Publications by authors named "Tetsuya Okada"

39 Publications

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls virus protein homeostasis that is required for the flavivirus propagation.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Aomori, Japan

Many positive-stranded RNA viruses encode polyproteins and viral proteins are generated by processing the polyproteins. This system produces an equal amount of each viral protein, though their required amounts are different. In this study, we found that the extra membrane-anchored non-structural (NS) proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus are rapidly and selectively degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Our gene targeting study revealed that ERAD involving Derlin2 and SEL1L, but not Derlin1, is required for the viral genome replication. Derlin2 predominantly localized in the convoluted membrane (CM) of viral replication organelle, and viral NS proteins degraded in the CM. Hence, these results suggest that viral protein homeostasis is regulated by Derlin2-mediated ERAD in the CM, and this process is critical for the propagation of these viruses.The results of this study reveal that the cellular ERAD system controls the amount of each viral protein in virus-infected cells; this "viral protein homeostasis" is critical for viral propagation. Furthermore, we clarified that the "convoluted membrane (CM)," which was previously considered a structure with unknown function, serves as a kind of waste dump where viral protein degradation occurs. We also found that the Derlin2/Sel1L/HRD1-specific pathway is involved in this process, whereas the Derlin1-mediated pathway is not. This novel ERAD-mediated fine-tuning system for the stoichiometries of polyprotein-derived viral proteins may represent a common feature among polyprotein-encoding viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02234-20DOI Listing
May 2021

Allosteric regulation accompanied by oligomeric state changes of Trypanosoma brucei GMP reductase through cystathionine-β-synthase domain.

Nat Commun 2020 04 15;11(1):1837. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531, Japan.

Guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR) is involved in the purine salvage pathway and is conserved throughout evolution. Nonetheless, the GMPR of Trypanosoma brucei (TbGMPR) includes a unique structure known as the cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain, though the role of this domain is not fully understood. Here, we show that guanine and adenine nucleotides exert positive and negative effects, respectively, on TbGMPR activity by binding allosterically to the CBS domain. The present structural analyses revealed that TbGMPR forms an octamer that shows a transition between relaxed and twisted conformations in the absence and presence of guanine nucleotides, respectively, whereas the TbGMPR octamer dissociates into two tetramers when ATP is available instead of guanine nucleotides. These findings demonstrate that the CBS domain plays a key role in the allosteric regulation of TbGMPR by facilitating the transition of its oligomeric state depending on ligand nucleotide availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15611-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160140PMC
April 2020

EDEM2 stably disulfide-bonded to TXNDC11 catalyzes the first mannose trimming step in mammalian glycoprotein ERAD.

Elife 2020 02 17;9. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Sequential mannose trimming of N-glycan (ManGlcNAc -> ManGlcNAc -> ManGlcNAc) facilitates endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins (gpERAD). Our gene knockout experiments in human HCT116 cells have revealed that EDEM2 is required for the first step. However, it was previously shown that purified EDEM2 exhibited no α1,2-mannosidase activity toward ManGlcNAc in vitro. Here, we found that EDEM2 was stably disulfide-bonded to TXNDC11, an endoplasmic reticulum protein containing five thioredoxin (Trx)-like domains. C558 present outside of the mannosidase homology domain of EDEM2 was linked to C692 in Trx5, which solely contains the CXXC motif in TXNDC11. This covalent bonding was essential for mannose trimming and subsequent gpERAD in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, EDEM2-TXNDC11 complex purified from transfected HCT116 cells converted ManGlcNAc to ManGlcNAc(isomerB) in vitro. Our results establish the role of EDEM2 as an initiator of gpERAD, and represent the first clear demonstration of in vitro mannosidase activity of EDEM family proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.53455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039678PMC
February 2020

Development of a Rapid in vivo Assay to Evaluate the Efficacy of IRE1-specific Inhibitors of the Unfolded Protein Response Using Medaka Fish.

Cell Struct Funct 2020 Feb 26;45(1):23-31. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University.

Three types of transmembrane protein, IRE1α/IRE1β, PERK, and ATF6α/ATF6β, are expressed ubiquitously in vertebrates as transducers of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which maintains the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum. IRE1 is highly conserved from yeast to mammals, and transmits a signal by a unique mechanism, namely splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1, the transcription factor downstream of IRE1 in metazoans. IRE1 contains a ribonuclease domain in its cytoplasmic region which initiates splicing reaction by direct cleavage of XBP1 mRNA at the two stem loop structures. As the UPR is considered to be involved in the development and progression of various diseases, as well as in the survival and growth of tumor cells, UPR inhibitors have been sought. To date, IRE1 inhibitors have been screened using cell-based reporter assays and fluorescent-based in vitro cleavage assays. Here, we used medaka fish to develop an in vivo assay for IRE1α inhibitors. IRE1α, IRE1β, ATF6α and ATF6β are ubiquitously expressed in medaka. We found that IRE1α/ATF6α-double knockout is lethal, similarly to IRE1α/IRE1β- and ATF6α/ATF6β-double knockout. Therefore, IRE1 inhibitors are expected to confer lethality to ATF6α-knockout medaka but not to wild-type medaka. One compound named K114 was obtained from 1,280 compounds using this phenotypic screening. K114 inhibited ER stress-induced splicing of XBP1 mRNA as well as reporter luciferase expression in HCT116 cells derived from human colorectal carcinoma, and inhibited ribonuclease activity of human IRE1α in vitro. Thus, this phenotypic assay can be used as a quick test for the efficacy of IRE1α inhibitors in vivo.Key words: endoplasmic reticulum, inhibitor screening, mRNA splicing, phenotypic assay, unfolded protein response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.19032DOI Listing
February 2020

Reinvestigation of Disulfide-bonded Oligomeric Forms of the Unfolded Protein Response Transducer ATF6.

Cell Struct Funct 2020 Jan 19;45(1):9-21. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University.

ATF6α is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-embedded transcription factor which is rapidly activated by ER stress, and a major regulator of ER chaperone levels in vertebrates. We previously suggested that ATF6α occurs as a monomer, dimer and oligomer in the unstressed ER of Chinese hamster ovary cells due to the presence of two evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues in its luminal region (C467 and C618), and showed that ATF6α is reduced upon ER stress, such that only reduced monomer ATF6α is translocated to the Golgi apparatus for activation by proteolysis. However, mutagenesis analysis (C467A and C618A) revealed that the C618A mutant behaves in an unexpected manner (monomer and oligomer) during non-reducing SDS-PAGE, for reasons which remained unclear. Here, we used human colorectal carcinoma-derived HCT116 cells deficient in ATF6α and its relevant ATF6β, and found that ATF6α dimer and oligomer are both dimers, which we designated C618-dimer and C467-dimer, respectively. We demonstrated that C467-dimer (previously considered an oligomer) behaved bigger than C618-dimer (previously considered a dimer) during non-reducing SDS-PAGE, based on their disulfide-bonded structures. Furthermore, ATF6α monomer physically associates with another ATF6α monomer in the absence of disulfide bonding, which renders two C467 residues in close proximity so that formation of C467-dimer is much easier than that of C618-dimer. In contrast, C618-dimer is more easily reduced upon ER stress. Thus, our analysis revealed that all forms of ATF6α, namely monomer, C618-dimer and C467-dimer, are activated by single reduction of a disulfide bond in response to ER stress, ensuring the rapidity of ATF6α activation.Key words: disulfide-bonded structure, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound transcription factor, non-reducing SDS-PAGE, unfolded protein response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.19030DOI Listing
January 2020

SEL1L-dependent Substrates Require Derlin2/3 and Herp1/2 for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation.

Cell Struct Funct 2017 Jul 26;42(2):81-94. Epub 2017 May 26.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University.

Accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ATF6 pathway is one of the three major pathways in vertebrates. Although ATF6, a transmembrane-type glycoprotein in the ER, functions as a UPR sensor/transducer, it is an unstable protein with a half-life of approximately 2 h and is constitutively subjected to the ER-associated degradation system with the location of the misfolded part in the ER lumen (ERAD-L). ERAD-L substrates are delivered to the cytosol through the retrotranslocon, which likely contains HRD1 (E3), gp78 (E3), SEL1L (a partner of HRD1), Derlin1/2/3 and Herp1/2. We previously showed that ATF6 represents a novel transmembrane-type ERAD-L substrate requiring both EDEM1/2/3-mediated mannose trimming and SEL1L. Here, by constructing and analyzing chicken DT40 cells deficient in various components of the retrotranslocon, we show that degradation of ATF6 requires Derlin2 or Derlin3 and that Derlin2 and Derlin3 are redundant for ERAD-L of ATF6. We further show that degradation of ATF6 requires Herp1 or Herp2 and that Herp1 and Herp2 are redundant for ERAD-L of ATF6. Furthermore, by investigating five more ERAD-L substrates, we show that SEL1L-dependent substrates require Derlin2/3 and Herp1/2 regardless of their soluble or transmembrane nature. Our results suggest that ERAD-L substrates take several routes to the cytosol. The HRD1-engaged route 1 requires SEL1L, Derlin2 or Derlin3, and Herp1 or Herp2, whereas the HRD1-engaged route 2 does not require them functionally. It remains to be determined whether the latter requires Derlin1 and whether these two routes are compositionally distinct.Key words: endoplasmic reticulum, proteasome, protein degradation, protein misfolding, ubiquitin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.17007DOI Listing
July 2017

UPR transducer BBF2H7 allows export of type II collagen in a cargo- and developmental stage-specific manner.

J Cell Biol 2017 06 12;216(6):1761-1774. Epub 2017 May 12.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

The unfolded protein response (UPR) handles unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, it is unclear how vertebrates correctly use the total of ten UPR transducers. We have found that ER stress occurs physiologically during early embryonic development in medaka fish and that the smooth alignment of notochord cells requires ATF6 as a UPR transducer, which induces ER chaperones for folding of type VIII (short-chain) collagen. After secretion of hedgehog for tissue patterning, notochord cells differentiate into sheath cells, which synthesize type II collagen. In this study, we show that this vacuolization step requires both ATF6 and BBF2H7 as UPR transducers and that BBF2H7 regulates a complete set of genes (, , , and ) essential for the enlargement of COPII vesicles to accommodate long-chain collagen for export, leading to the formation of the perinotochordal basement membrane. Thus, the most appropriate UPR transducer is activated to cope with the differing physiological ER stresses of different content types depending on developmental stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201609100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461018PMC
June 2017

A High-Throughput Screen Identifies 2,9-Diazaspiro[5.5]Undecanes as Inducers of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response with Cytotoxic Activity in 3D Glioma Cell Models.

PLoS One 2016 29;11(8):e0161486. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, 20850, United States of America.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in Ca2+ signaling and protein folding. ER Ca2+ depletion and accumulation of unfolded proteins activate the molecular chaperone GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78) which in turn triggers the ER stress response (ERSR) pathway aimed to restore ER homeostasis. Failure to adapt to stress, however, results in apoptosis. We and others have shown that malignant cells are more susceptible to ERSR-induced apoptosis than their normal counterparts, implicating the ERSR as a potential target for cancer therapeutics. Predicated on these findings, we developed an assay that uses a GRP78 biosensor to identify small molecule activators of ERSR in glioma cells. We performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) against a collection of ~425,000 compounds and a comprehensive panel of orthogonal secondary assays was formulated for stringent compound validation. We identified novel activators of ERSR, including a compound with a 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane core, which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores and induces apoptosis-mediated cell death in several cancer cell lines, including patient-derived and 3D cultures of glioma cells. This study demonstrates that our screening platform enables the identification and profiling of ERSR inducers with cytotoxic activity and advocates for characterization of these compound in in vivo models.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161486PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003374PMC
August 2017

Novel Characteristics of Trypanosoma brucei Guanosine 5'-monophosphate Reductase Distinct from Host Animals.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jan 5;10(1):e0004339. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Laboratory of Biological Macromolecules, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

The metabolic pathway of purine nucleotides in parasitic protozoa is a potent drug target for treatment of parasitemia. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR), which catalyzes the deamination of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) to inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), plays an important role in the interconversion of purine nucleotides to maintain the intracellular balance of their concentration. However, only a few studies on protozoan GMPR have been reported at present. Herein, we identified the GMPR in Trypanosoma brucei, a causative protozoan parasite of African trypanosomiasis, and found that the GMPR proteins were consistently localized to glycosomes in T. brucei bloodstream forms. We characterized its recombinant protein to investigate the enzymatic differences between GMPRs of T. brucei and its host animals. T. brucei GMPR was distinct in having an insertion of a tandem repeat of the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain, which was absent in mammalian and bacterial GMPRs. The recombinant protein of T. brucei GMPR catalyzed the conversion of GMP to IMP in the presence of NADPH, and showed apparent affinities for both GMP and NADPH different from those of its mammalian counterparts. Interestingly, the addition of monovalent cations such as K+ and NH4+ to the enzymatic reaction increased the GMPR activity of T. brucei, whereas none of the mammalian GMPR's was affected by these cations. The monophosphate form of the purine nucleoside analog ribavirin inhibited T. brucei GMPR activity, though mammalian GMPRs showed no or only a little inhibition by it. These results suggest that the mechanism of the GMPR reaction in T. brucei is distinct from that in the host organisms. Finally, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of ribavirin on the proliferation of trypanosomes in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the availability of ribavirin to develop a new therapeutic agent against African trypanosomiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701174PMC
January 2016

Forcible destruction of severely misfolded mammalian glycoproteins by the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway.

J Cell Biol 2015 Nov 16;211(4):775-84. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

Glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins possessing unfolded/misfolded parts in their luminal regions are cleared from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-L with distinct mechanisms. Two-step mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 is crucial in the ERAD-L of glycoproteins. We recently showed that this process is initiated by EDEM2 and completed by EDEM3/EDEM1. Here, we constructed chicken and human cells simultaneously deficient in EDEM1/2/3 and analyzed the fates of four ERAD-L substrates containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. We found that native but unstable or somewhat unfolded glycoproteins, such as ATF6α, ATF6α(C), CD3-δ-ΔTM, and EMC1, were stabilized in EDEM1/2/3 triple knockout cells. In marked contrast, degradation of severely misfolded glycoproteins, such as null Hong Kong (NHK) and deletion or insertion mutants of ATF6α(C), CD3-δ-ΔTM, and EMC1, was delayed only at early chase periods, but they were eventually degraded as in wild-type cells. Thus, higher eukaryotes are able to extract severely misfolded glycoproteins from glycoprotein ERAD and target them to the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway to maintain the homeostasis of the ER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201504109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4657166PMC
November 2015

EDEM2 initiates mammalian glycoprotein ERAD by catalyzing the first mannose trimming step.

J Cell Biol 2014 Aug;206(3):347-56

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, and Department of Radiation Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

Glycoproteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (gpERAD) in which Htm1-mediated mannose trimming from the oligosaccharide Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is the rate-limiting step in yeast. In contrast, the roles of the three Htm1 homologues (EDEM1/2/3) in mammalian gpERAD have remained elusive, with a key controversy being whether EDEMs function as mannosidases or as lectins. We therefore conducted transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated gene knockout analysis in human cell line and found that all endogenous EDEMs possess mannosidase activity. Mannose trimming from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is performed mainly by EDEM3 and to a lesser extent by EDEM1. Most surprisingly, the upstream mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2 is conducted mainly by EDEM2, which was previously considered to lack enzymatic activity. Based on the presence of two rate-limiting steps in mammalian gpERAD, we propose that mammalian cells double check gpERAD substrates before destruction by evolving EDEM2, a novel-type Htm1 homologue that catalyzes the first mannose trimming step from Man9GlcNAc2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201404075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4121980PMC
August 2014

Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase scavenges biliverdin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2014 Sep 9;34(9):1558-67. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Department of Molecular Behavioral Biology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka, Japan.

Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is the second major protein in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and belongs to the lipocalin superfamily composed of various secretory lipophilic ligand transporter proteins. However, the endogenous ligand of L-PGDS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we purified L-PGDS from the CSF of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Lipocalin-type PG D synthase showed absorbance spectra with major peaks at 280 and 392 nm and a minor peak at around 660 nm. The absorbance at 392 nm of L-PGDS increased from 1 to 9 days and almost disappeared at 2 months after SAH, whereas the L-PGDS activity decreased from 1 to 7 days and recovered to normal at 2 months after SAH. These results indicate that some chromophore had accumulated in the CSF after SAH and bound to L-PGDS, thus inactivating it. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of L-PGDS after digestion of it with endoproteinase Lys-C revealed that L-PGDS had covalently bound biliverdin, a by-product of heme breakdown. These results suggest that L-PGDS acted as a scavenger of biliverdin, which is a molecule not found in normal CSF. This is the first report of identification of a pathophysiologically important endogenous ligand for this lipocalin superfamily protein in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4158676PMC
September 2014

The unfolded protein response transducer ATF6 represents a novel transmembrane-type endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation substrate requiring both mannose trimming and SEL1L protein.

J Biol Chem 2013 Nov 16;288(44):31517-27. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

From the Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502.

Proteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are cleared by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system in the cytosol, a series of events collectively termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). It was previously shown that SEL1L, a partner protein of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, is required for degradation of misfolded luminal proteins (ERAD-Ls substrates) but not misfolded transmembrane proteins (ERAD-Lm substrates) in both mammalian and chicken DT40 cells. Here, we analyzed ATF6, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a sensor/transducer of the unfolded protein response, as a potential ERAD-Lm substrate in DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, degradation of endogenous ATF6 and exogenously expressed chicken and human ATF6 by the proteasome required SEL1L. Deletion analysis revealed that the luminal region of ATF6 is a determinant for SEL1L-dependent degradation. Chimeric analysis showed that the luminal region of ATF6 confers SEL1L dependence on type I transmembrane protein as well. In contrast, degradation of other known type I ERAD-Lm substrates (BACE457, T-cell receptor-α, CD3-δ, and CD147) did not require SEL1L. Thus, ATF6 represents a novel type of ERAD-Lm substrate requiring SEL1L for degradation despite its transmembrane nature. In addition, endogenous ATF6 was markedly stabilized in wild-type cells treated with kifunensine, an inhibitor of α1,2-mannosidase in the ER, indicating that degradation of ATF6 requires proper mannose trimming. Our further analyses revealed that the five ERAD-Lm substrates examined are classified into three subgroups based on their dependence on mannose trimming and SEL1L. Thus, ERAD-Lm substrates are degraded through much more diversified mechanisms in higher eukaryotes than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.476010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3814748PMC
November 2013

The antipsychotic olanzapine induces apoptosis in insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells by blocking PERK-mediated translational attenuation.

Cell Struct Funct 2013 28;38(2):183-95. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Patients with schizophrenia receive medication to alleviate various symptoms, but some efficacious second generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, can cause obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. It has been generally considered that olanzapine contributes to the development of diabetes by inducing obesity and subsequent insulin resistance. In this study, we examined the effect of olanzapine and risperidone, another second generation antipsychotic, on a hamster pancreatic β cell line, and found that both evoked mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by mild activation of the ER stress sensor molecule PERK. Surprisingly, only olanzapine induced marked apoptosis. Phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, an event immediately downstream of PERK activation, was not observed in cells treated with olanzapine, protein synthesis continued despite PERK activation, and ER stress was thereby sustained. Secretion of insulin was markedly inhibited, and both proinsulin and insulin accumulated inside olanzapine-treated cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis and knockdown of insulin mRNA, which result in less unfolded protein burden, both attenuated subsequent olanzapine-induced apoptosis. Given clinical observations that some patients taking olanzapine exhibit hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia without gaining weight, our observations suggest that damage to pancreatic β cells may contribute to the undesirable metabolic consequences of olanzapine treatment in some cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.13012DOI Listing
April 2014

ATF6α/β-mediated adjustment of ER chaperone levels is essential for development of the notochord in medaka fish.

Mol Biol Cell 2013 May 27;24(9):1387-95. Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

ATF6α and ATF6β are membrane-bound transcription factors activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce various ER quality control proteins. ATF6α- and ATF6β single-knockout mice develop normally, but ATF6α/β double knockout causes embryonic lethality, the reason for which is unknown. Here we show in medaka fish that ATF6α is primarily responsible for transcriptional induction of the major ER chaperone BiP and that ATF6α/β double knockout, but not ATF6α- or ATF6β single knockout, causes embryonic lethality, as in mice. Analyses of ER stress reporters reveal that ER stress occurs physiologically during medaka early embryonic development, particularly in the brain, otic vesicle, and notochord, resulting in ATF6α- and ATF6β-mediated induction of BiP, and that knockdown of the α1 chain of type VIII collagen reduces such ER stress. The absence of transcriptional induction of several ER chaperones in ATF6α/β double knockout causes more profound ER stress and impaired notochord development, which is partially rescued by overexpression of BiP. Thus ATF6α/β-mediated adjustment of chaperone levels to increased demands in the ER is essential for development of the notochord, which synthesizes and secretes large amounts of extracellular matrix proteins to serve as the body axis before formation of the vertebra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E12-11-0830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639050PMC
May 2013

An IFN-γ-stimulated ATF6-C/EBP-β-signaling pathway critical for the expression of Death Associated Protein Kinase 1 and induction of autophagy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Jun 13;109(26):10316-21. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Vaccine Development, and Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

The IFN family of cytokines operates a frontline defense against pathogens and neoplastic cells in vivo by controlling the expression of several genes. The death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), an IFN-γ-induced enzyme, controls cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and tumor metastasis, and its expression is frequently down-regulated in a number of human tumors. Although the biochemical action of DAPK1 is well understood, mechanisms that regulate its expression are unclear. Previously, we have shown that transcription factor C/EBP-β is required for the basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of DAPK1. Here, we show that ATF6, an ER stress-induced transcription factor, interacts with C/EBP-β in an IFN-stimulated manner and is obligatory for Dapk1 expression. IFN-stimulated proteolytic processing of ATF6 and ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of C/EBP-β are necessary for these interactions. More importantly, IFN-γ failed to activate autophagic response in cells lacking either ATF6 or C/EBP-β. Consistent with these observations, the Atf6(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to lethal bacterial infections compared with the wild-type mice. These studies not only unravel an IFN signaling pathway that controls cell growth and antibacterial defense, but also expand the role of ATF6 beyond ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119273109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387052PMC
June 2012

A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response.

Cell 2012 Jun;149(6):1257-68

Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, University of Cincinnati, OH 45247, USA.

Thrombospondin (Thbs) proteins are induced in sites of tissue damage or active remodeling. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is also prominently induced with disease where it regulates protein production and resolution of misfolded proteins. Here we describe a function for Thbs as ER-resident effectors of an adaptive ER stress response. Thbs4 cardiac-specific transgenic mice were protected from myocardial injury, whereas Thbs4(-/-) mice were sensitized to cardiac maladaptation. Thbs induction produced a unique profile of adaptive ER stress response factors and expansion of the ER and downstream vesicles. Thbs bind the ER lumenal domain of activating transcription factor 6α (Atf6α) to promote its nuclear shuttling. Thbs4(-/-) mice showed blunted activation of Atf6α and other ER stress-response factors with injury, and Thbs4-mediated protection was lost upon Atf6α deletion. Hence, Thbs can function inside the cell during disease remodeling to augment ER function and protect through a mechanism involving regulation of Atf6α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372931PMC
June 2012

Vertebrate unfolded protein response: mammalian signaling pathways are conserved in Medaka fish.

Cell Struct Funct 2011 8;36(2):247-59. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan.

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ER stress signal is sensed and transmitted by a transmembrane protein(s) in the ER. The number of these transducers has increased with evolution, one in yeast, three in worm and fly, and five in mammals. Here, we examined medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, as a vertebrate model organism, and found that the medaka genome encodes five UPR transducers. Analysis of a medaka embryonic cell line revealed that the mammalian UPR signaling mechanisms are very well conserved. Thus, XBP1 mRNA, which encodes the transcription factor XBP1 downstream of the IRE1 pathway, was spliced in response to ER stress, resulting in production of the active form of XBP1. Translation was generally attenuated in response to ER stress, which paradoxically induced the translation of ATF4, the transcription factor downstream of the PERK pathway. ATF6 was constitutively synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis. Results obtained with the overexpression of active ATF6α, ATF6β, and XBP1 strongly suggested that ATF6α plays a major role in upregulating the major ER chaperone BiP, contrary to the case in non-vertebrates, in which the IRE1 pathway is essential to the induction of BiP. Physiological ER stress occurring during embryonic development was visualized using transgenic medaka carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the BiP promoter. Thus, analysis of the vertebrate UPR using medaka will help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the biology and physiology of the UPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.11036DOI Listing
April 2012

SEL1L is required for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded luminal proteins but not transmembrane proteins in chicken DT40 cell line.

Cell Struct Funct 2011 20;36(2):187-95. Epub 2011 Aug 20.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

Proteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded in the cytosol by a ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system, a process collectively termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of mammalian ERAD progresses more slowly than that of yeast ERAD due to the laborious procedures required for gene targeting and the redundancy of components. Here, we utilized the chicken B lymphocyte-derived DT40 cell line, which exhibits an extremely high homologous recombination frequency, to analyze ERAD mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. We disrupted the SEL1L gene, which encodes the sole homologue of yeast Hrd3p in both chickens and mammals; Hrd3p is a binding partner of yeast Hrd1p, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. SEL1L-knockout cells grew only slightly more slowly than the wild-type cells. Pulse chase experiments revealed that chicken SEL1L was required for ERAD of misfolded luminal proteins such as glycosylated NHK and unglycosylated NHK-QQQ but dispensable for that of misfolded transmembrane proteins such as NHK(BACE) and CD3-δ, as in mammals. The defect of SEL1L-knockout cells in NHK degradation was restored by introduction of not only chicken SEL1L but also mouse and human SEL1L. Deletion analysis showed the importance of Sel1-like tetratricopeptide repeats but not the fibronectin II domain in the function of SEL1L. Thus, our reverse genetic approach using the chicken DT40 cell line will provide highly useful information regarding ERAD mechanisms in higher eukaryotes which express ERAD components redundantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.11018DOI Listing
December 2011

Luminal domain of ATF6 alone is sufficient for sensing endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent transport to the Golgi apparatus.

Cell Struct Funct 2011 8;36(1):35-47. Epub 2010 Dec 8.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

The transcription factor ATF6 is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane protein embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 senses such ER stress via an as yet undetermined mechanism and relocates to the Golgi apparatus where it is cleaved by sequential action of Site-1 and Site-2 proteases, allowing liberated N-terminal fragments to translocate into the nucleus. This ATF6-mediated transcriptional induction of ER-localized molecular chaperones and folding enzymes together with components of ER-associated degradation leads to the maintenance of ER homeostasis in mammals. Here, we demonstrated that the luminal domain of ATF6 alone is sufficient for sensing ER stress and subsequent transportation to the Golgi apparatus. This domain of ATF6 was inserted between the N-terminal signal sequence and C-terminal tandem affinity purification tag. The resulting ATF6(C)-TAP translocated into the ER, where it was glycosylated and disulfide bonded. ATF6(C)-TAP occurred as monomer and dimer, and exhibited a relatively short half-life, similar to full-length ATF6. On application of dithiothreitol- or thapsigargin-induced ER stress, the ER chaperone BiP dissociated from ATF6(C)-TAP, and ATF6(C)-TAP was transported to the Golgi apparatus and then secreted into medium. Calnexin and protein disulfide isomerase were identified as cellular proteins capable of binding to ATF6(C)-TAP in addition to BiP, and subsequent analysis revealed that protein disulfide isomerase was bound to ATF6(C)-TAP with chaperone activity. These findings indicate that ATF6(C)-TAP can be used as a tool to isolate protein(s) that escort ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi apparatus in response to ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.10010DOI Listing
August 2011

Induction of liver steatosis and lipid droplet formation in ATF6alpha-knockout mice burdened with pharmacological endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Mol Biol Cell 2010 Sep 14;21(17):2975-86. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

*Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates homeostatic responses collectively termed the unfolded protein response. Among the three principal signaling pathways operating in mammals, activating transcription factor (ATF)6alpha plays a pivotal role in transcriptional induction of ER-localized molecular chaperones and folding enzymes as well as components of ER-associated degradation, and thereby mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in ATF6alpha are sensitive to ER stress. However, ATF6alpha-knockout mice show no apparent phenotype under normal growing conditions. In this report, we burdened mice with intraperitoneal injection of the ER stress-inducing reagent tunicamycin and found that wild-type mice were able to recover from the insult, whereas ATF6alpha-knockout mice exhibited liver dysfunction and steatosis. Thus, ATF6alpha-knockout mice accumulated neutral lipids in the liver such as triacylglycerol and cholesterol, which was ascribable to blockage of beta-oxidation of fatty acids caused by decreased mRNA levels of the enzymes involved in the process, suppression of very-low-density lipoprotein formation due to destabilized apolipoprotein B-100, and stimulation of lipid droplet formation resulting from transcriptional induction of adipose differentiation-related protein. Accordingly, the hepatocytes of tunicamycin-injected knockout mice were filled with many lipid droplets. These results establish links among ER stress, lipid metabolism, and steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E09-02-0133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929991PMC
September 2010

p31 deficiency influences endoplasmic reticulum tubular morphology and cell survival.

Mol Cell Biol 2009 Apr 2;29(7):1869-81. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Laboratory of Molecular Traffic, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8512, Japan.

p31, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Use1p, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) that forms a complex with other SNAREs, particularly syntaxin 18. However, the role of p31 in ER function remains unknown. To determine the role of p31 in vivo, we generated p31 conditional knockout mice. We found that homozygous deletion of the p31 gene led to early embryonic lethality before embryonic day 8.5. Conditional knockout of p31 in brains and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) caused massive apoptosis accompanied by upregulation of ER stress-associated genes. Microscopic analysis showed vesiculation and subsequent enlargement of the ER membrane in p31-deficient cells. This type of drastic disorganization in the ER tubules has not been demonstrated to date. This marked change in ER structure preceded nuclear translocation of the ER stress-related transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting that ER stress-induced apoptosis resulted from disruption of the ER membrane structure. Taken together, these results suggest that p31 is an essential molecule involved in the maintenance of ER morphology and that its deficiency leads to ER stress-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01089-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2655616PMC
April 2009

Human HRD1 promoter carries a functional unfolded protein response element to which XBP1 but not ATF6 directly binds.

J Biochem 2008 Oct 29;144(4):477-86. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Quality control of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is achieved by two mechanisms, the productive folding mechanism, which is assisted by a number of ER-localized molecular chaperones and folding enzymes (collectively termed ER chaperones), and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) mechanism, by which misfolded proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system in the cytosol. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in transcriptional induction of ER chaperones and ERAD components. In mammals, three signalling pathways operate for the UPR, namely the IRE1-XBP1, PERK-ATF4 and ATF6 pathways. Analysis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in UPR signalling molecule indicates that transcriptional induction of ERAD components depends on the IRE1-XBP1 pathway. However, the molecular basis of this finding remains unclear. Here, we analysed the promoter of human HRD1, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, an important component of ERAD. We found that induction of HRD1 is mediated by two cis-acting elements, a canonical ER stress response element and a novel element we designate as UPR element II. The presence of UPR element II to which XBP1 but not ATF6 directly binds explains at least in part the dependency of HRD1 induction on the IRE1-XBP1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvn091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755579PMC
October 2008

ATF6 is a transcription factor specializing in the regulation of quality control proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Cell Struct Funct 2008 18;33(1):75-89. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Eukaryotic cells cope with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), a coordinated system of transcriptional and translational controls, which ensures the integrity of synthesized proteins. Mammalian cells express three UPR transducers in the ER, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. The IRE1 pathway, which is conserved from yeast to humans, mediates transcriptional induction of not only ER quality control proteins (molecular chaperones, folding enzymes and components of ER-associated degradation) but also proteins working at various stages of secretion. The PERK pathway, conserved in metazoan cells, is responsible for translational control and also participates in transcriptional control in mammals. ATF6 is an ER-membrane-bound transcription factor activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis which consists of two closely related factors, ATF6alpha and ATF6beta, in mammals. ATF6alpha but not ATF6beta plays an important role in transcriptional control. In this study, we performed a genome-wide search for ATF6alpha-target genes in mice. Only 30 of the 14,729 analyzable genes were identified as specific targets, of which 40% were ER quality control proteins, 20% were ER proteins, while the rest had miscellaneous functions. The negative effects of the absence of PERK on transcriptional induction of ER quality control proteins could be explained by its inhibitory effect on ATF6alpha activation. Further, proteins involved in transport from the ER are not regulated by ATF6alpha, and transport of folded cargo molecules from the ER was not affected by the absence of ATF6alpha. Based on these results, we propose that ATF6 is a transcription factor specialized in the regulation of ER quality control proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.07044DOI Listing
June 2008

Transcriptional induction of mammalian ER quality control proteins is mediated by single or combined action of ATF6alpha and XBP1.

Dev Cell 2007 Sep;13(3):365-76

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Metazoans express three unfolded protein response transducers (IRE1, PERK, and ATF6) ubiquitously to cope with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ATF6 is an ER membrane-bound transcription factor activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis and has been duplicated in mammals. Here, we generated ATF6alpha- and ATF6beta-knockout mice, which developed normally, and then found that their double knockout caused embryonic lethality. Analysis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in ATF6alpha or ATF6beta revealed that ATF6alpha is solely responsible for transcriptional induction of ER chaperones and that ATF6alpha heterodimerizes with XBP1 for the induction of ER-associated degradation components. ATF6alpha(-/-) MEFs are sensitive to ER stress. Unaltered responses observed in ATF6beta(-/-) MEFs indicate that ATF6beta is not a negative regulator of ATF6alpha. These results demonstrate that ATF6alpha functions as a critical regulator of ER quality control proteins in mammalian cells, in marked contrast to worm and fly cells in which IRE1 is responsible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2007.07.018DOI Listing
September 2007

Role of disulfide bridges formed in the luminal domain of ATF6 in sensing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Mol Cell Biol 2007 Feb 13;27(3):1027-43. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolysis in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce the transcription of ER chaperone genes. We show here that, owing to the presence of intra- and intermolecular disulfide bridges formed between the two conserved cysteine residues in the luminal domain, ATF6 occurs in unstressed ER in monomer, dimer, and oligomer forms. Disulfide-bonded ATF6 is reduced upon treatment of cells with not only the reducing reagent dithiothreitol but also the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin, and the extent of reduction correlates with that of activation. Although reduction is not sufficient for activation, fractionation studies show that only reduced monomer ATF6 reaches the Golgi apparatus, where it is cleaved by the sequential action of the two proteases S1P and S2P. Reduced monomer ATF6 is found to be a better substrate than disulfide-bonded forms for S1P. ER stress-induced reduction is specific to ATF6 as the oligomeric status of a second ER membrane-bound transcription factor, LZIP/Luman, is not changed upon tunicamycin treatment and LZIP/Luman is well cleaved by S1P in the absence of ER stress. This mechanism ensures the strictness of regulation, in that the cell can only process ATF6 which has experienced the changes in the ER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00408-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1800683PMC
February 2007

Derlin-2 and Derlin-3 are regulated by the mammalian unfolded protein response and are required for ER-associated degradation.

J Cell Biol 2006 Jan;172(3):383-93

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Proteins that are unfolded or misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must be refolded or degraded to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. Components of both productive folding and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) mechanisms are known to be up-regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR). We describe two novel components of mammalian ERAD, Derlin-2 and -3, which show weak homology to Der1p, a transmembrane protein involved in yeast ERAD. Both Derlin-2 and -3 are up-regulated by the UPR, and at least Derlin-2 is a target of the IRE1 branch of the response, which is known to up-regulate ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein (EDEM) and EDEM2, receptor-like molecules for misfolded glycoprotein. Overexpression of Derlin-2 or -3 accelerated degradation of misfolded glycoprotein, whereas their knockdown blocked degradation. Derlin-2 and -3 are associated with EDEM and p97, a cytosolic ATPase responsible for extraction of ERAD substrates. These findings indicate that Derlin-2 and -3 provide the missing link between EDEM and p97 in the process of degrading misfolded glycoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200507057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2063648PMC
January 2006

A cellular UDP-glucose deficiency causes overexpression of glucose/oxygen-regulated proteins independent of the endoplasmic reticulum stress elements.

J Biol Chem 2004 May 12;279(21):21724-31. Epub 2004 Mar 12.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

A low level of UDP-Glc occurs in cells exposed to hypoxia or glucose starvation. This work reveals that a 65% reduction in the cellular UDP-Glc level causes up-regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone GRP75 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperones GRP58, ERp72, GRP78, GRP94, GRP170, and calreticulin. Conditions that cause misfolding of proteins within the ER activate the transcription factors ATF6alpha/beta and induce translation of the transcription factors XBP-1/TREB5 and ATF4/CREB2. These transcription factors induce the overexpression of ER chaperones and CHOP/GADD153. However, the 65% decrease in the cellular UDP-Glc level does not cause activation of ATF6alpha, splicing of XBP-1/TREB5, induction of ATF4/CREB2, or expression of CHOP/GADD153. The activity of the promoters of the ER chaperones is increased in UDP-Glc-deficient cells, but the activity of the CHOP/GADD153 promoter is not affected, in comparison with their respective activities in cells having compensated for the UDP-Glc deficiency. The results demonstrate that the unfolded protein response remains functionally intact in cells with a 65% decrease in the cellular UDP-Glc level and provide evidence that this decrease is a stress signal in mammalian cells, which triggers the coordinate overexpression of mitochondrial and ER chaperones, independently of the ER stress elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M312791200DOI Listing
May 2004