Publications by authors named "Thai Quang Pham"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk Factors and Protective Immunity Against Rabies in Unvaccinated Butchers Working at Dog Slaughterhouses in Northern Vietnam.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

Vietnam is a rabies-endemic country where eating dog meat is customary. However, the risks of rabies transmission to dog slaughtering and processing workers have not been identified. This study aimed to determine the rabies neutralizing antibody (NTA) and risk factors in dog slaughterers to propose appropriate intervention methods for this occupational group. In 2016, a cross-sectional study on NTA against rabies virus and related factors was conducted among 406 professional dog slaughterers in Vietnam. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their sera were tested for rabies NTA by a rapid focus fluorescence inhibition test. Statistical algorithms were used to analyze the data. The results showed that most of the professional dog butchers (344/406 subjects, 84.7%) had no rabies NTA. Interestingly, 7.8% (29/373) had NTA without a rabies vaccination history. Over 5 years of experience as a dog butcher was positively associated with the presence of NTA in unvaccinated individuals (OR = 6.16, P = 0.001). The NTA in vaccinated butchers was present in higher titer and for longer persistence to those of other previously reported professionals, which is possibly as a result of multiple exposures to low levels of rabies virus antigens during dog slaughtering. Our study demonstrated that professional dog butchers in Vietnam are at a high risk of rabies virus infection, apart from those with common bite experiences. In countries where dog meat consumption is customary, rabies control and prevention activities should focus on safety during dog trading and slaughtering.
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August 2021

Association of public health interventions and COVID-19 incidence in Vietnam, January to December 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Vietnam implemented various public health interventions such as contact tracing and testing, mandatory quarantine, and lockdowns in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the effects of these measures on the epidemic remain unclear.

Methods: This article describes the public health interventions in relation to COVID-19 incidence. Maximum likelihood estimations were used to assess containment delays (time between symptom onset and start of isolation) and multivariable regression was employed to identify associated factors between interventions and COVID-19 incidence. The effective reproductive numbers (Rt) were calculated based on transmission pairs.

Results: Interventions were introduced periodically in response to the epidemic. Overall, 817 (55.4%) among 1474 COVID-19 cases were imported. Based on a serial interval of 8.72 ± 5.65 days, it was estimated that Rt decreased to below 1 (lowest at 0.02, 95% CI 0-0.12) during periods of strict border control and contact tracing, and increased ahead of new clusters. The main method to detect cases shifted over time from passive notification to active case-finding at immigration or in lockdown areas, with containment delays showing significant differences between modes of case detection.

Conclusions: A combination of early, strict, and consistently implemented interventions is crucial to control COVID-19. Low-middle income countries with limited capacity can contain COVID-19 successfully using non-pharmaceutical interventions.
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July 2021

Rabies-infected dogs at slaughterhouses: A potential risk of rabies transmission via dog trading and butchering activities in Vietnam.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 Sep 10;68(6):630-637. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hanoi Center for Disease Control, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The study aimed to determine the status of neutralizing antibodies and rabies virus infection in dogs at slaughterhouses in Hanoi city from 2015 to 2017. A total of 2,376 pairs of blood and brain samples were collected from dogs at 92 slaughterhouses (8 large slaughterhouses and 84 small slaughterhouses) in 6 districts in Hanoi. Of the 1,500 dog samples from the large slaughterhouses where imported dogs were slaughtered, no dog brain samples were infected with rabies virus and no blood samples were positive for rabies neutralizing antibodies. Meanwhile, 7/876 (0.8%) of dog brain samples from small slaughterhouses in which slaughtered local dogs were positive for rabies virus and 26.4% had neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus. Analysis of the genetic characteristics of these rabies viruses showed that they all had a common origin with the domestic strains circulating in Northern Vietnam. Research results suggested that there was a potential risk of rabies transmission to humans through dog slaughtering activities in Vietnam. Vaccination for dogs should be strengthened, strictly implemented and frequently monitored to reach the rate of herd vaccination coverage as WHO's recommendation. Dog trading and slaughtering activities should be strictly monitored to minimize the risk of rabies transmission to humans.
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September 2021

Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers during the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;21(1):393. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: International air travel plays an important role in the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, and tracing of close contacts is an integral part of the public health response to COVID-19. We aimed to assess the timeliness of contact tracing among airline passengers arriving in Vietnam on flights containing COVID-19 cases and investigated factors associated with timeliness of contact tracing.

Methods: We included data from 2228 passengers on 22 incoming flights between 2 and 19 March 2020. Contact tracing duration was assessed separately for the time between the date of index case confirmation and date of contact tracing initiation (interval I), and the date of contact tracing initiation and completion (interval II). We used log-rank tests and multivariable Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with timeliness.

Results: The median duration of interval I and interval II was one (IQR: 1-2) and 3 days (IQR: 2-5), respectively. The contact tracing duration was shorter for passengers from flights where the index case was identified through mandatory testing directly upon arrival (median = 4; IQR: 3-5) compared to flights with index case detection through self-presentation at health facilities after arrival (median = 7; IQR: 5-8) (p-value = 0.018). Cumulative hazards for successful tracing were higher for Vietnamese nationals compared to non-Vietnamese nationals (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Contact tracing among flight passengers in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam was timely though delays occurred on high workload days. Mandatory SARS-CoV-2 testing at arrival may reduce contact tracing duration and should be considered as an integrated screening tool for flight passengers from high-risk areas when entering low-transmission settings with limited contact tracing capacity. We recommend a standardized risk-based contact tracing approach for flight passengers during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.
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April 2021