Publications by authors named "Thamil Arasu Saminathan"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(1):e0245593. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Polysubstance use is defined as the use of more than one non-prescribed licit or illicit substance either concurrently or simultaneously. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of single substance users and polysubstance users and 'their associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017, a cross-sectional survey conducted among Malaysian school-going adolescents aged 13 to 17. The NHMS utilised a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Multivariate Multinomial Logistic Regression analysis was applied.

Results: The overall prevalence of single substance use and polysubstance use among adolescents were 17.2% and 5.1% respectively. The multinomial model showed a higher likelihood of being single or polysubstance user among male (single user OR = 3.0, poly user OR = 4.6), others Bumiputeras vs Malay (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 5.3), those who live with a single parent (single user OR = 1.2, poly user OR = 1.4), involved in truancy (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 3.6) and being bullied (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 3.4), those who had lack of peer support (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 1.4), poor parental bonding (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 1.8), depression (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 3.2) and those who had no close friend (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 2.7).

Conclusion: Our study highlighted multiple significant associated factors of single and polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia. This result can assist in the development of specific intervention and prevention programs targeting high-risk groups.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819602PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors in Malaysia; findings from a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Nephrol 2020 08 14;21(1):344. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Malaysia was 9.07% in 2011. We aim to determine the current CKD prevalence in Malaysia and its associated risk factors.

Methods: A population-based study was conducted on a total of 890 respondents who were representative of the adult population in Malaysia, i.e., aged ≥18 years old. Respondents were randomly selected using a stratified cluster method. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated from calibrated serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m or the presence of persistent albuminuria if eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m.

Results: Our study shows that the prevalence of CKD in Malaysia was 15.48% (95% CI: 12.30, 19.31) in 2018, an increase compared to the year 2011 when the prevalence of CKD was 9.07%. An estimated 3.85% had stage 1 CKD, 4.82% had stage 2 CKD, and 6.48% had stage 3 CKD, while 0.33% had stage 4-5 CKD. Hypertension (aOR 3.72), diabetes mellitus (aOR 3.32), increasing BMI (aOR 1.06), and increasing age (aOR 1.06) were significantly associated with CKD.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that CKD has become one of the leading public health issues in Malaysia. Thus, there is an urgent need to screen for CKD and prevent its progression, associated morbidity, and mortality at the national level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01966-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427283PMC
August 2020

A systematic review protocol on small/kiddie cigarette packaging size and its impact on smoking.

Syst Rev 2020 01 13;9(1):13. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Small/kiddie cigarette packs consist of less than 20 cigarette sticks. Kiddie packs were recently proposed to be reintroduced by the tobacco industry with an excuse to prevent consumers from buying illicit cigarettes. By reintroducing kiddie packs, cigarettes will inevitably be more affordable and this would appeal to lower-income consumers especially teens. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the impact of kiddie packs on smoking, specifically on smoking initiation, the urge/tendency to buy cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption.

Methods: This systematic review will be based on the review of original articles on the impact of kiddie packs on smoking. There is no restriction on the publication dates. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus will be searched to retrieve potential original articles. Additional records identified through other sources: Google Scholar, as well as Journal of Substance Use and Tobacco Control, are also to be searched. These will include original articles in any language which included all study designs (randomised controlled trials, quasi experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies) comparing kiddie packs with regular cigarette packs. The primary outcomes of interest will be initiation of smoking and urge/tendency to buy cigarettes in the general population and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption among current smokers. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of smoking using kiddie packs among the current smokers.

Discussion: This systematic review will provide evidence to support the impact of kiddie packs on smoking in terms of smoking initiation, smoking prevalence, urge/tendency to purchase cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption. The findings from this review could be helpful to policymakers in regulating kiddie packs to control the consumption of tobacco.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018102325.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1263-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958659PMC
January 2020

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Physical Abuse at Home Among School-Going Adolescents in Malaysia: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 3;31(8_suppl):88S-96S. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Violence and Injury Prevention Unit, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

We assessed the current situation of physical abuse among adolescents at home in Malaysia. A total of 27 497 school-going adolescents answered a self-administered questionnaire during the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017. A complex sampling analysis was applied to identify factors associated with physical abuse among adolescents using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of physical abuse at home among students was 11.8%. Our result shows that adolescents aged 13 years had significantly higher odds of such abuse, with odds decreasing as the adolescents age. Girls and adolescents from Indian ethnicity (minority ethnic group) had higher odds of such abuse. Other associated factors were mental health problems, substance abuse, and problems at school. Physical abuse among adolescents at home should be countered with appropriate measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519883139DOI Listing
November 2019

Body Weight, Body Weight Perception, and Bullying Among Adolescents in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 16;31(8_suppl):38S-47S. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Body weight is a factor, with body weight perception a mediator, toward being a victim of bullying. This study aimed to explore the association between body weight, body weight perception, and bullying among students 13 to 17 years of age in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used, and 212 schools across Malaysia were selected for this survey. Body weight was measured and body weight perception was the student's reflection of their body weight. The prevalence of being bullied among adolescents in Malaysia was 16.2%. Being too thin or being obese increased the probability of being bullied. Students with a normal body mass index, but with a misperception of their body weight, also had increased odds of being bullied. Obesity prevention, together with instilling positive body weight perception, should be part of all programs directed toward tackling the problem of bullying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519879339DOI Listing
November 2019

Cigarette Smoking Among Secondary School-Going Male Adolescents in Malaysia: Findings From the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 19;31(8_suppl):80S-87S. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Smoking is a learned behavior during adolescence, and it is found predominantly among male adolescents in Malaysia. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictive factors of current cigarette smoking among school-going male adolescents in Malaysia. Data were derived from the National Health and Morbidity Survey: Adolescent Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study that utilized a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling to select a nationally representative sample of school-going adolescents in Malaysia (n = 27 497). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among male adolescents in Malaysia. Male adolescents aged 16 to 17 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.70), current illicit drug users (AOR = 8.14; 95% CI = 6.37-10.41), current alcohol users (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.65-2.23), those from rural schools (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.46-1.76), those whose parents were widowed/divorced/separated (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21-1.55), and those whose parents/guardians were tobacco product users (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.33-5.16) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. Tobacco control strategies should be aimed at both adolescents at risk and at promoting parental smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519874948DOI Listing
November 2019

Prevalence of Nonfatal Serious Injury Due to Motor Vehicle Accidents Among Malaysian School-Going Adolescents: Findings From the Adolescent Health Survey 2017.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 14;31(8_suppl):65S-72S. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Federal Government Administration Centre, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

Serious injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) significantly contributes to the adolescents' health status. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of nonfatal injury due to MVAs and its associated factors among Malaysian school-going adolescents. Nationally representative samples were selected via 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. Data was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between the variables. A total of 1088 out of 27 497 adolescents reported that they had sustained serious injury due to MVAs with a prevalence of 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7-4.5). Serious injury due to MVAs among adolescents was positively associated with being current cigarette smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.5; 95% CI = 2.2-2.9), followed by Malay ethnicity (aOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0), current drug users (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0), boys (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.8-2.4), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.5), and those who were in upper secondary school (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.2-1.5). Targeted intervention and curbing substance use among boys may reduce the morbidities from MVAs and its resulting complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519872662DOI Listing
November 2019

Factors Associated With E-Cigarette Usage and the Reasons for Initiation Among Malaysian Adolescents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 14;31(7_suppl):44S-52S. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are handheld devices that deliver an aerosol by heating a solution made up of propylene glycol and/or glycerol with or without flavoring agents and nicotine. This nationwide cross-sectional survey examined factors associated with e-cigarette usage and reasons for its initiation among 13 162 Malaysian adolescents. Data from TECMA (Tobacco and E-Cigarette Survey among Malaysian Adolescents) were used. Nine percent of adolescents had used e-cigarettes in the past month. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.36-4.95), 16 to 19 year olds (aOR = 2.64; 95% CI = 2.13-3.26), Malays (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.79-2.83), Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputeras (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.61-3.15), and cigarette smokers (aOR = 13.16; 95% CI = 11.14-15.54) were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Three main reasons for e-cigarette initiation among adolescents were its taste and smell, experimentation, and popularity. Sale of e-cigarettes with or without nicotine to people aged younger than 18 years should be banned. Flavored e-cigarettes should also be banned since there is evidence suggesting increased appeal among the younger generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519870663DOI Listing
October 2019

Bullying Victimization Among School-Going Adolescents in Malaysia: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 30;31(8_suppl):18S-29S. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying victimization from a nationwide school-based survey among 27 458 students aged 13 to 17 years. The overall prevalence of having been bullied in the past 30 days was 16.2%; this decreased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that factors most strongly associated with bullying victimization were exposure to physical attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-2.79), illicit drug use (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.78-3.34), involvement in physical fights (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.74-2.23), being younger than 14 years (aOR =1.95, 95% CI = 1.59-2.38), and having ever attempted suicide (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51-2.21). Other significantly associated factors include loneliness, truancy, making suicidal plans, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Exposure to bullying victimization can result in negative lifelong sequelae and important associated factors should be considered in planning effective school-based anti-bullying interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519870665DOI Listing
November 2019

Risk Factors for Illicit Drug Use Among Malaysian Male Adolescents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 26;31(8_suppl):48S-56S. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and its associated factors among male adolescents in Malaysia. Data of 13 135 adolescents were extracted from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017, a cross-sectional survey among school-going adolescents in Malaysia aged between 13 and 17 years, using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. A complex sample design analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. The overall prevalence of lifetime illicit drug use among male adolescents was 6.6%. The multivariable model showed that illicit drug use among male adolescents were associated with younger age, rural school area, marital status of parent, current smoker, ever having sex, truancy, involved in physical fight, and lack of peer support. The findings from this study can assist community and relevant authorities in their efforts to combat illicit drug usage among adolescents using intervention programs that diminishes risk factors and enhances the protective factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519865053DOI Listing
November 2019

Cessation of E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents and Its Associated Factors.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 12;31(7_suppl):53S-60S. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

We assessed the prevalence of cessation of e-cigarette and its associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia. This study analyzed data from the Tobacco and E-Cigarette Survey among Malaysian Adolescent (TECMA) in 2016, a cross-sectional study with 2-stage stratification cluster sampling. A total of 14 832 school-going adolescents aged 10 to 19 years participated in this survey. A complex sampling design and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. Nearly half of the adolescents (49.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.9-55.0) who had ever used e-cigarette ceased the usage. Based on multivariate analysis, adolescents were more likely to quit e-cigarette because they could not afford the e-cigarette (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.78-3.20), if they are aged 13 year and older (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.25-2.61), and those who claimed their e-cigarette does not contain nicotine (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.03-1.78). E-cigarette prevention efforts among adolescents could consider the cessation factors described in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519854873DOI Listing
October 2019