Publications by authors named "Thai V Pham"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dysfunctional potassium channel subunit interaction as a novel mechanism of long QT syndrome.

Heart Rhythm 2013 May 2;10(5):728-37. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

Background: The slowly-activating delayed rectifier current IKs contributes to repolarization of the cardiac action potential, and is composed of a pore-forming α-subunit, KCNQ1, and a modulatory β-subunit, KCNE1. Mutations in either subunit can cause long QT syndrome, a potentially fatal arrhythmic disorder. How KCNE1 exerts its extensive control over the kinetics of IKs remains unresolved

Objective: To evaluate the impact of a novel KCNQ1 mutation on IKs channel gating and kinetics

Methods: KCNQ1 mutations were expressed in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of KCNE1. Voltage clamping and MODELLER software were used to characterize and model channel function. Mutant and wt genes were cloned into FLAG, Myc and HA expression vectors to achieve differential epitope tagging, and expressed in HEK293 cells for immunohistochemical localization and surface biotinylation assay.

Results: We identified 2 adjacent mutations, S338F and F339S, in the KCNQ1 S6 domain in unrelated probands. The novel KCNQ1 S338F mutation segregated with prolonged QT interval and torsade de pointes; the second variant, F339S, was associated with fetal bradycardia and prolonged QT interval, but no other clinical events. S338F channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes had slightly increased peak conductance relative to wild type, with a more positive activation voltage. F339S channels conducted minimal current. Unexpectedly, S338F currents were abolished by co-expression with intact WT KCNE1 or its C-terminus (aa63-129), despite normal membrane trafficking and surface co-localization of KCNQ1 S338F and wt KCNE1. Structural modeling indicated that the S338F mutation specifically alters the interaction between the S6 domain of one KCNQ1 subunit and the S4-S5 linker of another, inhibiting voltage-induced movement synergistically with KCNE1 binding.

Conclusions: A novel KCNQ1 mutation specifically impaired channel function in the presence of KCNE1. Our structural model shows that this mutation effectively immobilizes voltage gating by an inhibitory interaction that is additive with that of KCNE1. Our findings illuminate a previously unreported mechanism for LQTS, and validate recent theoretical models of the closed state of the KCNQ1:KCNE1 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.12.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770260PMC
May 2013

Electrophysiological studies of ion channels and therapeutic potential with adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.

Methods Mol Biol 2003 ;227:179-212

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-387-9:179DOI Listing
January 2004

Testosterone diminishes the proarrhythmic effects of dofetilide in normal female rabbits.

Circulation 2002 Oct;106(16):2132-6

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Fla, USA.

Background: Recent clinical and experimental data suggest that testosterone may protect males against the deleterious effects of repolarization-prolonging drugs. This study tests the hypothesis that 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) protects normal females against drug-induced excessive prolongation of repolarization.

Methods And Results: We used microelectrode techniques to study isolated preparations of rabbit ventricular endocardium from age-matched normal control female rabbits and female rabbits treated with DHT for 4 weeks. Serum 17beta-estradiol levels were identical in the control and DHT-treated animals, whereas DHT levels were high (equaling those in normal males) only in the DHT-treated animals. Basal action potential duration to 90% repolarization (APD90) was significantly shorter in DHT-treated (155+/-7.4 ms, n=32) than control females (178+/-6.7 ms, n=29; P<0.05) at cycle length=1000 ms. The increase in APD90 induced by 10(-8) mol/L dofetilide at cycle length=1000 ms was significantly less in DHT-treated females than normal females (DeltaAPD90=8+/-7 and 29+/-5 ms, respectively, P<0.05). At 10(-6) mol/L dofetilide, the incidence of early afterdepolarizations was 28% in DHT-treated and 55% in normal female rabbits (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Elevating DHT levels diminishes the effects of dofetilide to increase APD and induce early afterdepolarizations in females. Moreover, treatment of females with DHT results in prolongation of APD and an incidence of early afterdepolarization equal to values previously reported by us for dofetilide-treated normal males. That serum levels of 17beta-estradiol were the same in DHT-treated and untreated females suggests that estradiol is not involved in the response to dofetilide. Thus, these data suggest that DHT and perhaps other androgenic hormones may protect normal females against the risk of dofetilide-induced arrhythmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000033596.21845.d8DOI Listing
October 2002

Cytoskeletal actin microfilaments and the transient outward potassium current in hypertrophied rat ventriculocytes.

J Physiol 2002 Jun;541(Pt 2):411-21

Department of Cardiology of the First Affiliated Hospital to Suzhou University, Suzhou Jiangsu 215006, People's Republic of China.

The durations of transmembrane action potentials recorded from single myocytes isolated from the endocardial surface of hypertrophied left ventricles of rats were increased, compared to the durations recorded from normal left ventricular cells at 36-37 degrees C. Exposure to phalloidin (1-20 microM, < 20 min), a specific stabilizer of the non-myofibrillar actin microfilament component of the cardiac cytoskeleton, had no effect on action potential duration of normal cells, but significantly shortened the prolonged action potentials of hypertrophied cells. Cytochalasin D (5-50 microM), a disrupter of the actin microfilaments, also had little effect on action potential duration of normal cells. However, cytochalasin D further increased the action potential duration of hypertrophied cells at 10 min exposure. The addition of phalloidin to solutions containing cytochalasin D, reduced the latter's increase of action potential duration in hypertrophied cells. Whole-cell transient outward K(+) current (I(to1)) density was significantly decreased in hypertrophied cells. At a test potential of +60 mV, the mean I(to1) density recorded from normal cells was 13.5 +/- 1.1 pA pF(-1) (n = 18) compared to 4.17 +/- 1.2 pA pF(-1) for LVH cells (n = 22; P < 0.05). Phalloidin (20 microM) increased and cytochalasin D (50 microM) decreased whole-cell I(to1) in hypertrophied cells but had no effect on I(to1), in normal cells. When equimolar concentrations were used, phalloidin, 10 microM, reversed the decrease in I(to1) brought about by cytochalasin D, 10 microM, in hypertrophied cells. The L-type calcium current density was reduced in LVH compared to normal cells. Phalloidin (20 microM) and cytochalasin D (50 microM) had no effect on I(Ca,L) in normal or LVH myocytes. The decrease in I(to1) in hypertrophied cells and the altered I(to1) responsiveness to phalloidin and cytochalasin D reflect modification of I(to1) channel function mediated, in part, through hypertrophy-altered cytoskeletal actin microfilament regulation of I(to1).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2290334PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.019562DOI Listing
June 2002

Effects of gonadal steroids on gender-related differences in transmural dispersion of L-type calcium current.

Cardiovasc Res 2002 Feb;53(3):752-62

Department of Pharmacology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 630 West 168 St., PH7 West-321, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Objectives: Repolarization-prolonging drugs induce torsades de pointes (TdP) in females more than males. The action potential plateau and the early afterdepolarizations that induce TdP are determined, in part, by L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). Therefore, we studied gender- and hormone-related differences in I(Ca,L) in age-, and weight-matched normal male, female and hormonally-treated, castrated rabbits.

Methods: Oophorectomized (OVX) or orchiectomized (ORCH) 50- to 60-day-old rabbits were subcutaneously implanted with pellets impregnated with placebo (PLA), 5 alpha-dihydroxytestosterone (DHT), or 17 beta-estradiol (EST). Four to five weeks later, epicardial and endocardial myocytes were isolated from the left ventricle. Patch clamp technique was performed to assess I(Ca,L).

Results: I(Ca,L) density (measured as peak current density [pA/pF] at +15 mV, V(h)= -40 mV), was greater in female epicardium (-7.4 +/- 0.9) than endocardium (-5.6 +/- 0.7, P<0.05), while male epicardial I(Ca,L) density (-6.5 +/- 0.7) did not differ from endocardial (-5.9 +/- 1.0, P>0.05). OVX-female, DHT and EST-treated groups had epicardial I(Ca,L) density (-5.6 +/- 0.6, and -5.9 +/- 0.7, respectively) greater than endocardial (-4.3 +/- 0.3, and -3.6 +/- 0.4, P<0.05). However, OVX-females had hormone levels not significantly different from female controls and EST-treated females had non-physiological levels of estradiol. There were no differences between endocardial and epicardial I(Ca,L) activation and inactivation. In contrast, epicardial-endocardial differences in I(Ca,L) density in EST-treated OVX-females were associated with epicardial-endocardial differences in I(Ca,L) activation and conductance; in DHT-treated OVX-females only epicardial-endocardial activation differed. The other groups, showed no I(Ca,L) transmural gradient, or differences in activation, inactivation or conductance.

Conclusions: The greater dispersion in I(Ca,L) density of OVX-DHT and OVX-EST than OVX-PLA suggests both hormones can modulate I(Ca,L) density in females. That gonadal steroids had no effect on I(Ca,L) dispersion in males suggests gender differences in mechanism of action of both hormones. The greater I(Ca,L) dispersion in females may contribute to gender differences in repolarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(01)00449-7DOI Listing
February 2002

Sex, hormones, and repolarization.

Cardiovasc Res 2002 Feb;53(3):740-51

Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Departments of Pharmacology and Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 630 West 168 Street, PH7W-321, New York, NY 10032, USA.

There is increased awareness of the impact of gender and gonadal steroids on human cardiac rhythm and arrhythmias; e.g., drugs that prolong repolarization induce torsades de pointes (TdP) more frequently in women than men; female gender is an independent risk factor for syncope and sudden death in the congenital long QT syndrome; and the higher propensity toward arrhythmia in normal females is associated with fundamental differences in repolarization such that rate-corrected QT intervals are longer in females than males. Mechanisms underlying these differences are incompletely defined but are believed to involve gonadal steroids. This review discusses recent advances and prospects for further elucidation of the influence of gender and gonadal steroids on ventricular repolarization and arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(01)00429-1DOI Listing
February 2002