Publications by authors named "Theresa Thompson"

9 Publications

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Movement of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets through septic drainfields.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 5;610-611:1467-1475. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Department of Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences, 330 Smyth Hall, 185 Ag Quad Lane (0404), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.

The past three decades' data on outbreaks in the United States indicate that homes dependent on untreated groundwater (e.g. wells) for household drinking water that are also reliant on onsite treatment of household wastewater (e.g. septic systems) may be at greater risk for waterborne disease. While groundwater quality monitoring to protect public health has traditionally focused on the detection of fecal indicator bacteria, the application of emerging source tracking strategies may offer a more efficient means to identify pollution sources and effective means of remediation. This study compares the movement of common fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) with a chemical (optical brighteners, OB) and a molecular (Bacteroides HF183) source tracking (ST) target in small scale septic drainfield models in order to evaluate their potential utility in groundwater monitoring. Nine PVC column drainfield models received synchronized doses of primary-treated wastewater twice daily, with influent and effluent monitored bi-weekly over a 7-month period for all targets. Results indicate that E. coli and enterococci concentrations were strongly associated (Spearman's rank, p<0.05), and correlations between enterococci and optical brighteners were moderately strong. Bacteroides HF183 was significantly, but not strongly, associated with optical brighteners and both indicator bacteria (Point-biserial correlation, p<0.05), most likely due to its sporadic detection. Application of human ST marker monitoring in groundwaters at risk of contamination by human sewage is recommended, although consistent interpretation of results will rely on more detailed evaluation of HF183 incidence in source contamination waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.131DOI Listing
January 2018

Cardiovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and progesterone: a case of mistaken identity?

Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2008 Jul 3;5(7):387-95. Epub 2008 Jun 3.

Dimera Incorporated, Cardiovascular Research, PO Box 56600, Portland, OR 97238, USA.

Heart disease presentation can differ between the sexes because nonobstructive coronary disease and angina unrelated to exercise are considerably more prevalent in women than in men. When the outcomes of large, randomized, controlled trials failed to demonstrate cardiac risk protection, many women and their physicians abandoned hormone replacement therapy as primary or secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. We are concerned that the apparent blanket condemnation of steroids has not sufficiently distinguished between the cardiovascular actions of estrogen, progesterone and the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate. The actions of active metabolites of progestins are not well understood and in some cases have not been explored. We intend to present what is known and what is not known about progesterone per se versus medroxyprogesterone acetate, particularly with regard to cardiovascular effects. This Review considers the mounting evidence that progesterone improves cardiovascular function and proposes its mechanism of action-restoration of a threshold level of progesterone as preventive of microvascular cardiac ischemia-and compares oral and transdermal routes of administration. We hope to stimulate research to determine whether progesterone, with or without estrogen, has a role in reducing cardiovascular risk and treating cardiovascular disease including myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncpcardio1234DOI Listing
July 2008

Vasodilator coordination via membrane conduction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007 Sep 22;293(3):H1320-1. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00709.2007DOI Listing
September 2007

County and organizational predictors of depression symptoms among low-income nursing assistants in the USA.

Soc Sci Med 2006 Sep 12;63(6):1454-65. Epub 2006 Jun 12.

Social Equity and Health Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Low-wage workers represent an ever-increasing proportion of the US workforce. A wide spectrum of firms demand low-wage workers, yet just 10 industries account for 70% of all low-paying jobs. The bulk of these jobs are in the services and retail sales industries. In health services, 60% of all workers are low-paid, with nursing aides, orderlies, personal attendants, and home care aides earning an average hourly wage of just 7.97 US dollars--a wage that keeps many of these workers hovering near or below the poverty line. Nursing assistants also tend to work in hazardous and grueling conditions. Work conditions are an important determinant of psychological well-being and mental disorders, particularly depression, in the workplace have important consequences for quality of life, worker productivity, and the utilization and cost of health care. In empirical studies of low-wage workers, county-level variables are of theoretical significance. Multilevel studies have recently provided evidence of a link between county-level variables and poor mental health among low-wage workers. To date, however, no studies have simultaneously considered the effect of county-and workplace-level variables. This study uses a repeated measures design and multilevel modeling to simultaneously test the effect of county-, organizational-, workplace-, and individual-level variables on depression symptoms among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. We find that age and emotional strain have a statistically significant association with depression symptoms in this population, yet when controlling for county-level variables of poverty, the organizational-level variables used were no longer statistically significant predictors of depression symptoms. This study also contributes to current research methodology in the field of occupational health by using a cross-classified multilevel model to explicitly account for all variations in this three-level data structure, modeling and testing cross-classifications between nursing homes and counties of residence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.042DOI Listing
September 2006

County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

Health Place 2006 Dec 28;12(4):688-700. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Department of Social, Policy and Prevention Research, Center for Addictions and Mental Health, University of Toronto and Institute for Work and Health, Suite 618, 250 College Street, Toronto, Canada ON M5 T 1R8.

Unlabelled: This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain.

Participants: The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky.

Main Results: The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder.

Conclusions: This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive disorder. Longitudinal county level measures of low-income as predictors of depression may even offer a methodological advantage in that they are presumably more stable indicators of cumulative exposure of low income than are more transient workplace indicators. Incorporating measures of cumulative exposure to low income into empirical studies would be particularly timely given the global changes that are currently restructuring the labor force and influencing work organization and labor processes--most notably the growth in low income jobs and the deskilling of labor. Though this study provides evidence that workplace and organizational level variables are associated with depressive disorder among low-wage nursing assistants in US nursing homes, the fact that these relationships do not hold once county level measures of poverty are controlled for, suggests that more distal upstream determinants of workplace mental health problems, such economic inequality, may be at play in determining the mental health of low wage workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.09.004DOI Listing
December 2006

Flashbulb memories of personal events of 9/11 and the day after for a sample of New York City residents.

Psychol Rep 2004 Aug;95(1):304-10

Marymount Manhattan College, State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, USA.

The present study assessed consistency of recollections of personal circumstances of the 9/11 World Trade Center attack and events of the day before (9/10), and the day after (9/12), in a sample of 100 New York City college students. The day before 9/11 represented an ordinary event. A questionnaire was administered twice, 1 wk. and 1 yr. after the 9/11 attack. Students were asked to describe their personal circumstances when hearing about the news of the World Trade Center attack and for the same time of day for 9/10 and 9/12. 18 students returned the follow-up questionnaire. Consistency of initial and follow-up responses for the central categories for both 9/11 and 9/12 of where, who, and activity was very high (9/11: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--94%; 9/12: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--80%). Recollections of 9/10 were significantly less consistent ("Where"--79%, "Who"--71%, "What"--71%). Analysis indicated that students formed vivid, consistent recollections during the events of both 9/11 and 9/12. It is likely that the events of 9/12 also became flashbulb memories, vivid recollections of traumatic events, because the emotional impact of the stressful events, i.e., police and military presence, disrupted schedules, relating to the 9/11 attack endured beyond the day of the attack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.95.1.304-310DOI Listing
August 2004

Social austerity versus structural reform in European health systems: a four-country comparison of health reforms.

Int J Health Serv 2004 ;34(3):415-33

Universitat Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research, Bremen, Germany.

Cost containment has captured the attention of health policymakers in most OECD countries, and deliberations about creating powerful financial incentives dominate health care politics. Some European health systems are now implementing hospital payment schemes that mirror the U.S. model of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and are raising premiums and copayment levels in an effort to limit public expenditures. Though financial incentives may indeed help rein in health expenditures, focusing predominantly on financial incentives hinders due consideration of needed structural reforms that improve the continuity, quality, and appropriateness of health care service delivery. This article focuses on the structural specifics of two legally enacted health insurance systems (Germany and Austria) and two national health systems (Great Britain and Denmark) to discuss the influence of structural characteristics on cost-containment efforts. Structural reform strategies discussed include increasing reliance on general practitioners, improving coordination of community and hospital-based specialty care, addressing the stark divide between ambulatory and hospital-based care that exists in some European health systems, and improving continuity of care by better integrating medical and social care sectors. Also discussed is the relative focus on financial incentives versus structural deficits in recent European-health care reform strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/DJ9Q-F2GY-W18R-4C1JDOI Listing
November 2004

International trade, law, and public health advocacy.

J Law Med Ethics 2003 ;31(4):546-56

Department of Health Policy & Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720x.2003.tb00122.xDOI Listing
March 2004