Publications by authors named "Tetsuya Iizuka"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C members 2, 3 and cadherin protein are susceptibility-determining factors in Bombyx mori for multiple Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 12 22;139:103649. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan. Electronic address:

Field-evolved resistance of insect pests to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (Cry toxins) is a threat to the efficacy of Bt-based bio-insecticides and transgenic crops. Recent reports have suggested that ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) and cadherin-like receptor play important roles in conferring susceptibility to Cry1 toxins. However, the receptors involved in Bt susceptibility in each insect remain unclear. To determine the receptors that are involved in the susceptibility of Bombyx mori to Cry1 toxins (1Ab, 1Ac and 1Fa), we conducted diet overlay bioassay using B. mori strains disrupted with one or two receptor (s) among BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and cadherin-like receptor (BtR175) generated by transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene editing. The single-knockout strains for BmABCC2 showed resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, whereas only strains with double knockout of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 exhibited high resistance to Cry1Fa. Progeny populations generated from the crossing of heterozygotes for BtR175 knockout allele included 25% theoretical homozygotes for the BtR175 knockout allele and they showed resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Then, through a cell swelling assay using Sf9 cells ectopically expressing the receptor, we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the different contributions of BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and BtR175 to larval susceptibility. The receptor activity of BmABCC2 for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was far higher than that of BmABCC3, and BtR175 synergistically enhanced the receptor activity of BmABCC2. This result well explained the important involvement of BmABCC2 and BtR175 in the larval susceptibility to Cry1A toxins. By contrast, the receptor activities of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 for Cry1Fa were observed at a similar level and synergistic effect of BtR175 was small. This finding explains the equal importance of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 and very small contribution of BtR175 on larval susceptibility to Cry1Fa. Thus, we demonstrated the different importance of BmABCC2, BmABCC3, and BtR175 to various Cry1 toxins as susceptibility-determining factors in B. mori larvae and the underlying basis for the observed differences. Furthermore, a weak correlation was indicated between the binding affinity and receptor activities of BmABCC2 and BmABCC3 to Cry1 toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2021.103649DOI Listing
December 2021

Production of cloned transgenic silkworms by breeding non-diapausing parthenogenetic strains.

J Insect Physiol 2021 07 4;132:104265. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Sericulture, Iikura 1053, 300-0324 Ami-machi, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Clonal transgenic silkworms are useful for the functional analysis of insect genes and for the production of recombinant proteins. Such silkworms have previously been created using an existing ameiotic parthenogenetic strain. However, the process was labor intensive, and the efficiency of producing transgenic silkworms was very low. To overcome this issue, we developed a more convenient and efficient method by breeding non-diapausing parthenogenetic strains. The strains produced non-diapausing eggs only when the embryogenesis of the parent eggs was performed at low temperatures, which could then be used for injecting vector plasmids. This demonstrated that transgenic silkworms could be produced with greater ease and efficiency. To breed the strains, we crossed the existing parthenogenetic strains with bivoltine strains and made F1 and F2 from each cross. Then we selected the silkworms whose eggs have a high ability of parthenogenesis and became non-diapausing. We also demonstrated that the germplasm could be cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Thus, this method increases the efficiency and ease of using genetically engineered silkworms to analyze gene function and produce recombinant proteins, potentially impacting various industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2021.104265DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct Recovery of the Rare Earth Elements Using a Silk Displaying a Metal-Recognizing Peptide.

Molecules 2020 Feb 10;25(3). Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Silk Materials Research Unit, Division of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 1-2, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan.

Rare earth elements (RE) are indispensable metallic resources in the production of advanced materials; hence, a cost- and energy-effective recovery process is required to meet the rapidly increasing RE demand. Here, we propose an artificial RE recovery approach that uses a functional silk displaying a RE-recognizing peptide. Using the piggyBac system, we constructed a transgenic silkworm in which one or two copies of the gene coding for the RE-recognizing peptide (Lamp1) was fused with that of the fibroin L (FibL) protein. The purified FibL-Lamp1 fusion protein from the transgenic silkworm was able to recognize dysprosium (Dy), a RE, under physiological conditions. This method can also be used with silk from which sericin has been removed. Furthermore, the Dy-recovery ability of this silk was significantly improved by crushing the silk. Our simple approach is expected to facilitate the direct recovery of RE from an actual mixed solution of metal ions, such as seawater and industrial wastewater, under mild conditions without additional energy input.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037070PMC
February 2020

ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 2 is a Functional Receptor for Cry2A Toxins in , but not for Cry1A, Cry1C, Cry1D, Cry1F, or Cry9A Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 02 6;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan.

Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins produced by (Bt). They are used commercially to control insect pests since they are very active in specific insects and are harmless to the environment and human health. The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 2 (ABCA2) was identified in an analysis of Cry2A toxin resistance genes. However, we do not have direct evidence for the role of ABCA2 for Cry2A toxins or why Cry2A toxin resistance does not cross to other Cry toxins. Therefore, we performed two experiments. First, we edited the sequence in using transcription activator-like effector-nucleases (TALENs) and confirmed the susceptibility-determining ability in a diet overlay bioassay. Strains with C-terminal half-deleted BmABCA2 showed strong and specific resistance to Cry2A toxins; even strains carrying a deletion of 1 to 3 amino acids showed resistance. However, the C-terminal half-deleted strains did not show cross-resistance to other toxins. Second, we conducted a cell swelling assay and confirmed the specific ability of BmABCA2 to Cry2A toxins in HEK239 cells. Those demonstrated that BmABCA2 is a functional receptor for Cry2A toxins and that BmABCA2 deficiency-dependent Cry2A resistance does not confer cross-resistance to Cry1A, Cry1F, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, or Cry9Aa toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076765PMC
February 2020

[Construction of a Platform for the Development of Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications Using Transgenic Silkworms].

Yakugaku Zasshi 2018 ;138(7):863-874

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization.

 We have been constructing a platform for the development of pharmaceutical and medical applications using the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a new animal model for drug development and evaluation. Because silkworm larvae originally have the capacity to synthesize up to 0.5 g of silk proteins, genetically modified silkworms (transgenic silkworms) are expected to have high potential in the production of recombinant silks/proteins. An innovative method for generating transgenic silkworms was established in 2000, and ever since this epoch-defining technological development, longstanding efforts have succeeded in developing novel silks that enable the manufacture of new textile materials for regenerative medical uses. Furthermore, we have succeeded in developing a new system of recombinant protein production. This recombinant protein production system is currently capable of producing a maximum of approximately 15 mg recombinant protein per silkworm larva. Transgenic silkworms have also been shown to produce a wide variety of useful proteins, including antibodies and membrane proteins. Some of these recombinant proteins have been in commercial use since 2011. In addition, we have been developing transgenic silkworms as a novel animal model for testing medicines based on metabolic similarities between silkworms and mammals. These applications show the suitability and potential of transgenic silkworms for medical use. Here, we will describe the challenges faced in creating a transgenic silkworm-based platform for pharmaceutical and medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.17-00202-1DOI Listing
August 2018

Deficiency of a pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase produces the yellowish green cocoon 'Ryokuken' of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

Heredity (Edinb) 2018 05 23;120(5):422-436. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, NARO, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634, Japan.

The silkworm cocoon colour has attracted researchers involved in genetics, physiology and ecology for a long time. 'Ryokuken' cocoons are yellowish green in colour due to unusual flavonoids, prolinylflavonols, while 'Sasamayu' cocoons are light green and contain only simple flavonol glucosides. We found a novel gene associated with the cocoon colour change resulting from a change in flavonoid composition and named it Lg (light green cocoon). In the middle silk glands of the + /+ larvae, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) was found to accumulate due to a decrease in the activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), an enzyme reducing P5C to proline. Sequence analysis of BmP5CR1, the candidate gene for Lg, revealed a 1.9 kb insertion and a 4 bp deletion within the 1st intron, a 97 bp deletion within the 4th intron, and a > 300 bp insertion within the 3'-UTR, in addition to two amino acid changes on exons 3 and 4 in + /+ compared to Lg/Lg. Decreased expression of BmP5CR1 was observed in all of the investigated tissues, including the middle silk glands in + /+ , which was probably caused by structural changes in the intronic regions of BmP5CR1. Furthermore, a BmP5CR1 knockout strain exhibited a yellowish green cocoon with the formation of prolinylflavonols. These results indicate that the yellowish green cocoon is produced by a BmP5CR1 deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the defect of an enzyme associated with intermediate metabolism promotes the conjugation of phytochemicals derived from foods with endogenously accumulating metabolites in animal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41437-018-0051-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889389PMC
May 2018

Production of highly immunogenic virus-like particles of bovine papillomavirus type 6 in silkworm pupae.

Vaccine 2017 10 8;35(43):5878-5882. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856, Japan; Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku-oraikita, Izumisano, Osaka 598-8531, Japan.

Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the causative agent of bovine teat papillomatosis, which can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle. Among the 14 identified BPV genotypes, BPV type 6 (BPV6) is the most frequently detected in teat papilloma lesions, and is therefore thought to play a major role in teat papillomatosis. To develop an effective vaccine against BPV6 infection, we produced virus-like particles of BPV6 (BPV6-VLP) in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae and purified these by heparin affinity chromatography using a single column. About 0.7mg purified BPV6-VLP was obtained from one pupa. BPV6-VLP-immunized mice produced a specific IgG to BPV6 that recognized BPV6 antigen with high sensitivity in an immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, silkworm pupae are a useful bioreactor for the production of BPV6-VLP, which can potentially be used as a vaccine for bovine teat papillomatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.079DOI Listing
October 2017

CD36 homolog divergence is responsible for the selectivity of carotenoid species migration to the silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

J Lipid Res 2013 Feb 16;54(2):482-95. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Division of Radiological Protection and Biology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

Dietary carotenoids are absorbed in the intestine and delivered to various tissues by circulating lipoproteins; however, the mechanism underlying selective delivery of different carotenoid species to individual tissues remains elusive. The products of the Yellow cocoon (C) gene and the Flesh (F) gene of the silkworm Bombyx mori determine the selectivity for transport of lutein and β-carotene, respectively, to the silk gland. We previously showed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a CD36 family member, which is thought to function as a transmembrane lipoprotein receptor. Here, we elucidated the molecular identity of the F gene product by positional cloning, as SCRB15, a paralog of Cameo2 with 26% amino acid identity. In the F mutant, SCRB15 mRNA structure was severely disrupted, due to a 1.4 kb genomic insertion in a coding exon. Transgenic expression of SCRB15 in the middle silk gland using the binary GAL4-UAS expression system enhanced selective β-carotene uptake by the middle silk gland, while transgenic expression of Cameo2 enhanced selective lutein uptake under the same GAL4 driver. Our findings indicate that divergence of genes in the CD36 family determines the selectivity of carotenoid species uptake by silk gland tissue and that CD36-homologous proteins can discriminate among carotenoid species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M032771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3588874PMC
February 2013

Genetic analysis of the electrophysiological response to salicin, a bitter substance, in a polyphagous strain of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

PLoS One 2012 23;7(5):e37549. Epub 2012 May 23.

Transgenic Silkworm Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+(pph)) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose-response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F(1) generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF(1) progeny between F(1) females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF(1) progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037549PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3359296PMC
October 2012

Positional cloning of silkworm white egg 2 (w-2) locus shows functional conservation and diversification of ABC transporters for pigmentation in insects.

Genes Cells 2011 Apr 7;16(4):331-42. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan.

The white, scarlet and brown genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode three half-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In Drosophila, precursors of ommochromes and pteridines are transported by White/Scarlet and White/Brown heterodimers, respectively. The white egg 2 (w-2) mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has white eggs and eyes because of lack of ommochrome granules in the serosa and eyes. Here, we report that the silkworm w-2 locus encodes an ortholog of Drosophila scarlet. Our results indicate that Bombyx Scarlet forms a heterodimer with Bombyx White to transport ommochrome precursors, suggesting that formation of a White/Scarlet heterodimer and its involvement in the transport of ommochrome precursors are evolutionarily ancient and widely conserved traits in insects. Contrary to dipteran insects, white and scarlet were juxtaposed in a head-to-tail orientation in the silkworm genome, suggesting that the origin of white and scarlet was a tandem duplication of their ancestral transporter gene. In Bombyx, White is also essential for the transport of uric acid in larval epidermis. However, our results suggest that a Bombyx White/Scarlet heterodimer is not involved in this process. Our results emphasize the functional conservation and diversification of half-type ABC transporter families in insects, which may contribute to their extremely diverse color patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2443.2011.01490.xDOI Listing
April 2011

An efficient binary system for gene expression in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using GAL4 variants.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2011 Apr 19;76(4):195-210. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

A binary gene expression system using the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding protein and the upstream activating sequence (UAS) of galactose-driven yeast genes is an established and powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. However, in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, this system has been limited in its utility by the relatively low transcriptional activation activity of GAL4 and by its toxicity. In this study, we investigated the potential of several established GAL4 variants (GAL4Δ, GAL4VP16, GAL4VPmad2, GAL4VPmad3, and GAL4NFκB) and of two new GAL4 variants, GAL4Rel and GAL4Relish, which contain the transcription-activating regions of the BmRel and BmRelish genes, respectively, to improve the utility of the GAL4/UAS system in B. mori. We generated constructs containing these GAL4 variants under the control of constitutive or inducible promoters and investigated their transcription-activating activity in cultured B. mori cells and embryos and in transgenic silkworms. GAL4VP16 and GAL4NFκB exhibited high transactivation activity but appeared to be toxic when used as transgenes under the control of a constitutive promoter. Similarly, GAL4VPmad2 and GAL4VPmad3 exhibited higher transactivation activity than GAL4, combined with strong toxicity. The transcription-activating activity of GAL4Δ was about twice that of GAL4. The two new GAL4 variants, GAL4Rel and GAL4Relish, were less active than GAL4. Using GAL4VP16 and GAL4NFκB constructs, we have developed a very efficient GAL4/UAS binary gene expression system for use in cultured B. mori cells and embryos and in transgenic silkworms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.20402DOI Listing
April 2011

A CD36-related transmembrane protein is coordinated with an intracellular lipid-binding protein in selective carotenoid transport for cocoon coloration.

J Biol Chem 2010 Mar 6;285(10):7739-51. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

Division of Radiological Protection and Biology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

The transport pathway of specific dietary carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the silk gland in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model system for selective carotenoid transport because several genetic mutants with defects in parts of this pathway have been identified that manifest altered cocoon pigmentation. In the wild-type silkworm, which has both genes, Yellow blood (Y) and Yellow cocoon (C), lutein is transferred selectively from the hemolymph lipoprotein to the silk gland cells where it is accumulated into the cocoon. The Y gene encodes an intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) containing a lipid-binding domain known as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain. Positional cloning and transgenic rescue experiments revealed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, some of which, such as the mammalian SR-BI and the fruit fly ninaD, are reported as lipoprotein receptors or implicated in carotenoid transport for visual system. In C mutant larvae, Cameo2 expression was strongly repressed in the silk gland in a specific manner, resulting in colorless silk glands and white cocoons. The developmental profile of Cameo2 expression, CBP expression, and lutein pigmentation in the silk gland of the yellow cocoon strain were correlated. We hypothesize that selective delivery of lutein to specific tissue requires the combination of two components: 1) CBP as a carotenoid transporter in cytosol and 2) Cameo2 as a transmembrane receptor on the surface of the cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.074435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844218PMC
March 2010

Construction of a binary transgenic gene expression system for recombinant protein production in the middle silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

Transgenic Res 2010 Jun 30;19(3):473-87. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634, Japan.

To construct an efficient system for the production of recombinant proteins in silkworm (Bombyx mori), we investigated the promoter activity of the silkworm sericin 1, 2, and 3 genes (Ser1, Ser2, and Ser3) using a GAL4/UAS binary gene expression system in transgenic silkworm. The promoter activity of the upstream region of Ser1 was strong, yielding high expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene in the middle and posterior regions of the middle silk gland (MSG) after day 2 of the fifth instar. The Ser3 upstream region exhibited moderate promoter activity in the anterior MSG, but the Ser2 upstream region did not exhibit any promoter activity. Since the strongest promoter activity was observed for Ser1, we devised a system for the production of recombinant proteins using a GAL4-Ser1 promoter construct (Ser1-GAL4). Transgenic silkworms harboring both the Ser1-GAL4 construct and the previously reported upstream activating sequence (UAS)-EGFP construct, which contains the TATA box region of the Drosophila hsp70 gene, yielded approximately 100 microg EGFP per larva. When we then analyzed the TATA box region, signal peptide, and intron sequences for their effects on production from the UAS-EGFP construct, we found that the optimization of these sequences effectively increased production to an average of 500 microg EGFP protein per transgenic larva. We conclude that this binary system is a useful tool for the mass production of recombinant proteins of biomedical and pharmaceutical interest in silkworm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-009-9328-2DOI Listing
June 2010

The in vitro osteogenetic characteristics of primary osteoblastic cells from a rabbit calvarium.

J Oral Sci 2008 Dec;50(4):427-34

Division of Applied Oral Sciences, Nihon University Graduate School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan.

Previously, we showed that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) increased bone augmentation beyond the skeletal envelope within a titanium cap in a rabbit calvarium; many cuboidal osteoblastic cells were observed histologically. These results suggested that the new osteoblastic cells might have differentiated and matured via stimulation by rhBMP-2. To date, however, no studies have reported the characteristics of osteoblastic cells derived from adult rabbit calvarium, after addition of rhBMP-2. To determine the effects of rhBMP-2 on osteoblastic cells, we observed morphological characteristics and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells from an adult rabbit calvarium. The expression of proteins in the BMP signaling pathway and extracellular matrix were analyzed, and mineralized nodule formation was assessed. The alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly after rhBMP-2 stimulation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-Smad1, Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type I collagen were augmented by rhBMP-2 stimulation using Western blotting or ELISA; rhBMP-2 also stimulated mineralized nodule formation with alizarin red staining. The results suggest that primary osteoblastic cells derived from a rabbit calvarium have osteogenetic characteristics in vitro, underscoring the potential use of these cells as a model for studying bone formation. These cells may play an important role in in vivo bone augmentation in a rabbit experimental model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.50.427DOI Listing
December 2008

Construction of a piggyBac-based enhancer trap system for the analysis of gene function in silkworm Bombyx mori.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2008 Dec 17;38(12):1165-73. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Enhancer trapping and insertional mutagenesis are powerful tools for analyzing genetic function. To construct an enhancer trap system in the silkworm Bombyx mori, we developed efficient jumpstarter strains by inserting the piggyBac transposase gene under the control of Bombyx cytoplasmic actin gene (BmA3) promoter into the genome. To stabilize the inserted transgene, the jumpstarter strains were constructed using the Minos transposon as a vector. The ability of each of the 13 jumpstarter strains to remobilize their respective transposons was tested by crossing the jumpstarters with a mutator strain carrying a GAL4 construct containing the BmA3 promoter. Four strains with high remobilization activity were then selected and used to produce enhancer trap lines by crossing with the mutator strains and hybridizing the F1 progeny with a UAS-EGFP strain. Several enhancer trap lines showing characteristic expression patterns at the embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages were detected in the subsequent generation. Approximately 10-40% of the silkworms from each cross in the hybridized brood had a remobilized mutator. An analysis of the insertion positions in 105 lines by inverse PCR using a silkworm genome database revealed that remobilization occurred randomly in each chromosome. The frequency of insertion of the remobilized mutator into putative exons, introns, intergenic regions, and repetitive sequences was 12, 9, 36, and 40%, respectively. We concluded that the piggyBac-based GAL4 enhancer trap system developed in this study is applicable for large-scale enhancer trapping in the silkworm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.09.009DOI Listing
December 2008

Genetic mapping of a food preference gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs).

Genes Genet Syst 2007 Jun;82(3):249-56

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS), Silk Technology Unit, Agata, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.

The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, has strict food preferences and grows by feeding on mulberry leaves. However, "Sawa-J", an abnormal feeding habit strain selected from the genetic stock, feeds on an artificial diet without mulberry leaf powder. In this study, the food preference gene in Sawa-J was genetically identified using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of a cDNA clone on each linkage group. Taking advantage of a lack of genetic recombination in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were independently prepared using a non-feeding strain, C108, as a mating partner of Sawa-J. Our results of linkage analysis and mapping proved that the feeding behavior is primarily controlled by a major recessive gene mapped at 20.2 cM on RFLP linkage group 9 (RFLG9), and clone e73 at a distance of 4.2 cM was found as the first linked molecular marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1266/ggs.82.249DOI Listing
June 2007
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