Publications by authors named "Tetsuhiro Fukuyama"

35 Publications

Current medico-psycho-social conditions of patients with West syndrome in Japan.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan.

Objective: To unveil current medical and psychosocial conditions of patients with West syndrome in Japan.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients with West syndrome registered in the Rare Epilepsy Syndrome Registry (RES-R) of Japan. Furthermore, new-onset patients registered in the RES-R were observed prospectively and their outcomes after one and two years of follow-up were compared with data at onset.

Results: For the cross-sectional study, 303 patients with West syndrome were included. Seizures (such as spasms, tonic seizures and focal seizures) occurred daily in 69.3% of the patients at registration. Seizure frequency of less than one per year was observed in cases of unknown etiology (22.6%), genetic etiology (23.8%) and malformation of cortical development (MCD; 19.1%). Neurological findings were absent in 37.0%, but a high rate of abnormality was seen in patients with Aicardi syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), genetic etiology and MCD other than focal cortical dysplasia, accompanied by a >50% rate of bedridden patients. Abnormal EEG was found in 96.7%, and CT/MRI was abnormal in 62.7%. Treatments included antiepileptic drug therapy (94.3%), hormonal therapy (72.6%), diet therapy (8.3%) and surgery (15.8%). Intellectual/developmental delay was present in 88.4%, and was more severe in patients with Aicardi syndrome, genetic etiology and HIE. Autism spectrum disorder was found in 13.5%. For the longitudinal study, 27 new-onset West syndrome patients were included. The follow-up study revealed improved seizure status after two years in 66.7%, but worsened developmental status in 55.6%, with overall improvement in 51.9%.

Significance: The study reveals the challenging neurological, physical and developmental aspects, as well as intractable seizures, in patients with West syndrome. More than a half of the children showed developmental delay after onset, even though seizures were reduced during the course of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1301DOI Listing
July 2021

Complete sequencing of expanded SAMD12 repeats by long-read sequencing and Cas9-mediated enrichment.

Brain 2021 May;144(4):1103-1117

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.

A pentanucleotide TTTCA repeat insertion into a polymorphic TTTTA repeat element in SAMD12 causes benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. Although the precise determination of the entire SAMD12 repeat sequence is important for molecular diagnosis and research, obtaining this sequence remains challenging when using conventional genomic/genetic methods, and even short-read and long-read next-generation sequencing technologies have been insufficient. Incomplete information regarding expanded repeat sequences may hamper our understanding of the pathogenic roles played by varying numbers of repeat units, genotype-phenotype correlations, and mutational mechanisms. Here, we report a new approach for the precise determination of the entire expanded repeat sequence and present a workflow designed to improve the diagnostic rates in various repeat expansion diseases. We examined 34 clinically diagnosed benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy patients, from 29 families using repeat-primed PCR, Southern blot, and long-read sequencing with Cas9-mediated enrichment. Two cases with questionable results from repeat-primed PCR and/or Southern blot were confirmed as pathogenic using long-read sequencing with Cas9-mediated enrichment, resulting in the identification of pathogenic SAMD12 repeat expansions in 76% of examined families (22/29). Importantly, long-read sequencing with Cas9-mediated enrichment was able to provide detailed information regarding the sizes, configurations, and compositions of the expanded repeats. The inserted TTTCA repeat size and the proportion of TTTCA sequences among the overall repeat sequences were highly variable, and a novel repeat configuration was identified. A genotype-phenotype correlation study suggested that the insertion of even short (TTTCA)14 repeats contributed to the development of benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. However, the sizes of the overall TTTTA and TTTCA repeat units are also likely to be involved in the pathology of benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. Seven unsolved SAMD12-negative cases were investigated using whole-genome long-read sequencing, and infrequent, disease-associated, repeat expansions were identified in two cases. The strategic workflow resolved two questionable SAMD12-positive cases and two previously SAMD12-negative cases, increasing the diagnostic yield from 69% (20/29 families) to 83% (24/29 families). This study indicates the significant utility of long-read sequencing technologies to explore the pathogenic contributions made by various repeat units in complex repeat expansions and to improve the overall diagnostic rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab021DOI Listing
May 2021

Acute encephalopathy in children with tuberous sclerosis complex.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 01 6;16(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Aichi Medical University, 1-1 Yazako Karimata, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan.

Objective: We examined the clinical manifestations of acute encephalopathy (AE) and identify risk factors for AE in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).

Methods: The clinical data of 11 children with clinically diagnosed TSC associated with AE and 109 children with clinically diagnosed TSC alone aged 4 years or older were collected from 13 hospitals.

Results: Of the 11 children with AE, 5 had histories of febrile seizures (FS), and all had histories of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). AE developed within 24 h after fever onset in all children with seizures lasting 30 min or longer. All children developed coma after seizure cessation. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed widespread abnormalities in the cerebral cortex, subcortical white matter, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. One child died; seven had severe neurological sequelae; and the other three, mild sequelae. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a history of FSE was correlated with the development of AE.

Significance: AE in children with TSC was characterized by sudden onset after fever, followed by coma, widespread brain edema evident on MRI, and poor outcomes. A history of FSE was a risk factor for the development of AE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01646-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789140PMC
January 2021

Cord blood transplantation in a patient with severe motor and intellectual disabilities and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Pediatr Int 2020 Sep;62(9):1115-1117

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Nagano Children's Hospital, Nagano, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14260DOI Listing
September 2020

Pyridoxal in the Cerebrospinal Fluid May Be a Better Indicator of Vitamin B6-dependent Epilepsy Than Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 12 2;113:33-41. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: We aimed to demonstrate the biochemical characteristics of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, with a particular focus on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Methods: Using our laboratory database, we identified patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy and extracted their data on the concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, pipecolic acid, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, and monoamine neurotransmitters. We compared the biochemical characteristics of these patients with those of other epilepsy patients with low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations.

Results: We identified seven patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy caused by an ALDH7A1 gene abnormality, two patients with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate homeostasis protein deficiency, and 28 patients with other epilepsies with low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations were low in patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy but cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal concentrations were not reduced in most patients with other epilepsies with low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. Increase in 3-O-methyldopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan was demonstrated in some patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, suggestive of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency in the brain.

Conclusions: Low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal concentrations may be a better indicator of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency in the brain in vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy than low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. This finding is especially helpful in individuals with suspected pyridoxal 5'-phosphate homeostasis protein deficiency, which does not have known biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.08.020DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Doose syndrome.

Epilepsia Open 2020 Sep 23;5(3):442-450. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Human Genetics Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine Yokohama Japan.

Objective: To elucidate the genetic background and genotype-phenotype correlations for epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome.

Methods: We collected clinical information and blood samples from 29 patients with MAE. We performed whole-exome sequencing for all except one MAE case in whom custom capture sequencing identified a variant.

Results: We newly identified four variants: and missense variants and microdeletions at 2q24.2 involving and Xp22.31 involving . Febrile seizures preceded epileptic or afebrile seizures in four patients, of which two patients had gene variants. Myoclonic-atonic seizures occurred at onset in four patients, of which two had variants, and during the course of disease in three patients. Variants were more commonly identified in patients with a developmental delay or intellectual disability (DD/ID), but genetic status was not associated with the severity of DD/ID. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder were less frequently observed in patients with variants than in those with unknown etiology.

Significance: MAE patients had genetic heterogeneity, and and emerged as possible candidate causative genes. Febrile seizures prior to epileptic seizures and myoclonic-atonic seizure at onset indicate a genetic predisposition to MAE. Comorbid conditions were not related to genetic predisposition to MAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469791PMC
September 2020

Prenatal clinical manifestations in individuals with variants.

J Med Genet 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Bobath Memorial Hospital, Osaka, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Variants in the type IV collagen gene () cause early-onset cerebrovascular diseases. Most individuals are diagnosed postnatally, and the prenatal features of individuals with variants remain unclear.

Methods: We examined in 218 individuals with suspected /2-related brain defects. Among those arising from variants, we focused on individuals showing prenatal abnormal ultrasound findings and validated their prenatal and postnatal clinical features in detail.

Results: Pathogenic variants were detected in 56 individuals (n=56/218, 25.7%) showing porencephaly (n=29), schizencephaly (n=12) and others (n=15). Thirty-four variants occurred de novo (n=34/56, 60.7%). Foetal information was available in 47 of 56 individuals, 32 of whom (n=32/47, 68.1%) had one or more foetal abnormalities. The median gestational age at the detection of initial prenatal abnormal features was 31 weeks of gestation. Only 14 individuals had specific prenatal findings that were strongly suggestive of features associated with variants. Foetal ventriculomegaly was the most common initial feature (n=20/32, 62.5%). Posterior fossa abnormalities, including Dandy-Walker malformation, were observed prenatally in four individuals. Regarding extrabrain features, foetal growth restriction was present in 16 individuals, including eight individuals with comorbid ventriculomegaly.

Conclusions: Prenatal observation of ventriculomegaly with comorbid foetal growth restriction should prompt a thorough ultrasound examination and gene testing should be considered when pathogenic variants are strongly suspected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106896DOI Listing
July 2020

Parechovirus-A3 encephalitis presenting with focal seizure mimicking herpes simplex virus infection.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Jul 20;26(7):736-740. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Febrile neonates and young infants presenting with seizure require immediate evaluation and treatment. Herein we experienced two young infants with parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) encephalitis, initially presented with focal seizure suspecting herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis.

Cases: We have experienced 2 infantile cases, initially presented with focal seizure. At presentation, HSV encephalitis was strongly suspected and empiric acyclovir therapy was started; however, serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR for HSV were negative. Instead, serum and/or CSF PCR for parechovirus-A was positive. PeV-A3 infection was confirmed by genetic sequence analyses. Both cases required multiple anticonvulsant therapy and intensive care for intractable seizure. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed distinct findings; high-intensity lesions in the gray matter of parietal and occipital lobes in Case 1, and bilateral decreased diffusion of the deep white matter and corpus callosum in Case 2. We have followed two cases more than four years; Case 1 developed epilepsy, has been on an anticonvulsant to control her seizure. Case 2 has significant neurodevelopmental delay, unable to stand or communicate with language.

Conclusions: PeV-A3 encephalitis needs to be in differential diagnosis when neonates and young infants present with focal seizure, mimicking HSV encephalitis. Special attention may be necessary in patients with PeV-A3 encephalitis given it could present with intractable seizure with high morbidity in a long-term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.02.003DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion with and without acute focal bacterial nephritis.

Brain Dev 2020 Jan 4;42(1):56-63. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Division of Neurology, Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible lesion (MERS) is characterized by reversible lesions with transiently-reduced diffusion in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, cases of MERS with accompanying acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) have been reported in children. This study aimed to clarify the clinical features of MERS with AFBN.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients with MERS was conducted at Nagano Children's Hospital, Japan, from April 2013 to March 2018. The clinical signs and laboratory findings of MERS patients with AFBN (AFBN group) and without AFBN (non-AFBN group) were measured and compared.

Results: Of 12 patients diagnosed as having MERS, 3 were also found to have AFBN. Seven of the 9 patients without AFBN were associated with infectious agents, including rotavirus and influenza viruses. No patient received steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, and none displayed neurological sequelae. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in the AFBN group than in the non-AFBN group (14.7 mg/dL versus 0.8 mg/dL, P = 0.009). AFBN group patients were also significantly older (97 months versus 27 months, P = 0.018) and experienced significantly less frequent seizures (33% versus 100%, P = 0.045). The mean duration of neurological symptoms was significantly longer in the AFBN group than in the non-AFBN group (4 days versus 1.7 days, P = 0.013).

Conclusions: Pediatric patients with AFBN often present with non-specific findings, such as fever and abdominal pain. Pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of AFBN in the clinical setting of MERS, particularly when the patient exhibits inexplicably high CRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.08.008DOI Listing
January 2020

Early prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy with reduced subcortical diffusion.

Brain Dev 2018 Sep 30;40(8):707-713. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Division of Neurology, Nagano Children's Hospital, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy with reduced diffusion (AED) during the acute phase through retrospective case evaluation.

Methods: The participants included 23 patients with AED. The diagnosis of AED was based on their clinical course and radiological findings. We divided the patients into severe and non-severe groups based on the neurodevelopmental outcome. The severe group included seven patients (median age, 21 months; range, 6-87 months) and the non-severe group included 16 patients (19 months, 9-58 months). Clinical symptoms, laboratory data and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings within 48 h from the initial seizure onset were compared between the two groups to identify neurological outcome predictors.

Results: The incidence of coma 12-24 h after onset, serum creatinine (Cr) levels within 2 h after onset, maximum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels within 24 h after onset, and the rate of electrographic seizures in EEG were significantly higher in the severe group (Coma, 80%; Cr, 0.40 mg/dl, 0.37-0.73; AST, 363 IU/L, 104-662; electrographic seizures, 80%) than the non-severe group (Coma, 0%; Cr, 0.29 mg/dL, 0.19-0.45; AST, 58.5 IU/L, 30-386; electrographic seizures, 0%).

Conclusions: Coma 12-24 h after onset, elevation of Cr levels within 2 h after onset, elevation of AST levels within 24 h after onset, and non-convulsive status epileptics (NCSE) in comatose patients were early predictors of severe AED. Patients in a coma after a febrile seizure should be checked for NCSE signs in EEG to terminate NCSE without delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.04.005DOI Listing
September 2018

Functional neuroimaging in Rasmussen syndrome.

Epilepsy Res 2018 02 5;140:120-127. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine.

Purpose: For a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), clinical course together with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are considered important, but there are few reports on functional neuroimaging. This study investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR)-SPECT, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in RS patients, and correlated neuroimaging results with MRI and pathological findings.

Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with RS according to Bien's (2005) diagnostic criteria (including 12 patients with a histological diagnosis) were studied. CBF-SPECT, BZR-SPECT and FDG-PET images were visually evaluated, and the findings correlated with MRI and histological findings.

Results: Hypoperfusion areas were observed in 16 of 22 patients by interictal CBF-SPECT. Hyperperfusion areas were observed in 10 of 12 patients by ictal CBF-SPECT, which correlated with ictal onset area by ictal EEG (IOAE). In the limited data of BZR-SPECT in nine patients, lowered uptake was detected in all nine patients, including two with no MRI abnormalities. Lowered glucose metabolism was observed in affected areas in all five patients by FDG-PET. Histological examination revealed findings of chronic encephalitis in all 12 patients examined, concomitant with focal cortical dysplasia in five patients.

Conclusion: In RS patients, functional neuroimaging reveals clear abnormal findings, even before the appearance of MRI abnormalities. BZR-SPECT and FDG-PET could detect the IOAE efficiently even in the absence of MRI abnormalities, while interictal CBF-SPECT occasionally failed to detect IOAE if MRI was normal. Based on BZR-SPECT, refractory epileptic seizures in RS may suggest possible impairment of inhibitory neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.01.001DOI Listing
February 2018

CACNA1A-related early-onset encephalopathy with myoclonic epilepsy: A case report.

Brain Dev 2018 Feb 18;40(2):130-133. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

We report a one-year-old boy with early-onset myoclonic epilepsy, developmental arrest, and hyperekplexia during early infancy. He presented with refractory myoclonic/tonic seizures since birth. Electroencephalography revealed multifocal spikes, and rhythmic activities that occurred simultaneous with aggravation of myoclonus accompanied by tonic upper limb elevation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed progressive cerebral atrophy with periventricular signal change and thin corpus callosum at one year of age. A de novo heterozygous missense mutation in the CACNA1A gene was confirmed. This patient was the most severe phenotype of CACNA1A-related early-onset encephalopathy among previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2017.08.006DOI Listing
February 2018

An Increase of Cerebrospinal Fluid B-cell Activating Factor Level in Pediatric Patients With Acute Viral Encephalitis.

Pediatr Neurol 2017 05 7;70:e3-e4. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.01.027DOI Listing
May 2017

Acute encephalopathy in an immunocompromised boy with astrovirus-MLB1 infection detected by next generation sequencing.

J Clin Virol 2016 May 9;78:66-70. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

We report a case of an immunodeficient 4-year-old boy with acute encephalopathy possibly related to human astrovirus-MLB1 infection. The astrovirus-MLB1 genome was identified in his stool, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and throat swabs by next generation sequencing. We present additional evidence showing human astroviruses are important infectious agents, regardless of their clades, involving the central nervous system in immunocompromised hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2016.03.010DOI Listing
May 2016

Successful treatment of arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy in an infant with tuberous sclerosis complex.

BMC Pediatr 2016 Jan 25;16:16. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome that is characterized by the development of distinctive benign tumors and malformations in multiple organ systems (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006). Cardiac rhabdomyomas are intracavitary or intramural tumors observed in 50-70 % of infants with TSC but only cause serious clinical problems in a very small fraction of these patients (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006; Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994); most individuals have no clinical symptoms and their tumors spontaneously regress. However, despite being clinically silent, these lesions can provoke arrhythmias and heart failure (Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994).

Case Presentation: We here report the clinical findings of an infant suffering from TSC complicated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) after the regression of cardiac rhabdomyomas. Although his tumors improved spontaneously, tachycardia and irregular heart rate due to frequent premature ventricular and supraventricular contractions persisted from the newborn period and were refractory to several medications. His cardiomyopathy was suspected to have been induced by the tachycardia or arrhythmia. We found carvedilol therapy to be safe and highly effective in treating the cardiomyopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of TSC with DCM after regression of cardiac tumors and its successful treatment.

Conclusion: The patient's clinical course suggests that careful life-long disease management is important, even in TSC patients without apparent symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0557-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4724951PMC
January 2016

An Adolescent Case of Citrin Deficiency With Severe Anorexia Mimicking Anorexia Nervosa.

Pediatrics 2015 Aug 20;136(2):e530-4. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan; Department of Medicine (Neurology and Rheumatology), Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan;

We report a 12-year-old female citrin-deficient patient presenting with severe anorexia and body weight loss, mimicking the restricting type of anorexia nervosa (AN). She showed normal development until age 10 years when she started to play volleyball at school. She then became gradually anorexic, and her growth was stunted. At age 12, she was admitted to hospital because of severe anorexia and thinness. She was first thought to have AN, and drip infusion of glucose solution and high-calorie drinks were given, but her condition deteriorated further. She had a history of neonatal hepatitis and was therefore suspected to have citrin deficiency (CD). Genetic analysis of SLC25A13 revealed that she was compound heterozygous for 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, and a diagnosis of CD was made. A low-carbohydrate diet with oral intake of arginine and ursodeoxycholic acid was started, and her condition gradually improved. The clinical features in our patient were similar to those of AN, and therefore AN may also be an important clinical sign in adolescent patients with CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-4172DOI Listing
August 2015

Semi-quantitative analyses of antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptor subunits (GluN2B & GluN1) in the clinical course of Rasmussen syndrome.

Epilepsy Res 2015 Jul 27;113:34-43. Epub 2015 Mar 27.

National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan.

Objective: In Rasmussen syndrome (RS), in addition to the predominant involvement of cytotoxic T cells, heterogeneous autoantibodies against neural molecules are also found, but their function has not been elucidated. We examined antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits (GluN2B & GluN1) semi-quantitatively in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from RS patients, and evaluated their changes over time and their roles in immunopathogenesis.

Methods: Autoantibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN2B and GluN1 were examined in 40 CSF samples collected from 18 RS patients 5 to 180 months after the onset of RS. Epileptic patients without infectious etiology or progressive clinical course served as disease controls (n=23). Synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular and intracellular domains of human GluN2B and GluN1 subunits were used as antigens in ELISA. We defined the cut-off for these antibodies as mean +2 standard deviations (optimal density) of the disease controls. MRI were evaluated according to the MRI staging proposed by Bien et al. (2002b, Neurology 58, 250).

Results: CSF levels of antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN2B were higher in RS patients than in disease controls (p<0.01). Likewise, CSF levels of antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN1 were also higher in RS patients than in disease controls (p<0.01). All four antibodies tested were below cut-off levels in almost all CSF samples collected within one year from epilepsy onset. The proportions of CSF samples with these antibodies above cut-off levels were highest from 12 to 23 months after epilepsy onset, and declined after 24 months. CSF levels of these antibodies were higher when seizure occurred daily than when seizure occurred less frequently (p<0.01), and were higher at MRI stage 3 than at MRI stages 0, 2 and 4 (p<0.05), except for anti-GluN1-CT antibody at stage 2.

Conclusions: Broad epitope recognition spectrum and delayed production of autoantibodies to NMDA type GluR in CSF of RS patients suggest that the autoantibodies are produced against NMDA type GluR antigens derived from cytotoxic T cell-mediated neuronal damages. These antibodies may impact the pathophysiology of RS in the most active stage, and could be a marker for active inflammation in the clinical course of RS. Further studies including passive transfer of the antibodies to mice may reveal the pivotal roles of the antibodies in RS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2015.03.004DOI Listing
July 2015

Successful treatment of fulminant Wilson's disease without liver transplantation.

Pediatr Int 2014 Jun;56(3):429-32

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

Fulminant Wilson's disease (WD) is life-threatening. The revised WD prognostic index (RWPI) has been used to predict the severity of the disease, with a score ≥11 indicating fatal outcome without liver transplantation (LTx). We here report the case of a 10-year-old female patient with fulminant WD (RWPI, 16) who recovered fully after plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration, followed by treatment with copper chelate agents. To the best of our knowledge, there have been five fulminant WD patients with RWPI ≥ 11 including the present patient, in whom LTx was not done. Based on the therapeutic modalities in these five cases, non-surgical treatment (blood purification and copper chelate agents) may be able to avoid LTx in fulminant WD even with very high RWPI, although preparation for LTx is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.12291DOI Listing
June 2014

Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and auditory brainstem response in a child with spastic paraplegia 2 due to a PLP1 splice site mutation.

Brain Dev 2015 Jan 28;37(1):158-62. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

A boy with spastic paraplegia type 2 (SPG2) due to a novel splice site mutation of PLP1 presented with progressive spasticity of lower limbs, which was first observed during late infancy, when he gained the ability to walk with support. His speech was slow and he had dysarthria. The patient showed mildly delayed intellectual development. Subtotal dysmyelination in the central nervous system was revealed, which was especially prominent in structures known to be myelinated during earlier period, whereas structures that are myelinated later were better myelinated. These findings on the brain magnetic resonance imaging were unusual for subjects with PLP1 mutations. Peaks I and II of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) were normally provoked, but peaks III-V were not clearly demarcated, similarly to the findings in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. These findings of brain MRI and ABR may be characteristic for a subtype of SPG2 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2014.03.001DOI Listing
January 2015

Successful treatment for West syndrome with severe combined immunodeficiency.

Brain Dev 2015 Jan 15;37(1):140-4. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

Several immune mechanisms are suspected in the unknown etiology of West syndrome (WS). We report a male infant who suffered from WS and X-linked T-B+NK- severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) with a missense mutation of the IL2RG gene (c.202G>A, p.Glu68Lys). He promptly began vitamin B6 and valproic acid treatment, but infantile spasms (IS) and hypsarrhythmia persisted. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and the change to topiramate (TPM) at 7 months of age resulted in the rapid resolution of IS. The CD4/8 ratio in his peripheral blood increased from 0.04-0.09 to 0.20-1.95 following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A and the ability of B lymphocytes to produce antibodies improved as well. Electroencephalogram findings became normal 1 month after UCBT. Thus, we consider that T-cell dysfunction and/or impairments in T-B cell interactions due to X-SCID may have played important roles in the onset of WS. Immune-modulating therapies along with the administration of TPM effectively treated this severe epileptic syndrome in our patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2014.01.012DOI Listing
January 2015

[Efficacy of visual cognitive function tests in health examinations of five-year-old children].

No To Hattatsu 2013 Sep;45(5):355-9

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano.

Objective: Health examination programs for five-year-old children are aimed at effectively detecting developmental disorders, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), learning disorders (LD), higher functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD), and other abnormalities. Tests usually include a questionnaire and observation of group playing, verbal communication, and soft neurological signs; however, it is often difficult to detect children who have LD with visual cognitive dysfunctions through such conventional examination techniques. Here, we analyzed the efficacy of using a battery of visual cognitive function tests to identify such cases.

Methods: We employed four simple tests to evaluate visual cognitive function in addition to a standard health examination for five-year-old between April 2008 and March 2010. To analyze visual cognitive function tests, the results were scored and the applicability of these tests was verified by comparisons with established tests.

Results: A total of 653 five-year-old children underwent health examinations, and 48 children were referred to the hospital for further examinations. As a result, 34 children were newly diagnosed with developmental disorders, including HFASD, AD/HD, LD, and mild intellectual disturbances. Strong correlations were seen between the scores of these four examinations and those of other established tests, such as the performance intelligence score, the perceptual organization index of WISC-III, and the Frostig visual development test score. An additional benefit of our method was that parents could easily recognize developmental disorders in their children through direct observation of these examinations.

Conclusions: We concluded that the battery of visual cognitive function tests was simple and useful for detecting developmental disorders in the health examinations of five-year-old children.
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September 2013

[A 6-year-old girl who exhibited residual reading disorder during the course of acute encephalopathy].

No To Hattatsu 2012 Nov;44(6):482-6

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano.

We assessed a 6-year-old girl who developed status epilepticus and exhibited transient aphasia during the course of acute encephalopathy with late reduced diffusion, and who had a residual reading disorder in the recovery period. The aphasia appeared to be fluent aphasia and anomia, suggesting that the reading disorder during the recovery process was due to impairment of the phonological process. There were no biphasic seizures during the course of the patient's illness, but this case was acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE) from the standpoint of the characteristic imaging findings. Lesions in the left parietal and temporal lobes were detected on MRI diffusion-weighted images and by SPECT and MRS, and they appeared to be the lesions responsible for the aphasia and residual reading disorder. This case appears to be important from the standpoint of assessing the pathophysiology and the treatment of coexisting illness observed in acute encephalopathy.
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November 2012

Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy caused by Bacillus cereus sepsis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012 Apr;34(3):e110-3

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

We report a pediatric case of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy caused by Bacillus cereus sepsis during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. A 15-year-old boy developed B. cereus sepsis and multiple organ failure on the 19th day after initiation of chemotherapy, and multidisciplinary treatment was started. Treatment was effective and septic shock with multiple organ failure remitted. He was weaned from a respirator on day 23 after the onset of sepsis, but complete flaccid paralysis of the 4 extremities occurred. His compound muscle action potential and F-wave occurrence were reduced on a nerve conduction test. The number of motor units was markedly decreased, and the amplitude and duration of individual motor units were low and short, respectively, on electromyography. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. On the basis of these findings, he was diagnosed with critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. He underwent intensive rehabilitation and recovered the ability to walk 3 months after onset. He was discharged 1 year after the initiation of chemotherapy, and remission has been maintained without inconvenience to daily living activities for 3 years since disease onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e318234620bDOI Listing
April 2012

[A case of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 3 years after the onset of acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures].

No To Hattatsu 2011 Jul;43(4):313-6

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano.

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. Although not usually lethal, we report a case of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) 3 years after the onset of AERRPS. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of fever and extremely refractory partial and secondary generalized seizures with delirium and psychiatric change. The seizures were highly resistant to anticonvulsants and suppressed only by large dose intravenous administration of midazolam. Seven months after the onset, the seizures were ameliorated by treatment with potassium bromide and clorazepate. After the acute phase, the patient developed complex partial seizures that tended to present with cyanosis. At the age of 10, he was found lying prone in respiratory arrest with facial pallor. Although he regained cardiac function after being taken to our emergency room, the patient died 12 days later. Six SUDEP cases after the onset of AERRPS, including this one, have been reported to date. Since epilepsy following AERRPS is one of the risk factors of SUDEP, clinicians should consider SUDEP to be a rare but high risk syndrome in AERRPS-afflicted children.
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July 2011

Reflex seizures induced by micturition and defecation, successfully treated with clobazam and phenytoin.

Epileptic Disord 2011 Jun;13(2):166-71

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

We report a six-year-old girl with seizures induced by both micturition and defecation. Several days after unprovoked generalised tonic-clonic seizures, she developed reflex seizures characterised by the extension of both arms and rhythmic jerking of her upper body. No abnormal findings were noted on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) showed spike-and-wave activity on central electrode recording, and rhythmic fast activity was recorded by central electrodes during the ictal EEG upon micturition. The combination of clobazam and phenytoin was effective for both unprovoked and reflex seizures. Although some previous reports have described reflex seizures triggered by either micturition or defecation, this is the first case report of reflex seizures induced by both micturition and defecation in the same patient. Based on a comparison with previous cases of reflex seizures induced either by micturition or defecation, the neuronal pathway from the pelvic base musculature to the supplementary motor area may be responsible for the condition in our patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2011.0423DOI Listing
June 2011

[Two cases of symptomatic West syndrome suffering from severe respiratory syncytial virus-induced bronchiolitis].

No To Hattatsu 2010 Nov;42(6):458-62

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano.

We report two cases of symptomatic West syndrome with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis: one was a 9-month-old boy who was hospitalized for shock, and the other was a 15-month-old boy in pre-shock condition. Both cases needed mechanical ventilation for approximately 2 weeks. Seizures from the primary disease worsened in both patients during the infection, and both needed long periods of hospitalization, which resulted in a considerable reduction in their quality of life and that of their families. According to a one-year epidemiological survey of RSV infection conducted in 2004-2005 in Nagano prefecture, 7 of 238 hospitalized RSV cases were found to have basic neuromuscular disorders. Compared to patients with chronic lung disease or other primary diseases, they were older, had higher incidence of mechanical ventilation, and required longer hospitalization. Neuromuscular disorders may thus be an important risk factor for severe forms of RSV infection. Although children with such disorders should be protected from RSV, they are currently excluded from the indication for palivizumab administration as passive immunization against RSV in Japan.
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November 2010

Prophylactic treatment for hypertension and seizure in a case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

Pediatr Transplant 2011 Dec 24;15(8):E169-73. Epub 2010 Aug 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

A six-yr-old boy developed PRES after induction chemotherapy for the relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two months after PRES, he underwent BMT from an unrelated HLA-mismatched donor. There were many risk factors for PRES in the BMT including the long-term use of FK506 and methylprednisolone, grade III graft-versus-host disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, and sepsis. Prophylactic treatment for hypertension with nicardipine in conjunction with close monitoring of the magnesium level and the use of valproic acid might be an effective management approach to prevent post-transplant PRES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01358.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Polymyxin-direct hemoperfusion for sepsis-induced multiple organ failure.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010 Jul;55(1):202-5

Department of Pediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

We report a case of multiple organ failure caused by the Bacillus cereus infection during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy, who was treated successfully. A 15-year-old male developed (B. cereus) sepsis on the 19th day after chemotherapy initiation. Polymyxin-direct hemoperfusion for septic shock was started, followed by continuous hemodiafiltration. His condition improved after starting the hemoperfusion. At the onset of sepsis, elevated levels of serum inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and plasminogen-activator inhibitor complex-1 were observed. Serum levels of these cytokines and bioactive substances decreased after blood purification therapy, which correlated with the improvement of clinical symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22447DOI Listing
July 2010
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