Publications by authors named "Theodore Karrison"

155 Publications

Pembrolizumab Plus Ipilimumab Following Anti-PD-1/L1 Failure in Melanoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 4:JCO2100079. Epub 2021 May 4.

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Purpose: Combination of antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) plus anti-cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte-4 (anti-CTLA-4) immunotherapy shows greater response rates (RRs) than anti-PD-1 antibody alone in melanoma, but RR after initial anti-PD-1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody progression awaits robust investigation. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody alone after anti-PD-1/L1 antibody progression has a historical RR of 13%. We report the results of the first prospective clinical trial evaluating ipilimumab 1 mg/kg plus pembrolizumab following progression on anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

Methods: Patients with advanced melanoma who had progressed on anti-PD-1/L1 antibody as immediate prior therapy (including non-anti-CTLA-4 antibody combinations) were eligible. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg once every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by pembrolizumab monotherapy. The primary end point was RR by irRECIST. After 35 patients, the trial met the primary end point and was expanded to enroll a total of 70 patients to better estimate the RR.

Results: Prior treatments included 60 on anti-PD-1 antibody alone and 10 on anti-PD-1/L1 antibody-based combinations. Thirteen patients had progressed in the adjuvant setting. The median length of prior treatment with anti-PD-1/L1 antibody was 4.8 months. Response assessments included five complete and 15 partial responses, making the irRECIST RR 29% among the entire trial population. The median progression-free survival was 5.0 months, and the median overall survival was 24.7 months. The median duration of response was 16.6 months. There was no difference in median time on prior anti-PD1/L1 or time to PD1 + CTLA4 initiation between responders and nonresponders. Grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events occurred in 27% of patients. Responses occurred in PD-L1-negative, non-T-cell-inflamed, and intermediate tumor phenotypes.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study in melanoma of pembrolizumab plus low-dose ipilimumab after anti-PD-1/L1 immunotherapy failure, demonstrating significant antitumor activity and tolerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00079DOI Listing
May 2021

A prospective clinical and transcriptomic feasibility study of oral-only hormonal therapy with radiation for unfavorable prostate cancer in men 70 years of age and older or with comorbidity.

Cancer 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves outcomes in unfavorable-risk prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radiation therapy (RT). It was hypothesized that replacing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists with a 5-α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) would improve hormonal health-related quality of life (HRQOL) without differentially suppressing androgen-responsive (AR) gene expression.

Methods: Patients with localized unfavorable-risk PCa, aged ≥70 years or Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥2 were treated with oral ADT (oADT), consisting of 4 months of bicalutamide, a 5-ARI, and RT at 78 Gy. The primary end point was Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite HRQOL at 6 months ≤30%, and improvement compared with a synchronous standard of care (SOC) cohort receiving 4 months of bicalutamide and long-term LHRH agonist with RT. RNA sequencing was performed from matched pre-/post-ADT prostate tumor biopsies in a subset of men. Differential gene and pathway expressional changes were examined using gene set enrichment.

Results: Between 2011 and 2018, 40 and 30 men were enrolled in the oADT and SOC cohorts, respectively. Median follow-up was 40 months. Those with ≤30% decline in hormonal HRQOL at 6 months was 97% (oADT) and 93% (SOC). The average 6-month hormonal decline was 1% (oADT) versus 12% (SOC; P = .04). The 4-year freedom from biochemical failure was 88% (oADT) versus 81% (SOC; P = .48). RNA sequencing (n = 9) showed similar numbers of downregulated and upregulated genes between the treatment groups (fold-change = 2; false-discovery rate-adjusted P ≤ .05). Both treatments comparably decreased the expression of 20 genes in canonical androgen receptor signaling.

Conclusions: For men with PCa undergoing RT, oral versus standard ADT may improve 6-month QOL and appears to have a similar impact on androgen-responsive gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33556DOI Listing
April 2021

Coagulopathy as a Surrogate of Severity of Injury in Penetrating Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is the most devastating type of traumatic brain injury. Development of coagulopathy in the acute setting of PBI, though common, remains of unclear significance as does its reversal. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between coagulopathy and clinical presentation, radiographical features, and outcome in civilian patients with PBI. Eighty-nine adult patients with PBI at a Level I trauma center in Chicago, Illinois who survived acute resuscitation and with available coagulation profile were analyzed. Coagulopathy was defined as international normalized ratio [INR] >1.3, platelet count <100,000 /μL, or partial thromboplastin time >37 sec. Median age (interquartile range; IQR) of our cohort was 27 (21-35) years, and 74 (83%) were male. The intent was assault in 74 cases (83%). The mechanism of PBI was gunshot wound in all patients. Forty patients (45%) were coagulopathic at presentation. In a multiple regression model, coagulopathy was associated with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)-Motor score (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.94;  = 0.02) and transfusion of blood products (OR, 3.91; CI, 1.2-12.5;  = 0.02). Effacement of basal cisterns was the only significant radiographical features associated with coagulopathy (OR, 3.34; CI, 1.08-10.37;  = 0.04). Mortality was found to be significantly more common in coagulopathic patients (73% vs. 25%;  < 0.001). However, in our limited sample, reversal of coagulopathy at 24 h was not associated with a statistically significant improvement in outcome. The triad of coagulopathy, low post-resuscitation GCS, and radiographical effacement of basal cisterns identify a particularly ominous phenotype of PBI. The role, and potential reversal of, coagulopathy in this group warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7422DOI Listing
January 2021

Personalized Antibodies for Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma (PANGEA): A Phase II Study Evaluating an Individualized Treatment Strategy for Metastatic Disease.

Cancer Discov 2021 Feb 24;11(2):308-325. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

The University of Chicago, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

The one-year and median overall survival (mOS) rates of advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEA) are ∼50% and <12 months, respectively. Baseline spatial and temporal molecular heterogeneity of targetable alterations may be a cause of failure of targeted/immunooncologic therapies. This heterogeneity, coupled with infrequent incidence of some biomarkers, has resulted in stalled therapeutic progress. We hypothesized that a personalized treatment strategy, applied at first diagnosis then serially over up to three treatment lines using monoclonal antibodies combined with optimally sequenced chemotherapy, could contend with these hurdles. This was tested using a novel clinical expansion-platform type II design with a survival primary endpoint. Of 68 patients by intention-to-treat, the one-year survival rate was 66% and mOS was 15.7 months, meeting the primary efficacy endpoint (one-sided = 0.0024). First-line response rate (74%), disease control rate (99%), and median progression-free survival (8.2 months) were superior to historical controls. The PANGEA strategy led to improved outcomes warranting a larger randomized study. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights excellent outcomes achieved by individually optimizing chemotherapy, biomarker profiling, and matching of targeted therapies at baseline and over time for GEA. Testing a predefined treatment strategy resulted in improved outcomes versus historical controls. Therapeutic resistance observed in correlative analyses suggests that dual targeted inhibition may be beneficial..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858231PMC
February 2021

COVIDOSE: A Phase II Clinical Trial of Low-Dose Tocilizumab in the Treatment of Noncritical COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 03 10;109(3):688-696. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated hyperinflammation may contribute to the mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The IL-6 receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody tocilizumab has been repurposed for COVID-19, but prospective trials and dose-finding studies in COVID-19 have not yet fully reported. We conducted a single-arm phase II trial of low-dose tocilizumab in nonintubated hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19, radiographic pulmonary infiltrate, fever, and C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 40 mg/L. We hypothesized that doses significantly lower than the emerging standards of 400 mg or 8 mg/kg would resolve clinical and laboratory indicators of hyperinflammation. A dose range from 40 to 200 mg was evaluated, with allowance for one repeat dose at 24 to 48 hours. The primary objective was to assess the relationship of dose to fever resolution and CRP response. Thirty-two patients received low-dose tocilizumab, with the majority experiencing fever resolution (75%) and CRP decline consistent with IL-6 pathway abrogation (86%) in the 24-48 hours following drug administration. There was no evidence of a relationship between dose and fever resolution or CRP decline over the dose range of 40-200 mg. Within the 28-day follow-up, 5 (16%) patients died. For patients who recovered, median time to clinical recovery was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). Clinically presumed and/or cultured bacterial superinfections were reported in 5 (16%) patients. Low-dose tocilizumab was associated with rapid improvement in clinical and laboratory measures of hyperinflammation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Results of this trial provide rationale for a randomized, controlled trial of low-dose tocilizumab in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753375PMC
March 2021

Improved Survival Associated with Local Tumor Response Following Multisite Radiotherapy and Pembrolizumab: Secondary Analysis of a Phase I Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 7;26(24):6437-6444. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Purpose: Multisite stereotactic body radiotherapy followed by pembrolizumab (SBRT+P) has demonstrated safety in advanced solid tumors (ASTs). However, no studies have examined the relationships between irradiated tumor response, SBRT-induced tumor gene expression, and overall survival (OS).

Patients And Methods: Patients with AST received SBRT (30-50 Gy in 3-5 fractions) to two to four metastases followed by pembrolizumab (200 mg i.v. every 3 weeks). SBRT was prescribed to a maximum tumor volume of 65 mL. Small metastases received the complete prescribed coverage (complete-Rx), while larger metastases received partial coverage (partial-Rx). Treated metastasis control (TMC) was defined as a lack of progression for an irradiated metastasis. Landmark analysis was used to assess the relationship between TMC and OS. Thirty-five biopsies were obtained from 24 patients: 19 pre-SBRT and 16 post-SBRT (11 matched) prior to pembrolizumab and were analyzed via RNA microarray.

Results: Sixty-eight patients (139 metastases) were enrolled with a median follow-up of 10.4 months. One-year TMC was 89.5% with no difference between complete-Rx or partial-Rx. On multivariable analysis, TMC was independently associated with a reduced risk for death (HR, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.75; = 0.006). SBRT increased expression of innate and adaptive immune genes and concomitantly decreased expression of cell cycle and DNA repair genes in the irradiated tumors. Elevated post-SBRT expression of correlated with increased expression of cytolytic T-cell genes and irradiated tumor response.

Conclusions: In the context of SBRT+P, TMC independently correlates with OS. SBRT impacts intratumoral immune gene expression associated with TMC. Randomized trials are needed to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1790DOI Listing
December 2020

COVIDOSE: Low-dose tocilizumab in the treatment of Covid-19.

medRxiv 2020 Jul 26. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated hyperinflammation may contribute to the high mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibody, has been repurposed for Covid-19, but prospective trials and dose-finding studies in Covid-19 are lacking. Methods We conducted a phase 2 trial of low-dose tocilizumab in hospitalized adult patients with Covid-19, radiographic pulmonary infiltrate, fever, and C-reactive protein (CRP) >= 40 mg/L who did not require mechanical ventilation. Dose cohorts were determined by a trial Operations Committee, stratified by CRP and epidemiologic risk factors. A range of doses from 40 to 200 mg (low-dose tocilizumab) was evaluated, with allowance for one repeat dose at 24-48 hours. The primary objective was to assess the relationship of dose to fever resolution and CRP response. Outcomes were compared with retrospective controls with Covid-19. Correlative studies evaluating host antibody response were performed in parallel. Findings A total of 32 patients received low-dose tocilizumab. This cohort had improved fever resolution (75.0% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.001) and CRP decline (86.2% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001) in the 24-48 hours following drug administration, as compared to the retrospective controls (N=41). The probabilities of fever resolution or CRP decline did not appear to be dose-related in this small study (p=0.80 and p=0.10, respectively). Within the 28-day follow-up, 5 (15.6%) patients died. For patients who recovered, median time to clinical recovery was 3 days (IQR, 2-5). Clinically presumed and/or cultured bacterial superinfections were reported in 5 (15.6%) patients. Correlative biological studies demonstrated that tocilizumab-treated patients produced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies comparable to controls. Interpretation Low-dose tocilizumab was associated with rapid improvement in clinical and laboratory measures of hyperinflammation in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Results of this trial and its correlative biological studies provide rationale for a randomized, controlled trial of low-dose tocilizumab in Covid-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.20.20157503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386518PMC
July 2020

ARETTA: Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Taxotere and Subcutaneous Trastuzumab in Nigerian Women With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Study Protocol.

JCO Glob Oncol 2020 07;6:983-990

Center for Global Health, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtype of breast cancer is aggressive, leading to a poor outcome. Targeted therapy with trastuzumab has been shown to be effective in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity is a specific adverse effect associated with trastuzumab. The initial formulation of trastuzumab was intravenous, but presently, a subcutaneous formulation (Herceptin SC) is available. Insufficient data on the response rate and cardiotoxic effects of trastuzumab among indigenous Black populations exist. In all studies evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of trastuzumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy, indigenous Black populations in Africa were not included, yet they are the ones most likely to benefit from highly effective cancer medicines. This is partly due to poor oncology clinical trial infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa. The ARETTA study protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03879577) is a phase II multicenter feasibility study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel given every 3 weeks for 4 cycles plus trastuzumab in 60 previously untreated women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. The primary endpoint is to assess the proportion of patients with complete pathologic response. Secondary endpoints include the number of patients who require dose delays in docetaxel and trastuzumab attributed to hematologic, GI, and cardiac toxicity. Pharmacokinetic profiles of subcutaneous trastuzumab will also be determined. The ARETTA study will provide important information on the clinical response and cardiac safety of subcutaneous trastuzumab in combination with docetaxel among indigenous African women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. It can also be used as a blueprint for conducting biomarker-driven oncology clinical trials in low-resource settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392776PMC
July 2020

A randomized phase 2 study of temsirolimus and cetuximab versus temsirolimus alone in recurrent/metastatic, cetuximab-resistant head and neck cancer: The MAESTRO study.

Cancer 2020 07 4;126(14):3237-3243. Epub 2020 May 4.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Patients with cetuximab-resistant, recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have poor outcomes. This study hypothesized that dual blockade of mammalian target of rapamycin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) would overcome cetuximab resistance on the basis of the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in preclinical models of EGFR resistance.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized clinical study, patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC with documented progression on cetuximab (in any line in the recurrent/metastatic setting) received 25 mg of temsirolimus weekly plus cetuximab at 400/250 mg/m weekly (TC) or single-agent temsirolimus (T). The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) in the TC arm versus the T arm. Response rates, overall survival, and toxicity were secondary outcomes.

Results: Eighty patients were randomized to therapy with TC or T alone. There was no difference for the primary outcome of median PFS (TC arm, 3.5 months; T arm, 3.5 months). The response rate was 12.5% in the TC arm (5 responses, including 1 complete response [2.5%]) and 2.5% in the T arm (1 partial response; P = .10). Responses were clinically meaningful in the TC arm (range, 3.6-9.1 months) but not in the T-alone arm (1.9 months). Fatigue, electrolyte abnormalities, and leukopenia were the most common grade 3 or higher adverse events and occurred in less than 20% of patients in both arms.

Conclusions: The study did not meet its primary endpoint of improvement in PFS. However, TC induced responses in cetuximab-refractory patients with good tolerability. The post hoc observation of activity in patients with acquired resistance (after prior benefit from cetuximab monotherapy) may warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32929DOI Listing
July 2020

Cooperation of genes in HPV16 E6/E7-dependent cervicovaginal carcinogenesis trackable by endoscopy and independent of exogenous estrogens or carcinogens.

Carcinogenesis 2020 11;41(11):1605-1615

Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient for progression of epithelial cells from dysplasia to carcinoma-in situ (CIS) to invasive cancer. The combination of mutant cellular and viral oncogenes that regulate progression of cervical cancer (CC) remains unclear. Using combinations of HPV16 E6/E7 (E+), mutant Kras (mKras) (K+) and/or loss of Pten (P-/-), we generated autochthonous models of CC without exogenous estrogen, carcinogen or promoters. Furthermore, intravaginal instillation of adenoCre virus enabled focal activation of the oncogenes/inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene. In P+/+ mice, E6/E7 alone (P+/+E+K-) failed to cause premalignant changes, while mKras alone (P+/+E-K+) caused persistent mucosal abnormalities in about one-third of mice, but no cancers. To develop cancer, P+/+ mice needed both E6/E7 and mKras expression. Longitudinal endoscopies of P+/+E+K+ mice predicted carcinoma development by detection of mucosal lesions, found on an average of 23 weeks prior to death, unlike longitudinal quantitative PCRs of vaginal lavage samples from the same mice. Endoscopy revealed that individual mice differed widely in the time required for mucosal lesions to appear after adenoCre and in the time required for these lesions to progress to cancer. These cancers developed in the transition zone that extends, unlike in women, from the murine cervix to the distal vagina. The P-/-E+K+ genotype led to precipitous cancer development within a few weeks and E6/E7-independent cancer development occurred in the P-/-E-K+ genotype. In the P-/-E+K- genotype, mice only developed CIS. Thus, distinct combinations of viral and cellular oncogenes are involved in distinct steps in cervical carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896110PMC
November 2020

A phase 1 study of azacitidine with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone in high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2020 02;4(4):599-606

Comprehensive Cancer Center.

In this phase 1 study, azacitidine (AZA) was given before high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) and mitoxantrone (mito) based on the hypothesis that epigenetic priming with a hypomethylating agent before cytotoxic chemotherapy would improve response rates in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including relapsed/refractory disease. The primary objective was to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of AZA given before standard HiDAC/mito. In a dose escalation scheme, 46 patients (median age, 66 years) received AZA at 37.5, 50, or 75 mg/m2 subcutaneously or IV once daily on days 1 to 5 followed by HiDAC (3000 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (30 mg/m2) once each on days 6 and 10 (the HiDAC/mito dose was reduced 33% in elderly subjects). Two dose-limiting toxicities occurred (both in the same patient): acute liver failure and kidney injury at the 50 mg/m2 dose. The 30-day induction death rate was 2.2% (1 of 46). The overall response rate, including complete remission and complete remission with incomplete count recovery, was 61% (28 of 46). Previously untreated patients aged ≥60 years with therapy-related AML and de novo AML were more likely to respond than untreated patients with AML progressing from an antecedent hematologic disorder (myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia). Patients with favorable European Leukemia Network risk (P = .008), NPM1 mutations (P = .007), or IDH2 mutations (P = .03) were more likely to respond, and those with TP53 mutations (P = .03) were less likely to respond. The recommended phase 2 dose of AZA is 75 mg/m2 per day on days 1 to 5 followed by HiDAC (3000 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (30 mg/m2) once each on days 6 and 10. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01839240.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042987PMC
February 2020

A randomized phase 2 network trial of tivantinib plus cetuximab versus cetuximab in patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer 2020 05 19;126(10):2146-2152. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: MET signaling is a well described mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy, and MET overexpression is common in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In the current trial, the authors compared the oral MET inhibitor tivantinib (ARQ197) in combination with cetuximab (the TC arm) versus a control arm that received cetuximab monotherapy (C) in patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC.

Methods: In total, 78 evaluable patients with cetuximab-naive, platinum-refractory HNSCC were enrolled, including 40 on the TC arm and 38 on the C arm (stratified by human papillomavirus [HPV] status). Patients received oral tivantinib 360 mg twice daily and intravenous cetuximab 500 mg/m once every 2 weeks. The primary outcome was the response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1), and secondary outcomes included progression-free and overall survival. After patients progressed on the C arm, tivantinib monotherapy was optional.

Results: The response rate was 7.5% in the TC arm (N = 3; 1 complete response) and 7.9% in the C arm (N = 3; not significantly different [NS]). The median progression-free survival in both arms was 4 months (NS), and the median overall survival was 8 months (NS). Both treatments were well tolerated, with a trend toward increased hematologic toxicities in the TC arm (12.5% had grade 3 leukopenia). The response rate in 31 HPV-positive/p16-positive patients was 0% in both arms, whereas the response rate in HPV-negative patients was 12.7% (12.5% in the TC arm and 13% in the C arm). Fifteen patients received tivantinib monotherapy, and no responses were observed.

Conclusions: Combined tivantinib plus cetuximab does not significantly improve the response rate or survival compared with cetuximab alone but does increase toxicity in an unselected HNSCC population. Cetuximab responses appear to be limited to patients who have HPV-negative HNSCC. MET-aberration-focused trials for HNSCC and the use of higher potency, selective MET inhibitors remain of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011819PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of the Association of Perioperative UGT1A1 Genotype-Dosed gFOLFIRINOX With Margin-Negative Resection Rates and Pathologic Response Grades Among Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 02 5;3(2):e1921290. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (ie, stage ≥T3 and/or node positive) have high rates of recurrence despite surgery and adjunctive perioperative therapies, which also have high toxicity profiles. Evaluation of pharmacogenomically dosed perioperative gFOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and UGT1A1 genotype-directed irinotecan) to optimize efficacy while limiting toxic effects may have value.

Objective: To evaluate the coprimary end points of margin-negative (R0) resection rates and pathologic response grades (PRGs) of gFOLFIRINOX therapy among patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This single-group phase 2 trial, conducted at 2 academic medical centers from February 2014 to March 2019, enrolled 36 evaluable patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and gastric body. Data analysis was conducted in May 2019.

Interventions: Patients received biweekly gFOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, 2400 mg/m2 over 46 hours; oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2; irinotecan, 180 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 6/6, 135 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 6/7, or 90 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 7/7; and prophylactic peg-filgastrim, 6 mg) for 4 cycles before and after surgery. Patients with tumors positive for ERBB2 also received trastuzumab (6-mg/kg loading dose, then 4 mg/kg).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Margin-negative resection rate and PRG.

Results: A total of 36 evaluable patients (27 [78%] men; median [range] age, 66 [27-85] years; 10 [28%] with gastric body cancer; 24 [67%] with intestinal-type tumors; 6 [17%] with ERBB2-positive tumors; 19 [53%] with UGT1A1 genotype 6/6; 16 [44%] with genotype 6/7; and 1 [3%] with genotype 7/7) were enrolled. Of these, 35 (97%) underwent surgery; 1 patient (3%) died after completing neoadjuvant chemotherapy while awaiting surgery. Overall, R0 resection was achieved in 33 of 36 patients (92%); 2 patients (6%) with linitis plastica achieved R1 resection. Pathologic response grades 1, 2, and 3 occurred in 13 patients (36%), 9 patients (25%), and 14 patients (39%), respectively, and PRG 1 was observed in 11 of 24 intestinal-type tumors (46%). Median disease-free survival was 30.1 months (95% CI, 15.0 months to not reached), and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI, 8.3 months to not reached). There were no differences in outcomes by UGT1A1 genotype group. A total of 38 patients, including 2 (5%) with antral tumors, were evaluable for toxic effects. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurring in 5% or more of patients during the perioperative cycles included diarrhea (7 patients [18%]; 3 of 19 patients [16%] with genotype 6/6; 2 of 16 patients [13%] with genotype 6/7; 2 of 3 patients [67%] with genotype 7/7), anemia (2 patients [5%]), vomiting (2 patients [5%]), and nausea (2 patients [5%]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, perioperative pharmacogenomically dosed gFOLFIRINOX was feasible, providing downstaging with PRG 1 in more than one-third of patients and an R0 resection rate in 92% of patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02366819.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.21290DOI Listing
February 2020

Impact of TCR Diversity on the Development of Transplanted or Chemically Induced Tumors.

Cancer Immunol Res 2020 02 12;8(2):192-202. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Institute of Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Buch, Berlin, Germany.

Burnet postulated that the diversity of T-cell receptors (TCR) allows T cells to protect against the development of cancers that display antigens with a similar, seemingly endless diversity. To test this hypothesis, we developed a strategy in which a single breeding pair of mice gives rise to four groups of sibling mice. Three of the four groups had a similar number of CD8 T cells, but TCR diversity was either broad, significantly reduced, or absent when expressing only one type of TCR. The fourth group had no T cells. All mice shared the same housing, and, therefore, their microbial environment was similar. Only slight differences in the intestinal flora were observed under these conditions. An undisturbed broad TCR repertoire was required for the rejection of inoculated cancers displaying the natural antigenic heterogeneity of primary tumors, whereas even one type of TCR was sufficient to protect against artificial cancers stably expressing cognate antigens. The three groups of mice with limited or no TCR repertoire showed an increased risk of developing primary tumors after chemical induction. However, the risk of early death or morbidity in these cohorts of mice was significantly higher than in mice with a diverse TCR repertoire, and it remains unknown whether mice with reduced TCR diversity, who died early without cancer, would have developed tumors with higher, lower, or equal probability after induction. Together, TCR diversity seems crucial to overcome the natural genetic instability of cancers and their antigenic heterogeneity, which impacts the design of cellular therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-19-0567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007920PMC
February 2020

Analytical Differences in Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Assays.

J Appl Lab Med 2019 03 1;3(5):788-798. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: We compared the rates of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) decline using the Siemens Immulite Turbo PTH and Roche Elecsys short turnaround time PTH assays in 95 consecutive surgical patients to investigate analytical and turnaround time (TAT) differences between the tests performed in the operating room (OR) vs the central clinical chemistry laboratory (CCL).

Methods: Serial blood samples from 95 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy were collected and measured using the 2 immunoassays. Specimens from the first 15 patients were measured simultaneously in the OR and CCL and used for the TAT study. In addition to 2 baseline samples, specimens were collected at 5, 10, and 15 min (for some patients, >15 min) after parathyroidectomy.

Results: In the TAT study, a significant difference was observed (OR median 20 min vs CCL median 27 min; < 0.05). Of the 95 patient series, slower rates of parathyroid hormone decrease were observed in approximately 20% of the patients when comparing the Roche with the Immulite immunoassay.

Conclusions: There was a slightly longer TAT in the CCL compared with running the assay directly within the OR (median difference of approximately 7 min). For a majority of the patients, both methods showed equivalent rates of PTH decline; however, for approximately 20% of the patients, there was a slower rate of PTH decline using the Roche assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/jalm.2018.026815DOI Listing
March 2019

Clinical Assessment of 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin, Nab-Paclitaxel, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRABRAX) in Untreated Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer Using Genotype-Guided Dosing.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 01 26;26(1):18-24. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin, irinotecan, and nab-paclitaxel are all active agents in gastrointestinal cancers; the combination, FOLFIRABRAX, has not been previously evaluated. UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) clears SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. polymorphism reduces UGT1A1 enzymatic activity and predisposes to toxicity. We performed a trial to assess the safety and tolerability of FOLFIRABRAX with genotype-guided dosing of irinotecan.

Patients And Methods: Patients with previously untreated, advanced gastrointestinal cancers received FOLFIRABRAX with prophylactic pegfilgrastim every 14 days. , and patients received initial irinotecan doses of 180, 135, and 90 mg/m, respectively. 5-FU 2,400 mg/m over 46 hours, leucovorin 400 mg/m, and nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m were administered. Doses were deemed tolerable if the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate during cycle 1 was ≤35% in each genotype group. DLTs were monitored using a sequential procedure.

Results: Fifty patients enrolled, 30 pancreatic, 9 biliary tract, 6 gastroesophageal, and 5 others. DLTs occurred in 5 of 23 (22%) patients, 1 of 19 (5%) patients, and 0 of 7 patients. DLTs were all grade 3: diarrhea (3 patients), nausea (2 patients), and febrile neutropenia (1 patient). The overall response rate was 31%. Response rates in pancreatic, gastroesophageal, and biliary tract cancers were 34%, 50%, and 11%, respectively. Eighteen patients (36%) received therapy for at least 24 weeks.

Conclusions: FOLFIRABRAX with genotype-guided dosing of irinotecan is tolerable in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and or genotypes. Too few patients were enrolled to provide conclusive results. Responses occurred across multiple tumor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942629PMC
January 2020

Outcomes of hydrocephalus secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Sep 6:1-8. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

6Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science.

Objective: Hydrocephalus occurs in children with congenital toxoplasmosis and can lead to severe disability. In these cases, the decision to intervene is often influenced by the expectation of neurological recovery. In this study, clinical responses to neurosurgical intervention in children with hydrocephalus secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis are characterized.

Methods: Sixty-five participants with hydrocephalus due to congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection were evaluated as part of the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study, and their neuroradiographic findings were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were scored on the basis of cognition and motor skills through the use of IQ scores and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. Outcomes were then analyzed in relation to approach to management, anatomy of hydrocephalus, and time from diagnosis of hydrocephalus to surgical intervention.

Results: There was considerable variation in the outcomes of patients whose hydrocephalus was treated in early life, ranging from normal cognitive and motor function to profound developmental delay and functional limitation. Of the 65 participants included in the study, IQ and GMFCS level were available for 46 (70.8%). IQ and motor score were highly correlated (r = -0.82, p < 0.001). There were people with differing patterns of hydrocephalus or thickness of cortical mantle on initial presentation who had favorable outcomes. Time to neurosurgical intervention data were available for 31 patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. Delayed shunt placement beyond 25 days after diagnosis of hydrocephalus was associated with greater cognitive impairment (p = 0.02). Motor impairment also appeared to be associated with shunt placement beyond 25 days but the difference did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.13). Among those with shunt placement within 25 days after diagnosis (n = 19), the mean GMFCS level was 1.9 ± 1.6 (range 1-5). Five (29.4%) of 17 of these patients were too disabled to participate in formal cognitive testing, after excluding 2 patients with visual difficulties or language barriers that precluded IQ testing. Of the patients who had VP shunt placement 25 or more days after diagnosis (n = 12), the mean GMFCS level was 2.7 ± 1.4 (range 1-4). Of these, 1 could not participate in IQ testing due to severe visual difficulties and 8 (72.7%) of the remaining 11 due to cognitive disability.

Conclusions: VP shunt placement in patients with hydrocephalus caused by congenital toxoplasmosis can contribute to favorable clinical outcomes, even in cases with severe hydrocephalus on neuroimaging. Shunt placement within 25 days of diagnosis was statistically associated with more favorable cognitive outcomes. Motor function appeared to follow the same pattern although it did not achieve statistical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.6.PEDS18684DOI Listing
September 2019

Prolonged Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Capecitabine and a CYP2C9 Substrate, Celecoxib.

J Clin Pharmacol 2019 12 5;59(12):1632-1640. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

This study investigated the time course and magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction between capecitabine and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 substrate celecoxib, with implications for coadministration of fluoropyrimidines with CYP2C9 substrates such as warfarin. Patients received celecoxib 200 mg orally twice daily continuously, with capecitabine (1000 mg/m orally twice daily for 14 days every 21 days) starting 7 days later. Assessment of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential was performed using equivalence testing, which assumes that there is no clinically relevant DDI when the calculated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the drug exposure ratios fall within the range of 0.80 to 1.25. Comparison of steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib between day 7 (cycle 0, celecoxib only) and day 14 (cycle 1, celecoxib + capecitabine) showed geometric mean ratios of 1.24 (90%CI, 1.04-1.49), 1.30 (1.11-1.53) and 1.28 (1.11-1.47) for maximum plasma concentration, minimum plasma concentration, and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 8 hours, respectively. Comparison of day 7 vs day 21 (cycle 1, after 1 week washout of capecitabine) showed a further increase in the geometric mean ratio of maximum plasma concentration (1.39; 90%CI, 1.16-1.66), minimum plasma concentration (1.53; 1.10-2.12) and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 8 hours (1.41; 1.19-1.68). Because the 90%CIs fell outside the prespecified equivalence margin, we conclude that coadministration results in a DDI (increased celecoxib exposure) that persists for at least 7 days after capecitabine discontinuation. Close monitoring should be undertaken when administering fluoropyrimidines with CYP2C9 substrates with narrow therapeutic indexes while also weighing the benefits and risks for individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1476DOI Listing
December 2019

Phase 1 study of selinexor plus carfilzomib and dexamethasone for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2019 08 24;186(4):549-560. Epub 2019 May 24.

Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Selinexor, an oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export, targets Exportin 1 (XPO1, also termed CRM1). Non-clinical studies support combining selinexor with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and corticosteroids to overcome resistance in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of twice-weekly selinexor in combination with carfilzomib and dexamethasone (SKd) to determine maximum tolerated dose in patients with RRMM (N = 21), with an expansion cohort to assess activity in carfilzomib-refractory disease and identify a recommended phase II dose (RP2D). During dose escalation, there was one dose-limiting toxicity (cardiac failure). The RP2D of twice-weekly SKd was selinexor 60 mg, carfilzomib 20/27 mg/m and dexamethasone 20 mg. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included thrombocytopenia (71%), anaemia (33%), lymphopenia (33%), neutropenia (33%) and infections (24%). Rates of ≥minimal response, ≥partial response and very good partial response were 71%, 48% and 14%, respectively; similar response outcomes were observed for dual-class refractory (PI and immunomodulatory drug)/quad-exposed (carfilzomib, bortezomib, lenalidomide and pomalidomide) patients (n = 17), and patients refractory to carfilzomib in last line of therapy (n = 13). Median progression-free survival was 3·7 months, and overall survival was 22·4 months in the overall population. SKd was tolerable and re-established disease control in RRMM patients, including carfilzomib-refractory patients. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02199665).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6772147PMC
August 2019

Differential risk of disease progression between isolated anastomotic ulcers and mild ileal recurrence after ileocolonic resection in patients with Crohn's disease.

Gastrointest Endosc 2019 08 6;90(2):269-275. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background And Aims: It is standard of care to perform ileocolonoscopy within a year of ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease (CD) and to guide management decisions based on the Rutgeert score (RS). The modified RS subdivides i2 into lesions confined to the anastomosis (i2a) or >5 aphthous lesions in the neoterminal ileum (i2b). There is uncertainty, however, if i2a lesions incur an increased risk of disease recurrence. The primary aim of this study was to compare the rates of endoscopic progression between i2a and i2b when compared with i0-i1.

Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study including patients with CD who had an ileocolonoscopy ≤12 months after ileocolonic resection with primary anastomosis and who had >1 year of documented clinical follow-up after the index endoscopic evaluation. All consecutive eligible patients between 2004 and 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, disease, and treatment data were collected. Patients with i3 or i4 at index colonoscopy were excluded from further analyses. Outcomes included endoscopic progression and recurrent surgery. For patients with RS of i0 to i2, endoscopic progression was predefined as progression of the RS in subsequent colonoscopies to i3 or i4. Recurrent surgical interventions were defined as re-resection or stricturoplasty of the previous ileocolonic anastomosis.

Results: Two hundred seven CD patients (median age, 36 years [interquartile range, 26-48]) had an ileocolonoscopy ≤12 months after ileocolonic resection. At index colonoscopy, 95 patients (45.9%) had an RS of i0, 31 (14.9%) i1, 40 (19.3%) i2a, 25 (12.1%) i2b, 10 (4.8%) i3, and 6 (2.9%) i4. One hundred ninety-one patients had an RS of i0 to i2 and were included in the analyses for recurrent surgery. One hundred forty-nine patients had a second endoscopic evaluation and were included in the analysis for the primary outcome of endoscopic disease progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed and found the hazard ratio (HR) of endoscopic progression to be significantly higher with i2b lesions when compared with i0 or i1 (HR, 6.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.38-16.2; P = .0008). Patients with i2a did not have significantly higher rates of endoscopic progression when compared with i0 or i1 (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, .80-6.66; P = .12). Likewise, patients with i2b lesions had higher risk of needing recurrent surgery when compared with i0 or i1 (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.10-12.1; P = .034), whereas patients with i2a lesions were not found to have a significantly elevated risk of recurrent surgery (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, .35-5.77; P = .62).

Conclusion: Endoscopic lesions limited to the ileocolonic anastomosis (RS i2a) in patients with CD undergoing colonoscopy within 1 year of their resection were not associated with a significantly higher rate of progression to more severe disease, whereas those in the neoileum (RS i2b) were. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2019.01.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774247PMC
August 2019

Phase 1 study of lenalidomide plus dose-adjusted EPOCH-R in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas with deregulated MYC and BCL2.

Cancer 2019 06 1;125(11):1830-1836. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Dual translocation of MYC and BCL2 or the dual overexpression of these proteins in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas (termed double-hit lymphoma [DHL] and double-expressor lymphoma [DEL], respectively) have poor outcomes after chemoimmunotherapy with the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Retrospective reports have suggested improved outcomes with dose-intensified regimens. In the current study, the authors conducted a phase 1 study to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and preliminary efficacy of adding lenalidomide to dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin with rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) in patients with DHL and DEL.

Methods: The primary objective of the current study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide in combination with DA-EPOCH-R. A standard 3+3 design was used with lenalidomide administered on days 1 to 14 of each 21-day cycle (dose levels of 10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg). Patients attaining a complete response after 6 cycles of induction therapy proceeded to maintenance lenalidomide (10 mg daily for 14 days every 21 days) for 12 additional cycles.

Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 10 of whom had DEL and 5 of whom had DHL. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities at a lenalidomide dose of 20 mg, consisting of grade 4 sepsis. The maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg. The most common nonhematologic grade ≥3 adverse events included thromboembolism (4 patients; 27%) and hypokalemia (2 patients; 13%) (toxicities were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.0]). The preliminary efficacy of the regimen was encouraging, especially in the DEL cohort, in which all 10 patients achieved durable and complete metabolic responses with a median follow-up of 24 months.

Conclusions: The combination of lenalidomide with DA-EPOCH-R appears to be safe and feasible in patients with DHL and DEL. These encouraging results have prompted an ongoing phase 2 multicenter study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31877DOI Listing
June 2019

A UGT1A1 genotype-guided dosing study of modified FOLFIRINOX in previously untreated patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies.

Cancer 2019 05 15;125(10):1629-1636. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) is an effective but toxic therapy for pancreatic cancer. UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1) eliminates the active metabolite of irinotecan. Polymorphisms reduce UGT1A1 activity, leading to toxicity. The primary objective was to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate in cycle 1 of modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) using genotype-guided dosing of irinotecan for the most common UGT1A1 genotypes (*1/*1, *1/*28) in advanced gastrointestinal malignancies, with expansion in pancreatic and biliary tract cancers.

Method: 5-FU (2400 mg/m over 46 hours), leucovorin (400 mg/m ), oxaliplatin (85 mg/m ), and irinotecan were given every 14 days. Irinotecan doses of 180, 135, and 90 mg/m were administered for UGT1A1 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*28, and *28/*28, respectively. Prophylactic pegfilgrastim was omitted in cycle 1 for cohort 1 (tolerability by genotype), but was given in cohort 2 (tolerability by tumor type). Doses were tolerable if the upper limit of a 2-sided 80% confidence interval for DLT rate was ≤33%.

Results: In cohort 1, DLTs (most commonly febrile neutropenia, fatigue, diarrhea) occurred in 2/15 (13%), 3/16 (19%), and 4/10 (40%) patients with *1/*1, *1/*28, and *28/*28 genotypes, respectively. In cohort 2, 6/19 (32%) pancreatic and 4/19 (21%) biliary tract cancer patients experienced DLTs (most commonly fatigue, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting). In cohort 2, upper confidence limits of DLT rates exceeded 33%. Response rates were 38% in pancreatic and 21% in biliary tract cancers.

Conclusion: On the basis of our prespecified criteria, tolerability of UGT1A1 genotype-guided mFOLFIRINOX was not established in pancreatic and biliary tract cancers. However, this regimen was effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31938DOI Listing
May 2019

Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Mortality Associated with Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Anesthesiology 2019 01;130(1):83-91

From the Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care (A.D., M.M., B.P.) Emergency Medicine (H.H.), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria the Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (P.N.) Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, University of Chicago, Illinois (T.K.).

Background: Cardiac events after electroconvulsive therapy have been reported sporadically, but a systematic assessment of the risk is missing. The goal of this study was to obtain a robust estimate of the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that investigated electroconvulsive therapy and reported major adverse cardiac events and/or mortality. Endpoints were incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Additional endpoints were all-cause and cardiac mortality. The pooled estimated incidence rates and 95% CIs of individual major adverse cardiac events and mortality per 1,000 patients and per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments were calculated.

Results: After screening of 2,641 publications and full-text assessment of 284 studies, the data of 82 studies were extracted (total n = 106,569 patients; n = 786,995 electroconvulsive therapy treatments). The most commonly reported major adverse cardiac events were acute heart failure, arrhythmia, and acute pulmonary edema with an incidence (95% CI) of 24 (12.48 to 46.13), 25.83 (14.83 to 45.00), and 4.92 (0.85 to 28.60) per 1,000 patients or 2.44 (1.27 to 4.69), 4.66 (2.15 to 10.09), and 1.50 (0.71 to 3.14) per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments. All-cause mortality was 0.42 (0.11 to 1.52) deaths per 1,000 patients and 0.06 (0.02 to 0.23) deaths per 1,000 electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Cardiac death accounted for 29% (23 of 79) of deaths.

Conclusions: Major adverse cardiac events and death after electroconvulsive therapy are infrequent and occur in about 1 of 50 patients and after about 1 of 200 to 500 electroconvulsive therapy treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300062PMC
January 2019

Low-Dose Abiraterone With Food: Rebutting an Editorial.

J Clin Oncol 2018 10 6;36(30):3060-3061. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Russell Z. Szmulewitz, Theodore Karrison, Walter M. Stadler, and Mark J. Ratain, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.79.3018DOI Listing
October 2018

Effects of driving distance and transport time on mortality among Level I and II traumas occurring in a metropolitan area.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 Oct;85(4):756-765

From the University of Chicago, Departments of Public Health Science (T.G.K., L.P.S., R.T.), Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine (D.R.D.), and Surgery (S.R.), Chicago, Illinois; and Northwestern University, Department of Preventive Medicine (M.K.), Chicago, Illinois.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambulance driving distance and transport time on mortality among trauma incidents occurring in the City of Chicago, a large metropolitan area.

Methods: We studied individuals 16 years or older who suffered a Level I or II injury and were taken to a Level I trauma center. The outcome was in-hospital mortality, including those dead on arrival but excluding those deemed dead on scene. Driving distance was calculated from the scene of injury to the trauma center where the patient was taken. Transport time was defined as the time from scene departure to arrival at the trauma center. Covariates included injury severity measures recorded at the scene. Logistic regression and instrumental variable probit regression models were used to examine the association between driving distance, transport time, and mortality, adjusting for injury severity.

Results: A total of 24,834 incidents were analyzed, including 1,464 deaths. Median driving distance was 3.9 miles, and median transport time was 13 minutes. Our findings indicate that increased driving distance is associated with a modest increase in mortality, with a covariate-adjusted odds ratio of 1.12 per 2-mile increase in distance (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.20). This corresponds to an increase in overall mortality of 0.26 percentage points per 2 miles (95% CI, 0.11-0.40). Using distance as an instrumental variable, we estimate a 0.51 percentage point increase in mortality per 5-minute increase in transport time (95% CI, 0.14-0.89).

Conclusion: We find a modest effect of distance on mortality that is approximately linear over a range of 0 to 12 miles. Instrumental variables analysis indicated a corresponding increase in mortality with increasing transport time. Limitations of the study include the possibility of unmeasured confounders and the assumption that distance affects mortality only through its effect on transport time.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic study, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002041DOI Listing
October 2018

A pharmacodynamic study of sirolimus and metformin in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 08 9;82(2):309-317. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Section of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2115, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: Sirolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Metformin may potentiate mTOR inhibition by sirolimus while mitigating its adverse effects. We conducted a pilot study to test this hypothesis.

Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumor were treated with sirolimus for 7 days followed by randomization to either sirolimus with metformin (Arm A) or sirolimus (Arm B) until day 21. From day 22 onwards, all patients received sirolimus and metformin. The primary aim was to compare the change in phospho-p70S6K (pp70S6K) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from day 8 to day 22 using a two-sample t test. Secondary aims were objective response rate, toxicity, and other serum pharmacodynamic biomarkers (e.g., fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-BP, and leptin).

Results: 24 patients were enrolled, with 18 evaluable for the primary endpoint. There was no significant difference in mean change in pp70S6K in arm A vs. arm B (- 0.12 vs. - 0.16; P = 0.64). Similarly, there were no significant differences in other serum pharmacodynamic biomarkers. There were no partial responses. There were no dose-limiting or unexpected toxicities.

Conclusions: Adding metformin to sirolimus, although well tolerated, was not associated with significant changes in pp70S6K in PBMC or other serum pharmacodynamic biomarkers.

Impact: Combining metformin with sirolimus did not improve mTOR inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-018-3619-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739841PMC
August 2018

Prospective International Randomized Phase II Study of Low-Dose Abiraterone With Food Versus Standard Dose Abiraterone In Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2018 05 28;36(14):1389-1395. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Russell Z. Szmulewitz, Abiola Ibraheem, Elia Martinez, Mark F. Kozloff, Chadi Nabhan, Theodore Karrison, Walter M. Stadler, and Mark J. Ratain, The University of Chicago, Chicago; Mark F. Kozloff, Ingalls Hospital, Harvey; Paul Fishkin, Illinois Cancer Care, Peoria, IL; Cody J. Peer and William D. Figg, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD; Bradley Carthon and R. Donald Harvey, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and Wei Peng Yong and Edmund Chiong, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Despite a large food effect, AA was administered under fasting conditions in its pivotal trials. We sought to test the hypothesis that low-dose AA (LOW; 250 mg with a low-fat meal) would have comparable activity to standard AA (STD; 1,000 mg fasting) in patients with CRPC. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 72) with progressive CRPC from seven institutions in the United States and Singapore were randomly assigned to STD or LOW. Both arms received prednisone 5 mg twice daily. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was assessed monthly, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were assessed every 12 weeks with disease burden radiographic assessments. Plasma was collected for drug concentrations. Log change in PSA, as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for efficacy, was the primary end point, using a noninferiority design. Progression-free survival (PFS), PSA response (≥ 50% reduction), change in androgen levels, and pharmacokinetics were secondary end points. Results Thirty-six patients were accrued to both arms. At 12 weeks, there was a greater effect on PSA in the LOW arm (mean log change, -1.59) compared with STD (-1.19), and noninferiority of LOW was established according to predefined criteria. The PSA response rate was 58% in LOW and 50% in STD, and the median PFS was approximately 9 months in both groups. Androgen levels decreased similarly in both arms. Although there was no difference in PSA response or PFS, abiraterone concentrations were higher in STD. Conclusion Low-dose AA (with low-fat breakfast) is noninferior to standard dosing with respect to PSA metrics. Given the pharmacoeconomic implications, these data warrant consideration by prescribers, payers, and patients. Additional studies are indicated to assess the long-term efficacy of this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.4381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5941614PMC
May 2018

Restricted mean survival time: Does covariate adjustment improve precision in randomized clinical trials?

Clin Trials 2018 04 4;15(2):178-188. Epub 2018 Mar 4.

2 Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Restricted mean survival time is a measure of average survival time up to a specified time point. There has been an increased interest in using restricted mean survival time to compare treatment arms in randomized clinical trials because such comparisons do not rely on proportional hazards or other assumptions about the nature of the relationship between survival curves.

Methods: This article addresses the question of whether covariate adjustment in randomized clinical trials that compare restricted mean survival times improves precision of the estimated treatment effect (difference in restricted mean survival times between treatment arms). Although precision generally increases in linear models when prognostic covariates are added, this is not necessarily the case in non-linear models. For example, in logistic and Cox regression, the standard error of the estimated treatment effect does not decrease when prognostic covariates are added, although the situation is complicated in those settings because the estimand changes as well. Because estimation of restricted mean survival time in the manner described in this article is also based on a model that is non-linear in the covariates, we investigate whether the comparison of restricted mean survival times with adjustment for covariates leads to a reduction in the standard error of the estimated treatment effect relative to the unadjusted estimator or whether covariate adjustment provides no improvement in precision. Chen and Tsiatis suggest that precision will increase if covariates are chosen judiciously. We present results of simulation studies that compare unadjusted versus adjusted comparisons of restricted mean survival time between treatment arms in randomized clinical trials.

Results: We find that for comparison of restricted means in a randomized clinical trial, adjusting for covariates that are associated with survival increases precision and therefore statistical power, relative to the unadjusted estimator. Omitting important covariates results in less precision but estimates remain unbiased.

Conclusion: When comparing restricted means in a randomized clinical trial, adjusting for prognostic covariates can improve precision and increase power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1740774518759281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891397PMC
April 2018

Safety and Clinical Activity of Pembrolizumab and Multisite Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.

J Clin Oncol 2018 06 13;36(16):1611-1618. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Jason J. Luke, Jeffrey M. Lemons, Theodore G. Karrison, Sean P. Pitroda, James M. Melotek, Yuanyuan Zha, Hania A. Al-Hallaq, Ainhoa Arina, Nikolai N. Khodarev, Linda Janisch, Paul Chang, Jyoti D. Patel, Gini F. Fleming, John Moroney, Manish R. Sharma, Mark J. Ratain, Thomas F. Gajewski, Ralph R. Weichselbaum, and Steven J. Chmura, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Julia R. White, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may stimulate innate and adaptive immunity to augment immunotherapy response. Multisite SBRT is an emerging paradigm for treating metastatic disease. Anti-PD-1-treatment outcomes may be improved with lower disease burden. In this context, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the safety of pembrolizumab with multisite SBRT in patients with metastatic solid tumors. Patients and Methods Patients progressing on standard treatment received SBRT to two to four metastases. Not all metastases were targeted, and metastases > 65 mL were partially irradiated. SBRT dosing varied by site and ranged from 30 to 50 Gy in three to five fractions with predefined dose de-escalation if excess dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Pembrolizumab was initiated within 7 days after completion of SBRT. Pre- and post-SBRT biopsy specimens were analyzed in a subset of patients to quantify interferon-γ-induced gene expression. Results A total of 79 patients were enrolled; three patients did not receive any treatment and three patients only received SBRT. Patients included in the analysis were treated with SBRT and at least one cycle of pembrolizumab. Most (94.5%) of patients received SBRT to two metastases. Median follow-up for toxicity was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 3.3 to 8.1 months). Six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities with no radiation dose reductions. In the 68 patients with imaging follow-up, the overall objective response rate was 13.2%. Median overall survival was 9.6 months (95% CI, 6.5 months to undetermined) and median progression-free survival was 3.1 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 3.4 months). Expression of interferon-γ-associated genes from post-SBRT tumor biopsy specimens significantly correlated with nonirradiated tumor response. Conclusion Multisite SBRT followed by pembrolizumab was well tolerated with acceptable toxicity. Additional studies exploring the clinical benefit and predictive biomarkers of combined multisite SBRT and PD-1-directed immunotherapy are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.2229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978468PMC
June 2018