric contraction with 2-min rest interval. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at rest and during 60 min postexercise. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after the session, and 60 min postexercise. NO was obtained through the Griess reaction method. OS parameters were analyzed using commercial kits. A repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze all dependent variables.

Results: A significant decrease in systolic BP was observed only for HTG at 45 and 60 min postexercise (baseline vs 45 min: P = 0.03, Δ% = 4.44%; vs 60 min: P = 0.018, Δ% = 5.58%). NO increased immediately postexercise only for HTG (P = 0.008, Δ% = 16.44%). Regarding OS parameters, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances presented a significant reduction 60 min after the IES for NTG and HTG; catalase increased in both groups.

Conclusions: The data showed that only 8 min of IES with a large muscle mass elicits an elevated pro-oxidant activity leading to a greater NO bioavailability, increases antioxidant reaction, and consequently reduces BP in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002223DOI Listing
May 2020

l-Arginine supplementation blunts resistance exercise improvement in rats with chronic kidney disease.

Life Sci 2019 Sep 28;232:116604. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116604DOI Listing
September 2019

Combined effects of very short "all out" efforts during sprint and resistance training on physical and physiological adaptations after 2 weeks of training.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Jun 16;119(6):1337-1351. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the combined effects of resistance and sprint training, with very short efforts (5 s), on aerobic and anaerobic performances, and cardiometabolic health-related parameters in young healthy adults.

Methods: Thirty young physically active individuals were randomly allocated into four groups: resistance training (RTG), sprint interval training (SITG), concurrent training (CTG), and control (CONG). Participants trained 3 days/week for 2 weeks in the high-intensity interventions that consisted of 6-12 "all out" efforts of 5 s separated by 24 s of recovery, totalizing ~ 13 min per session, with 48-72 h of recovery between sessions. Body composition, vertical jump, lower body strength, aerobic and anaerobic performances, heart rate variability (HRV), and redox status were evaluated before and after training. Total work (TW), rating of perceived exertion (CR-10 RPE) and mean HR (HR) were monitored during sessions. Incidental physical activity (PA), dietary intake and perceived stress were also controlled.

Results: Maximum oxygen consumption (VO) significantly increased in SITG and CTG (P < 0.05). Lower body strength improved in RTG and CTG (P < 0.05), while countermovement jump (CMJ) was improved in RTG (P = 0.04) only. Redox status improved after all interventions (P < 0.05). No differences were found in TW, PA, dietary intake, and psychological stress between groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: RT and SIT protocols with very short "all out" efforts, either performed in isolation, or combined, demonstrated improvement in several physical fitness- and health-related parameters. However, CT was the most efficient exercise intervention with improvement observed in the majority of the parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04125-6DOI Listing
June 2019

Dynamic, Not Isometric Resistance Training Improves Muscle Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the effects of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on blood glucose, muscle redox capacity, inflammatory state, and muscle strength and hypertrophy. Fifteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CTL), DRT, and IRT, = 5 animals per group. The animals were submitted to a maximal weight carried (MWC; every 15 days) and maximum isometric resistance (MIR; pre- and post-training) tests. Both training protocols were performed five times a week during 12 weeks, consisting of one set of eight uninterrupted climbs for 1 min with a 30% overload of MWC. The animals in the IRT group remained under isometry for 1 min. The DRT group experienced greater MWC from pre- to post-training compared to the CTL and IRT groups ( < 0.0001). The DRT and IRT groups displayed similar gains in MIR ( = 0.3658). The DRT group exhibited improved glycemic homeostasis ( = 0.0111), redox ( < 0.0001), and inflammatory ( < 0.0001) balance as compared with CTL and IRT groups. In addition, the improved glycemic profile was associated with an increase in muscle strength and hypertrophy, improvement in redox balance and inflammation status. We conclude that DRT was more effective than IRT on increasing cross-sectional area, but not muscle strength, in parallel to improved blood glucose, inflammatory status, and redox balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349781PMC
January 2019

Heart rate variability in middle-aged sprint and endurance athletes.

Physiol Behav 2019 06 30;205:39-43. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Aging is associated with decreased autonomic balance which could be assessed by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Exercise training improves autonomic balance, but there is a lack in the literature regarding the heart rate variability (HRV) of master sprinters and endurance athletes.

Purpose: The effects of lifelong endurance and sprint training on cardiac autonomic balance were assessed in master athletes and compared with age-matched controls and young untrained controls.

Methods: Participants (n = 81) were 8 master sprinters (MS; 51.8 ± 11.1 yrs), 8 master endurance athletes (EN, n = 8, 53.6 ± 8.6 yrs), 17 age-matched untrained (CON, 47.47 ± 6.00 yrs) and 48 young controls (YC, 25.40 ± 3.87 yrs). For the acquisition of RR intervals (iRR) (Polar RS800X Heart Rate Monitor®) the participants remained seated for 15-min with the final 10-min being considered for analysis. HRV was measured using Kubios software. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was applied.

Results: All studied parameters did not differ between MS and EN {Time Domain [HR (bpm) 59.00 ± 6.13 vs. 58.94 ± 12.75], [R-R (ms) 1030.45 ± 107.45 vs. 1068.77 ± 206.17], [SDNN (ms) 57.35 ± 20.07 vs. 80.66 ± 71.07], [RMSSD (ms) 40.88 ± 20.07 vs. 38.93 ± 20.44]; Non-linear domain [SD1 (ms) 28.93 ± 14.20 vs. 27.56 ± 14.46]}, whose demonstrated a reduced HR and elevated mean R-R intervals in comparison to both YC {[HR (bpm) 69.64 ± 9.81]; [R-R (ms) 883.93 ± 124.11]} and age-matched controls {[HR (bpm) 70.06 ± 6.63]; [R-R (ms) 865.11 ± 78.39]}. It was observed a lower HRV for middle-aged CON {[RMSSD (ms) 20.23 ± 5.87], [SDNN (ms) 37.79 ± 10.15] and [SD1 (ms) 14.31 ± 4.15]} compared to YC {[RMSSD (ms) 43.33 ± 26.41], [SDNN (ms) 67.07 ± 28.77] and [SD1 (ms) 30.66 ± 18.69; p < .05]}. These last age-related differences were not observed for MS and EN.

Conclusion: For master athletes, regardless of whether they are trained in endurance or sprinters, both training modes revealed to be equally beneficial in attenuating the effects of aging on the autonomic balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.10.018DOI Listing
June 2019

Resistance training downregulates macrophages infiltration in the kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

Life Sci 2018 Nov 21;213:190-197. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Division of Nephrology, Medicine Department, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a significant world health problem with elevated mortality rates. Patients with CKD are restricted to mild physical activity, present chronic inflammatory state and loss of muscle strength. Currently, the influence of resistance exercise (RE) on the progression of renal disease has not being fully elucidated.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of RE on the progression of CKD in a remnant kidney model (5/6Nx) in rats.

Methods: Eight-week-old Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy and were divided into four groups: Sham sedentary (Sham SD); Sham RE (Sham RE); 5/6Nx SD and 5/6Nx RE. The animals were trained for 8 weeks in a vertical climbing ladder for 3 days per week, on non-consecutive days.

Results: As expected, 5/6Nx SD group presented a markedly loss of renal function, increased plasma inflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative stress with a reduced activity of nitric oxide. The higher macrophage infiltration and fibrosis confirmed these conditions. RE attenuated systolic blood pressure and renal function decrease and also improved serum lipid parameters in 5/6 Nx animals. It was evident the increase of muscle strength and mass in the trained groups while the sedentary group showed reduced muscle weight and strength compared to Sham SD.

Conclusions: RE implemented following 5/6Nx retard the progression of chronic kidney injury while simultaneously allowed the maintenance of skeletal muscle strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.037DOI Listing
November 2018

Oxidative stress, inflammation, psychological status, and severity of respiratory infections are negatively affected during the pre-contest period in amateur bodybuilders.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 May 24;44(5):468-476. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

a Postgraduate Program on Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasília, Federal District 71966-700, Brazil.

We examined whether off-season (OffS) and pre-contest (PreC) periods affect blood oxidative stress, inflammatory, immunological, and psychological markers in 20 bodybuilders. The athletes recorded their food intake (3-day record), physical activities, mood states (Profile of Mood States, POMS), recovery-stress (Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, RESTQ-Sport), and upper respiratory symptoms (Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey, WURSS-21), and blood was obtained for biochemical analysis. Almost all athletes were in positive energy balance during OffS, while bodybuilders presented markedly restricted energy intake (∼45%) leading to loss of weight (-9%) and fat mass (-45%) with preservation of fat-free mass in PreC. Protein intake was high during both periods, while lipid and carbohydrate intakes were reduced ∼50% in PreC. Almost all athletes consumed 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for micronutrients in OffS, while 45% and 75% of the athletes had intakes below the RDA for vitamins A and E in PreC. Oxidative damage to lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), protein carbonyls, and the TBARS/total antioxidant capacity ratio increased in PreC (32%, 27%, 60%), as did plasma tumor necrosis factor α (4-fold) and WURSS-21 scores (25%). There were no significant changes in serum catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities nor in interleukin 1β and immunoglobulins. In PreC, POMS showed negative changes in vigor (-20%), fatigue (23%), and total mood disturbance (35%), and RESTQ-Sport showed alterations for general and sport stress (34% and 50%, respectively) and sport recovery (-23%). Thus, PreC negatively affects nutrient intake, which may worsen oxidative stress, inflammation, psychological status, and the severity of respiratory infections in bodybuilders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0430DOI Listing
May 2019

Training Performed Above Lactate Threshold Decreases p53 and Shelterin Expression in Mice.

Int J Sports Med 2018 Sep 26;39(9):704-711. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Graduate Program in Genomic Science and Biotechnology, Catholic University of Brasília - Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

Telomere shortening is associated to sarcopenia leading to functional impairment during aging. There are mechanisms associated with telomere attrition, as well to its protection and repair. Physical training is a factor that attenuates telomere shortening, but little is known about the effects of different exercise intensities on telomere biology. Thus, we evaluated the effects of exercise intensity (moderate vs. high-intensity domain) on gene expression of senescence markers Checkpoint kinase 2 and tumor suppressor ( and , respectively), shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2 (/), DNA repair (), telomerase reverse transcriptase () and telomere length in middle aged mice. Three groups were studied: a control group (CTL) and two groups submitted to swimming at intensities below the lactate threshold (LI group) and above the lactate threshold (HI group) for 40 and 20 min respectively, for 12 weeks. After training, the HI group showed reduction in p53 expression in the muscle, and decreased shelterin complex expression when compared to LI group. No differences were observed between groups for expression and telomere length. Thus, exercise training in high-intensity domain was more effective on reducing markers of senescence and apoptosis. The higher intensity exercise training also diminished shelterin expression, with no differences in telomere length and mTERT expression. Such results possibly indicate a more effective DNA protection for the higher-intensity exercise training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0631-3441DOI Listing
September 2018

Resistance training attenuates inflammation and the progression of renal fibrosis in chronic renal disease.

Life Sci 2018 Aug 19;206:93-97. Epub 2018 May 19.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have progressive renal fibrosis, inflammation, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Resistance training (RT) has been suggested to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, of strength and the inflammation in CKD, but the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of RT on renal fibrosis, renal cytokine expression, creatine kinase levels, and muscle mass and strength in CKD rats. A CKD model was obtained by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Fifteen 8-week-old male rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (control), Nx SED (CKD sedentary) and Nx RT (CKD trained). The RT consisted of ladder climbing at 70% of the animal's maximal carrying capacity for 10 weeks. Muscle strength, creatine kinase levels, renal fibrosis and mRNA interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were analyzed after the RT protocol. There was significant improvement in the muscle strength and creatine kinase levels in the Nx RT group. Moreover, renal fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated, with increased IL-4 and IL-10 expression and reduced IL-6 expression in the Nx RT group compared with that in the Nx SED group. No difference in muscle mass was observed among the groups. In conclusion, RT was effective in reducing fibrosis and inflammation, in addition to increasing muscle strength and creatine kinase levels, in rats with CKD, independent of muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.034DOI Listing
August 2018

Longer Telomere Length in Elite Master Sprinters: Relationship to Performance and Body Composition.

Int J Sports Med 2017 Dec 3;38(14):1111-1116. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Universidade Católica de Brasília - UCB, Graduate Program in Genomic Science and Biotechnology, Brasília, Brazil.

Emergent evidence suggests that the long-term healthy lifestyle of master athletes may attenuate aging. We compared telomere length (TL) of high-level master sprinters and non-athlete age-matched controls, and analyzed the relationships of TL with performance and body fat. Elite master sprinters (n=11; aged 50.1±9.2yrs) and healthy untrained controls (n=10; aged 45.4±10.9yrs) had blood samples collected for biochemical and biomolecular analyses. Master sprinters had longer TL, lower body fat and BMI, and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls (p<0.05). A large effect size was verified comparing TL between athletes vs. controls (Cohen's d=1.039), with a significant negative correlation between TL and performance decline per decade (r=-0.624, p<0.01) and a positive correlation of TL and actual performance level (r=0.641, p<0.01). In conclusion, TL of elite master sprinters was longer than their untrained peers, and seems to be not only a marker of health status, but also an indicator of sports longevity since both actual performance level and its decrease over years were related to TL. Further research might assess the TL of elite master endurance athletes for comparison with sprinters, and also investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the attenuation of telomere shortening occurs in master athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120345DOI Listing
December 2017

The Antioxidant Effect of Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sports Med 2017 Feb;47(2):277-293

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Universidade Católica de Brasília, EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 15, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 72030-170, Brazil.

Background: Physical activity has been associated with reduced oxidative stress (OS) in observational studies and clinical trials.

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials was to determine the effect of physical exercise on OS parameters.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature up to March 2016 that included the following databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. A keyword combination referring to exercise training and OS was included as part of a more thorough search process. We also manually searched the reference lists of the articles. From an initial 1573 references, we included 30 controlled trials (1346 participants) in the qualitative analysis, 19 of which were included in the meta-analysis. All trials were conducted in humans and had at least one exercise intervention and a paired control group. Using a standardized protocol, two investigators independently abstracted data on study design, sample size, participant characteristics, intervention, follow-up duration, outcomes, and quantitative data for the meta-analysis. Thus, the investigators independently assigned quality scores with a methodological quality assessment (MQA).

Results: The agreement level between the reviewers was 85.3 %. Discrepancies were solved in a consensus meeting. The MQA showed a total score in the quality index between 40 and 90 % and a mean quality of 55 %. Further, in a random-effects model, data from each trial were pooled and weighted by the inverse of the total variance. Physical training was associated with a significant reduction in pro-oxidant parameters (standard mean difference [SMD] -1.08; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.57 to -0.58; p < 0.001) and an increase in antioxidant capacity (SMD 1.45; 95 % CI 0.83-2.06; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The pooled analysis revealed that regardless of intensity, volume, type of exercise, and studied population, the antioxidant indicators tended to increase and pro-oxidant indicators tended to decrease after training. Therefore, we conclude that exercise training seems to induce an antioxidant effect. Thus, it is suggested that people practice some kind of exercise to balance the redox state, regardless of their health status, to improve health-related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0566-1DOI Listing
February 2017

Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Birdseed Associated with Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016 10;48(10):1925-34

1Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BRAZIL; and 2Graduate Program in Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, BRAZIL.

Introduction: Phalaris canariensis L. (Pc), known as birdseed, is rich in tryptophan. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) via mechanisms mediated by the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Hypertension is a risk factor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. Considering that physical exercise improves hypertension and cardiovascular function, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the benefits of exercise (Ex) would be enhanced by concomitant AEPc treatment (400 mg·kg·d p.o.).

Methods: Vascular reactivity was assessed in aorta rings from SHR treated with AEPc for 4 wk. Training intensity was based on maximal lactate steady state obtained during the 2-wk adaptation period in a treadmill running. Then exercised (60 min running, five times per week during 8 wk) or sedentary SHR were untreated or treated with AEPc during 8 wk. SBP was estimated by plethysmograph. Heart mass and body mass were used to obtain the index of cardiac hypertrophy. Glucose tolerance test was evaluated by oral glucose overload, and the mRNA expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 in the kidney were obtained by real time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: AEPc induced endothelial-mediated vascular relaxation. AEPc or Ex alone reduced SBP, the index of cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis, improved glucose metabolism, and attenuated proteinuria and the renal expression of the proinflammatory IL-1β with an overexpression in the anti-inflammatory IL-10. AEPc potentiated the benefits of the Ex on the cardiovascular system, metabolic parameters, and renal inflammation.

Conclusion: Birdseed reduced cardiovascular risk related to hypertension and had positive effects when associated to physical exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000995DOI Listing
October 2016