Publications by authors named "Tetsu Satow"

67 Publications

[Cerebrovascular imaging to facilitate stroke reperfusion therapy in Japan].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center.

Imaging diagnosis is essential to perform appropriate reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. To equally perform reperfusion therapy all over in Japan, it is important to properly facilitate acute imaging evaluation for stroke suspected patients by medical staff not only in stroke-specialized hospitals but also in non-stroke-specialized hospitals. It is unique that CT and MRI are available in most of Japanese hospitals. Even in non-stroke-specialized hospitals, inpatients may suffer from in-hospital stroke. We review statements and recommendation items for a diagnostic imaging to appropriately perform reperfusion therapy based on major clinical trials, stroke guidelines and the current status of acute stroke imaging in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001603DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcome of Endovascular Therapy Aiming for Single-session Obliteration of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center.

The goal of dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) treatment is obliteration of the arteriovenous shunt and/or retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage (RLVD). Single-session obliteration could improve symptoms early and reduce risk of neurological sequelae. This study investigated the efficacy and adverse events of endovascular therapy (EVT) aiming for single-session obliteration in dAVF treatment. We retrospectively examined post-treatment arteriovenous shunt status, number of treatments per case, treatment-related complications, and long-term outcome in 92 dAVF patients who underwent initial EVT at our institution. Single-session obliteration was intended in all cases, but a second session was performed in cases of partial shunt occlusion or remaining RLVD. Complete occlusion was achieved in 85 cases (92.4%) after the single session; RLVD was obliterated in 66 of the 67 Borden type II and III cases combined (98.5%). A second session was necessary in seven cases (7.6%). Complete shunt obliteration was eventually achieved in all cases. The average number of treatments was 1.08 per case. dAVF-related stroke and mortality did not occur after the treatment. On the other hand, radiation-induced skin erythema and alopecia, although all symptoms were transient, occurred in 26 cases (28.3%). Over an average 60.2-month follow-up period, recurrence was observed in seven cases (7.6%). Single-session obliteration was successful in 92% of cases. Especially, single-session obliteration of RLVD may contribute to early prevent of future stroke events. However, reducing total radiation dose during each session is an issue of further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2021-0059DOI Listing
June 2021

Blind Exchange With Mini-Pinning Technique Using the Tron Stent Retriever for Middle Cerebral Artery M2 Occlusion Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2021 19;12:667835. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

The usefulness of the blind exchange with mini-pinning (BEMP) technique has recently been reported for mechanical thrombectomy in patients with stroke owing to medium vessel occlusion (MeVO). The Tron stent retriever can be delivered and deployed through a 0.0165-inch microcatheter. This retriever has potential as an effective and safe treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to occlusion of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Here, we report the outcomes of the BEMP technique using Tron stent retrievers for M2 occlusion thrombectomy. Consecutive patients with AIS owing to M2 occlusion who underwent the BEMP technique using 2 × 15-mm or 4 × 20-mm Tron stent retrievers were included. The technique involves deploying a Tron stent retriever through a 0.0165-inch microcatheter, followed by microcatheter removal and blind navigation of a 3MAX or 4MAX aspiration catheter over the bare Tron delivery wire until the aspiration catheter reaches the clot. A Tron stent retriever is inserted into the aspiration catheter like a cork and subsequently pulled as a unit. We assessed procedural outcomes [first-pass expanded thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (eTICI) score 2c/3 and 2b/2c/3], safety outcomes [symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH)], and clinical outcomes (good outcome rate defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 at 90 days and mortality at 90 days). Eighteen M2 vessels were treated in 15 patients (six female, median age: 80 years, and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score: 18). The BEMP technique was performed successfully in all cases. Whether to use a 3MAX or 4MAX catheter was determined by considering one of the following target vessels: dominant, non-dominant, or co-dominant M2 (3MAX, = 9; 4MAX, = 9). The first-pass eTICI 2c/3 and 2b/2c/3 rates were 47 (7/15) and 60% (9/15), respectively; sICH was not observed. Seven patients (47%) achieved good outcomes, and one patient (7%) died within 90 days. The Tron stent retriever was safely and effectively used in the BEMP technique for acute MCA M2 occlusion and can be combined with a 0.0165-inch microcatheter, which may be useful for treating MeVO, in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.667835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172139PMC
May 2021

Early recurrent ischemic events after mechanical thrombectomy: effect of post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 16;268(8):2810-2820. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 6-1 Kishibe-Shimmachi, Suita, Osaka, 564-8565, Japan.

Objective: Patients with intracranial hemorrhages (ICH) after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) may have a higher risk of early recurrent embolism (ERE) because of delayed initiation of anticoagulants. We assessed the rate of ischemic events in the early period after MT and the association with post-MT ICH.

Methods: Patients who underwent MT in our institute were retrospectively reviewed. ERE was defined as recurrent ischemic stroke and systemic embolism within 14 days after MT. The association between ERE and parenchymal hematoma (PH) was assessed. Multivariable regression analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between patients with and without PH.

Results: A total of 307 patients (median age, 78 years; female, 47%; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 19) were included. ERE was observed in 12 of 307 patients (8 strokes, 4 systemic embolisms; 3.9%). Median time from MT to ERE was 6.5 days (IQR, 3-8 days). PH occurred in 21 patients (6.8%). Median time from MT to initiating oral anticoagulants was longer in patients with PH (8 days) than in those without (3 days) (p < 0.01). In both unweighted and weighted multivariable analysis, PH was significantly associated with an increased risk of ERE (unweighted odds ratio, 10.60; 95% CI, 2.66-42.23; weighted odds ratio, 12.34; 95% CI, 2.49-61.07).

Conclusions: ERE occurred in about 4% of patients after MT. PH after MT was associated with delayed initiation of oral anticoagulants and an increased risk of recurrent ischemic events.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02251665.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10449-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical Trial of the New Stent Retriever Tron FX for both Proximal and Distal Intracranial Large Vessel Occlusions.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Mar 5;30(3):105585. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Center for Clinical Research and Innovation, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Background: In all of randomized controlled trials of mechanical thrombectomy, the target vessels were proximal. Herein we report a clinical trial of the Tron FX stent retriever, including the smallest size of 2/15 mm for distal intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO).

Objective: Eligible patients presented within 8 h of onset with proximal or distal LVOs, and the Tron FX 4/20 mm or 2/15 mm were used as the first-line device.

Methods: The primary endpoints were rate of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade 2a-3 immediately after using Tron FX only, and mortality rate 90 d. We compared the outcomes between sizes 4/20 and 2/15 mm.

Results: The clinical trial was conducted in 50 cases, of which 44% presented with distal LVO and 15 cases were treated using only Tron FX 2/15 mm. The overall rate of mTICI grade 2a-3 was 80.0% (75.8% with Tron FX 4/20 mm, and 86.7% with 2/15 mm), and a 90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2 or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale after thrombectomy ≥ 10 was achieved in 66.7% of cases (61.3% with Tron FX 4/20 mm, and 80.0% with 2/15 mm). The overall 90-day mortality rate was 8.0%, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 24 h occurred in 2.0% of cases.

Conclusion: In this clinical trial using the Tron FX, which included the size of 2/15 mm for distal LVO, its efficacy was similar and its safety was superior compared with previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105585DOI Listing
March 2021

Identifying large ischemic core volume ranges in acute stroke that can benefit from mechanical thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Neurology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: We aimed to identify the large ischemic core (LIC) volume ranges in acute ischemic stroke patients that can benefit from mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Methods: Consecutive patients within 24 hours of onset of anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion and ischemic core volumes of 70-300 mL were included from our single-center prospective database from March 2014 to December 2019. Subjects were divided into three groups by baseline ischemic core volume (A: 70-100 mL; B: 101-130 mL; C: >130 mL). We compared modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2 at 3 months and parenchymal hematoma between patients receiving MT and standard medical treatment (SMT), and determined clinically treatable core volume ranges for MT.

Results: Of 157 patients (86 women; median age, 81 years; median ischemic core volume, 123 mL), 49 patients underwent MT. In Group A (n=52), MT patients (n=31) showed a higher proportion of mRS 0-2 at 3 months (52% vs 5%, P<0.05) versus SMT, respectively. Group B (n=36) MT patients (n=14) also had a higher proportion of mRS 0-2 at 3 months (29% vs 9%, P=0.13) versus SMT, respectively. In Group C (n=69), only four patients received MT. The 95% confidence intervals for the probability of mRS 0-2 at 3 months in patients with MT (n=49) versus SMT (n=108) intersected at 120-130 mL.

Conclusions: Ischemic core volumes between 70 and 100 mL may benefit from MT. The treatable upper core limit is approximately 120 mL in selected patients with LIC of 70-300 mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016934DOI Listing
December 2020

Intracranial arterial stenosis associated with Hashimoto's disease: angiographic features and clinical outcomes.

BMC Neurol 2020 Sep 14;20(1):345. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Kishibe-Shinmachi 6-1, Suita City, Osaka, 564-8565, Japan.

Background: Hashimoto's disease has reportedly been associated with stroke; however, cerebrovascular morphology and clinical course remain poorly documented. The present study aimed to determine the angiographic features and clinical outcomes of intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) associated with Hashimoto's disease in a retrospective cohort.

Methods: Overall, 107 adult patients with IAS were screened for anti-thyroid antibodies; of these, 26 patients tested positive. The 42 affected hemispheres were classified into subgroups according to the steno-occlusion site and the development of abnormal collateral (moyamoya) vessels. These subgroups were dichotomized into moyamoya vessels positive (MM type) and negative (non-MM type). The initial presentation, IAS progression, and vascular events during the follow-up period were compared.

Results: The following sites of stenosis were identified: the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery in 11 (26.2%), M1 or A1 in 29 (69.0%), and more distal (M2-M4/A2-A4) in 2 (4.8%) hemispheres. Further, 17 hemispheres were categorized into the MM type and 25 were classified into the non-MM type. During the follow-up period (mean 2.5 years), IAS progression was identified in 8 (32%) hemispheres of the non-MM type and 0 (0%) hemispheres of the MM type (p = 0.041). Ischemic attacks occurred in 5 (20.0%) hemispheres of the non-MM type (4.6%/year) and 0 hemispheres of the MM type (p = 0.08). Further, 4 (23.5%) hemispheres of the MM type experienced intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas none of the non-MM type hemorrhaged (p = 0.012).

Conclusions: Hashimoto's disease-associated IAS exhibits various angiographic morphologies, resulting in different clinical presentations. Screening for anti-thyroid antibodies and careful management based on vascular morphology appears important in adults with IAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01923-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490896PMC
September 2020

Clinical Outcome of Elderly Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Validation of Modality Assignment Based on Aneurysmal Morphology and Location.

World Neurosurg 2020 11 1;143:e419-e429. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The number of elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is increasing. Elderly patients have been postulated to benefit more from endovascular coiling, compared with neurosurgical clipping. However, we based our therapeutic modality on the morphology and location of the aneurysms, rather than patients' age or their World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of our therapeutic modality over earlier approaches by assessing their clinical outcomes.

Methods: The study sample included 539 patients who underwent surgical procedures between January 2010 and May 2019. Baseline characteristics, aneurysmal morphology and location, surgical and clinical complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between elderly (defined as aged 75 years or older) and young patients.

Results: There were 124 elderly patients (23.0%) in the sample. Eighty-five elderly patients (68.5%) received neurosurgical clipping, whereas 67.0% of the young patients (P = 0.827) received neurosurgical clipping. Of the elderly patients who had a poor World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade, 49.4% and 48.7% underwent neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, respectively (P = 1.000). Elderly patients had fewer favorable outcomes (21.8%) relative to young patients (61.8%; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the rate of favorable outcomes between patients undergoing neurosurgical clipping relative to endovascular coiling (21.2% vs. 23.1%; P = 0.818).

Conclusions: Neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling yield comparable clinical outcomes in elderly and young patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. These findings indicate that using a therapeutic modality based on aneurysmal morphology and location may be an effective treatment approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.07.189DOI Listing
November 2020

Difference in periventricular anastomosis in child and adult moyamoya disease: a vascular morphology study.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 06 30;162(6):1333-1339. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Backgrounds: Periventricular anastomosis (PA), which is a novel term for extended collateral vessels in moyamoya disease (MMD), is reportedly associated with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients. The present study aimed to clarify the similarities and the differences in the development of PA between three MMD groups, classified by age at the time of diagnosis and clinical phenotype.

Methods: This study included 232 hemispheres of 132 patients with MMD who underwent surgical revascularization. The subjects were classified into child ischemic (CI) group, adult ischemic (AI) group, and adult hemorrhagic (AH) group. We evaluated the lenticulostriate (LSA), thalamic (THA), choroidal (ChA), anterior choroidal (AChA), and posterior choroidal (PChA) anastomosis as well as the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) involvement. The PA scores and the sums of each grade of LSA, THA, and ChA anastomosis were also calculated in all of the cases.

Results: In a multiple comparison test, the PA scores (P < 0.01), LSA (P < 0.01), and ChA anastomosis (P = 0.013) were more prominent in the CI than in the AI group. The PA scores (P < 0.01) and LSA (P = 0.011), ChA (P < 0.01), AChA (P < 0.01), and PChA anastomosis (P = 0.016) were more prominent in the AH group than in the AI group. The CI and AH groups showed similar characteristics except for PCA involvement. After multivariate adjustments using the AI group as a reference group, the PA scores and the positive rates of LSA and ChA anastomosis remained significantly higher in the CI and AH groups.

Conclusion: The patterns of PA development in the CI and AH groups were similar in that they were more prominent than in the AI group. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the progression of ischemic and hemorrhagic MMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04354-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Trends in Endovascular Reperfusion Therapy for Acute Stroke after Introduction of Mechanical Thrombectomy Devices: Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy (JR-NET)3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 Apr 31;60(4):191-201. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

In Japan, the era of thrombectomy for acute stroke started when the Merci retriever was approved in 2010 and the Penumbra system in 2011. New-generation Penumbra catheters (MAX series) and stent retrievers were introduced in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The aim of this study was to clarify the general status and trends in endovascular reperfusion therapy for stroke in Japan from 2010 to 2014. We extracted a total of 3705 patients (72.1 ± 12.2 years, 1482 women) from a nationwide study of patients receiving any neuroendovascular treatment, the Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 3. Reperfusion therapy resulted in a successful reperfusion rate of 59%, and 31% of patients achieved a favorable outcome at 30 days of onset. The frequency of Merci-including procedures increased to 52% in the first half of 2011, but conversely decreased to 1% in the second half of 2014. The frequency of Penumbra-including procedures increased from 18% in the second half of 2011 to 67% in the first half of 2014, decreasing to 38% in the second half of 2014. The reperfusion rate and 30-day clinical outcomes remained almost unchanged until June 2013, and started to improve thereafter, coincident with the introduction and spread of newer-generation devices. The rate of successful reperfusion reached 71-76%, and 36-38% of patients achieved a favorable outcome in 2014. After multivariate adjustment for preprocedure variables, the calendar period from 2013 to 2014 was significantly associated with improvement in reperfusion rates and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2019-0267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174246PMC
April 2020

Factors related to adverse events during endovascular coil embolization for ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Jun 24;12(6):605-609. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Neurosurgery, Kyushu University Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background And Purpose: The risk factors for adverse events for example, intraprocedural rupture (IPR), ischemic complication within 24 hours, and rebleeding after endovascular coil embolization for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify significant associated risk factors.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data from 5358 patients listed on the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 during 2010-2014.

Results: IPR, ischemic complications, and rebleeding occurred during or after 221 (4.1%), 226 (4.2%), and 63 (1.2%) treatments, respectively. All of the adverse events were significantly associated with the patients' poor outcomes at 30 days. Multivariate analysis revealed the factors independently related to these adverse events as follows: (1) for IPR: female sex, bifurcation type, <5 mm aneurysm, emergent surgery, local anesthesia, a balloon-assisted technique; (2) for an ischemic complication: poor World Federation World Federation of Neurological Societies (WFNS) grade, wide neck, and stent-assisted technique; (3) for rebleeding: poor WFNS grade, bifurcation type, wide neck, and body filling as the initial result.

Conclusions: Knowledge of the risk factors of endovascular coil embolization and paying attention to them are essential for patients' safe treatment and good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015459DOI Listing
June 2020

Coil Embolization for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms at the Dawn of Stent Era: Results of the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 Feb 18;60(2):55-65. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

Endosaccular coiling is recognized as a feasible method for treating unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). We retrospectively reviewed cases of UIAs treated by coiling in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 3, a nationwide survey of NET between 2010 and 2014, the beginning period of intracranial stents in Japan. Data were extracted for 6844 UIAs (6619 procedures) from 40,169 registered records of all NETs in the JR-NET 3 databases. The features of the aneurysms and procedures, immediate radiographic findings, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes at 30 days after the procedures were assessed. Of 6844 UIAs, 81.8% were located in the anterior circulation. The mean patient age was 61.3 years (72.4% females). Compared with the preceding JR-NET 1 and 2, there were significant increases (P <0.05) in the rates of the following in JR-NET 3: wide-necked and small UIAs measuring <10 mm (from 56.4% to 58.8%), adjunctive techniques (54.8% to 71.8%), and stent usage (1.1% to 22.1%). Both pre- (85.6% to 96.7%) and post-procedural (84.0% to 94.6%) antiplatelet therapy were more frequently administered in JR-NET 3. Although procedure-related complication rates did not differ between the two groups, ischemic complication rates increased from 4.6% to 5.9%, leading to an increase in the 30-day morbidity (modified Rankin Scale >2) from 2.1% to 2.8%. In conclusion, introduction of neck-bridge stent was associated with an increase in cases of wide-necked aneurysms. However, the ischemic complication rate increased despite the greater use of periprocedural antiplatelet therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2019-0210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040433PMC
February 2020

The Current Status of Endovascular Treatment for Extracranial Steno-occlusive Diseases in Japan: Analysis Using the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3).

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 Jan 21;60(1):1-9. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation.

Endovascular treatment of extracranial steno-occlusive lesions is an alternative to direct surgery. There is no consensus regarding the natural course and standard treatment of these lesions. The aim of this study was to identify the current status of endovascular treatment for extracranial steno-occlusive lesions. A total of 1154 procedures for extracranial steno-occlusive lesions, except for internal carotid artery stenosis, were collected from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3). Atherosclerotic lesions were most frequent (1021 patients, 88.5%). Endovascular treatment was performed for 456 (39.5%) patients with subclavian artery, 349 (30.2%) with extracranial vertebral artery, 172 (14.9%) with the origin of common carotid artery, and 38 (3.3%) with innominate artery stenosis; the overall technical success rate was 98.0%. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 307 patients (26.6%) and stenting in 838 (72.6%). An embolic protection device (EPD) was used in 571 patients (49.5%), and procedure under general anesthesia was performed in 168 (14.6%). Preoperative antiplatelet therapy was administered in 1091 procedures (94.5%). A good outcome was obtained for 962 patients (83.4%). Complications were observed in 89 patients (7.7%). The procedure under general anesthesia was statistically significant factors (P <0.01), and also after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.25-4.17; P <0.01). Comparisons between JR-NET3 and previous cohorts (JR-NET1&2), the utilization of EPD and complications increased significantly, and the type of antiplatelet therapy changed markedly. Based on the results of this study, endovascular treatment for extracranial steno-occlusive lesions is relatively safe. Further prospective studies are necessary to validate the beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2018-0315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970071PMC
January 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Endovascular Treatment for Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Japan: Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 2 and 3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Dec 9;59(12):492-497. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba.

A subgroup analysis of spinal vascular lesions registered in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 2 (JR-NET2) and JR-NET3 was performed. About 172 analyzable cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) were assessed, including the characteristics, treatment strategy, and treatment outcome. SDAVF was more common in middle-aged and older males. The most commonly affected area was the thoracolumbosacral region (83.7%), and most cases had a non-hemorrhagic onset (89.0%). Complete obliteration was achieved in 54.7%. Treatment-related complications occurred in three patients (7.0%). Post-treatment neurological improvement was achieved in 48.3%. The primary endpoint [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 on postoperative day 30] was achieved in 60.5% of the cases. As a new discovery, the incidence of cervical SDAVF increased from 1.8% in JR-NET2 to 19.7% in JR-NET3. Compared with non-cervical SDAVF, cervical SDAVF was characterized by a higher proportion of hemorrhagic onset (P <0.01), incomplete obliteration of the shunt (P <0.01), and embolization-related complications (P = 0.01). Overall, a mRS of 0-2 on postoperative day 30 was correlated with a pre-treatment mRS of 0-2 (P <0.01) in a univariate analysis. Complete obliteration of the shunt was the only predictor of postoperative neurological improvement (P = 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. Endovascular treatment for SDAVF has been safely administered in Japan. The incidence of cervical SDAVF, which has more aggressive features, appears to be increasing. Early diagnosis and complete obliteration of the shunt are important for improving the treatment outcomes of patients with SDAVF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2018-0218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923160PMC
December 2019

Results of 1940 embolizations for dural arteriovenous fistulas: Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET3).

J Neurosurg 2019 Jun 28:1-8. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

5Department of Neurological Surgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Objective: Embolization is the most common treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). A retrospective, multicenter observational study was conducted in Japan to clarify the nature, frequency, and risk factors for complications of dAVF embolization.

Methods: Patient data were derived from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3). A total of 40,169 procedures were registered in JR-NET3, including 2121 procedures (5.28%) in which dAVFs were treated with embolization. After data extraction, the authors analyzed complication details and risk factors in 1940 procedures performed in 1458 patients with cranial dAVFs treated with successful or attempted embolization.

Results: Transarterial embolization (TAE) alone was performed in 858 cases (44%), and transvenous embolization (TVE) alone was performed in 910 cases (47%). Both TAE and TVE were performed in one session in 172 cases (9%). Complications occurred in 149 cases (7.7%). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality occurred in 55 cases (2.8%) and 16 cases (0.8%), respectively. Non-sinus-type locations, radical embolization as the strategy, procedure done at a hospital that performed dAVF embolization in fewer than 10 cases during the study period, and emergency procedures were independent risk factors for overall complications.

Conclusions: Complication rates of dAVF embolization in Japan were acceptable. For better results, the risk factors identified in this study should be considered in treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.4.JNS183458DOI Listing
June 2019

Detrimental Effect of Chronic Hypertension on Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2019 07 16;50(7):1751-1757. Epub 2019 May 16.

From the Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (K.F., T.I., M.K., K. Toyoda), National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Background and Purpose- We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypertension on acute leptomeningeal collateral flow in patients with large-vessel ischemic stroke using digital subtraction angiography, which is the gold standard for the assessment of collateral circulation. Methods- Of the consecutive ischemic stroke patients from October 2011 to December 2017 seen in our institution, patients with acute occlusion of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery confirmed on initial digital subtraction angiography were enrolled. Chronic hypertension was defined as its documentation before the index stroke or as the administration of antihypertensive medications before onset. Angiographic leptomeningeal collateral flow was evaluated according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology Collateral Flow Grading System and dichotomized the findings into excellent (grade 3-4) or poor (grade 0-2) collateral status for analysis. Results- Of the 3759 consecutive ischemic stroke patients, 100 patients were analyzed. Thirty-nine patients (39%) had poor collateral status. Patients with poor collateral status were older, more frequently male, and had chronic hypertension more frequently, shorter time from onset to angiography, and higher admission systolic blood pressure than those with excellent collateral status. Multivariable logistic analysis with prespecified covariates showed a significantly positive association between chronic hypertension and poor collateral status (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.08-7.70; P=0.034). This association was independent of admission systolic blood pressure. The proportion of patients with poor collateral status increased in a stepwise manner in patients without chronic hypertension, hypertensive patients with premorbid antihypertensive medications, and hypertensive patients without antihypertensive medications ( P for trend <0.001). Conclusions- Our data suggest that chronic hypertension has a detrimental effect on acute leptomeningeal collateral flow in patients with cerebral large-vessel occlusion. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02251665.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025142DOI Listing
July 2019

A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of complications in intracranial tumor embolization between the Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 2 (JR-NET2) and JR-NET3.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 08 7;161(8):1675-1682. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Background: The Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 2 (JR-NET2) and 3 (JR-NET3) were nationwide surveys that evaluated clinical outcomes after neuroendovascular therapy in Japan. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and risk factors of complications of intracranial tumor embolization between JR-NET2 and JR-NET3.

Methods: A total of 1018 and 1545 consecutive patients with intracranial tumors treated with embolization were enrolled in JR-NET2 and JR-NET3, respectively. The prevalence of complications in intracranial tumor embolization and related risk factors were compared between JR-NET2 and JR-NET3.

Results: The prevalence of complications in JR-NET3 (3.69%) was significantly higher than that in JR-NET2 (1.48%) (p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis in JR-NET2 showed that embolization for tumors other than meningioma was the only significant risk factor for complication (odds ratio [OR], 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-12.10; p = 0.032), and that in JR-NET3 revealed that embolization for feeders other than external carotid artery (ECA) (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.03-6.25; p < 0.001) and use of liquid materials (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.50-4.68; p < 0.001) were significant risks for complications. The frequency of embolization for feeders other than ECA in JR-NET3 (15.3%) was significantly higher than that in JR-NET2 (9.2%) (p < 0.001). Also, there was a significant difference in the frequency of use of liquid materials between JR-NET2 (21.2%) and JR-NET3 (41.2%) (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Embolization for feeders other than ECA and use of liquid materials could increase the complication rate in intracranial tumor embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-03970-wDOI Listing
August 2019

Safety and Feasibility of Neuroendovascular Therapy for Elderly Patients: Analysis of Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Aug 25;59(8):305-312. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

Japan has a rapidly aging population and the application of neuroendovascular therapy (NET) for cerebrovascular diseases among elderly patients has increased, but feasibility and safety of NET for elderly patients are still debated. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate feasibility and safety of NET by analyzing the Japanese nationwide database, the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET 3). In total, 35,972 patients in the JR-NET 3 were analyzed retrospectively. "Elderly patients" were defined as those aged ≥75 years. Approximately one-quarter of patients who received NET were elderly patients. The proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 before treatment and 30 days after NET was significantly low across all diseases in the elderly patients. Technical success rates were generally high across all procedures, but complication rate was significantly higher among elderly patients; ischemic complications were significantly higher with NET for unruptured aneurysms (UA) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Multivariate analysis revealed that mRS 0-2 before treatment [odds ratio (OR): 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.94, P = 0.03], middle cerebral artery aneurysm (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.92, P = 0.04), and complete obliteration (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97, P = 0.03) were associated with ischemic complications with NET for UA. Moreover, mRS 0-2 before treatment (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.86, P < 0.01), high intensity with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.32, P = 0.04), open-cell stent (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.50-3.22, P <0.01) were associated with ischemic complications with NET for CAS. Taken together, our findings indicate that cautious and precise selection of patients suitable for NET is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2018-0325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694018PMC
August 2019

Spontaneous Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery-Cavernous Sinus Fistula Successfully Treated by Multipronged Coil Embolization: Case Report and Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2019 Aug 10;128:122-126. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

Background: A spontaneous persistent primitive trigeminal artery-cavernous sinus fistula (PCF) is extremely rare. Until recently, endovascular treatment for PCF involving transarterial and/or transvenous coil embolization of the cavernous sinus (with/without the persistent trigeminal artery) was commonly performed. However, it may result in remaining shunt flow or exacerbation of cranial nerve palsy.

Case Description: A 51-year-old woman presented with headache and left abducens palsy. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a direct fistula between the cavernous segment of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and posterosuperior compartment of the left cavernous sinus (CS). Three microcatheters were guided into the fistula as follows: 1) through the PPTA to the CS from the left internal carotid artery, 2) through the PPTA to the CS from the basilar artery, and 3) through the CS to the PPTA from the internal jugular vein. Using the double-catheter technique in a multidirectional fashion, shunt occlusion was achieved with a small number of coils. No signs of recurrence were observed during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: The multipronged approach is safe and effective for embolization of a small tortuous artery and shunt segment to avoid incomplete shunt occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.003DOI Listing
August 2019

Case of Iatrogenic Vertebro-Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Treated by Combination of Double-Catheter and Balloon Anchoring Techniques.

World Neurosurg 2019 Aug 7;128:98-101. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Fujishirodai Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: A case of high-flow cervical vertebro-vertebral arteriovenous fistula (VVAVF), which was occluded with detachable coils by the transarterial/transvenous double-catheter technique and balloon anchoring technique, is reported.

Case Description: A 32-year-old male who had a history of dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and arrhythmia under anticoagulation presented with a neck bruit after a right internal jugular vein puncture. A high-flow VVAVF between the right vertebral artery (VA) and vertebral vein (VV) was revealed by ultrasonography and angiography. To extirpate the shunt while preserving the right VA without using a stent to avoid antiplatelet therapy, the double-catheter technique was used to occlude the vein and shunt tightly, 1 catheter from the venous side and the other from the VA to the VV through the shunt. Finally, stabilization of the coil cage in the dilating VV was secured by placing a balloon distally as an anchor and successfully occluding the shunt with small amounts of coils only on the venous side. The shunt and cervical bruit disappeared immediately after the treatment, and no recurrence was observed.

Conclusions: The double-catheter technique and balloon anchoring technique used in this case seem effective for transvenous embolization of VVAVF when preservation of the VA is desired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.236DOI Listing
August 2019

Evaluating the safety and technical effectiveness of a newly developed intravascular 'flow isolator' stent for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: study protocol for a first-in-human single-arm multiple-site clinical trial in Japan.

BMJ Open 2019 05 9;9(5):e020966. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Introduction: Wide-neck or large intracranial aneurysms are difficult to cure by conventional surgical or endovascular procedures. A flow diverter (FD) is an implantable, stent-like, fine-mesh medical device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Although endovascular treatment with FDs is becoming a routine first-line option, a systematic review noted the heterogeneity and publication biases of the clinical studies for FDs. We have developed a new honeycomb microporous covered stent (NCVC-CS1) as a 'flow isolator' for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

Methods And Analysis: We planned the NCVC-CS1_UAN as a first-in-human study to evaluate the safety and technical effectiveness of the NCVC-CS1, a newly developed honeycomb microporous covered stent, for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms that are difficult to cure by conventional surgical or endovascular procedures. The study is a multicentre, open-label, uncontrolled, exploratory, medical device, investigator-initiated clinical study. The primary safety endpoint of this study is any stroke or death related to the procedure within 180 days, while for efficacy, the endpoint is complete obliteration of the target aneurysm and patency of the target vessel (less than 50% stenosis) confirmed by angiography at 180 days after the procedure.

Ethics And Dissemination: Full ethics approval of institutional review boards was obtained at all participating sites. A clinical trial notification as a new medical device was accepted by the Japanese regulatory agency before it started. The study should be followed by a pivotal study to obtain satisfactory data for an application for marketing approval. The main results of this study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. The planned subject number for this study is 12.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02907229.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527988PMC
May 2019

Real-world Experience of Carotid Artery Stenting in Japan: Analysis of 8458 Cases from the JR-NET3 Nationwide Retrospective Multi-center Registries.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Apr 15;59(4):117-125. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurology and Comprehensive Stroke Center, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

We aimed to clarify the outcomes of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in the Japanese population. For this purpose, we reviewed data from the Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3), a retrospective, nation-wide, multi-center, observational study of neuroendovascular treatments in Japan. Of the 9207 patients who underwent CAS between January 2010 and December 2014, 8458 satisfied the inclusion criteria for our analysis. The outcome statistics of this JR-NET3 cohort were compared to those of JR-NET1 and 2 cohorts fitting the same inclusion criteria. Of the 8458 JR-NET3 patients analyzed, 8042 (95.1%) were treated by surgeons with board certification from the Japanese Society for NeuroEndovascular Therapy. Technical success was achieved in 8417 patients (99.5%), whereas 198 patients (2.3%) had clinically significant complications (CSCs). These findings mirrored those obtained for the JR-NET1 and 2 cohorts. On multivariate analysis, risk factors for CAS-associated CSC included symptomatic lesion [odds ratio (OR), 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.00; P = 0.003] and hypoechoic lesion on carotid artery ultrasound (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.21-2.84; P = 0.005), whereas use of closed-cell stents was a predictor of better outcome (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.79; P = 0.002). The findings of JR-NET3 reflect good outcomes of CAS, but non-modifiable risk factors reflecting lesion characteristics remain of concern. Using closed-cell stents is advisable. Technological advances such as the introduction of new materials may help further improve CAS outcomes in Japanese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2018-0264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465528PMC
April 2019

Japanese Surveillance of Neuroendovascular Therapy in JR-NET - Part II. Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Treatment 3. Main Report.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Mar 7;59(3):106-115. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba.

This study, following Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Treatment 1 and 2 (JR-NET 1 & 2), shows an annual trend of cases including adverse events and clinical outcomes at 30 days after NET. JR-NET3 was registered by 749 cumulative total number of physicians, certified by the Japanese Society of Neuroendovascular Therapy in 166 centers, between 2010 and 2014. Medical information about the patients was anonymized and retrospectively registered through a website. A total of 40,177 patients were recruited, 632 patients were excluded because data of preprocedural status were not available. So we analyzed 39,545 patients retrospectively. The proportion of octogenarians is increasing year-by-year and 14.7% in 2014 compared with 10.4% in 2010. Most frequent target disease is intracranial aneurysm. For the proportion of the treatment of intracranial aneurysm, 50.0% in 2010, but that has decreased to 44.8% in 2014. However, number of procedures were increased from 3150 in 2010 to 3419 in 2014. Although before the positive clinical evidence of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was established, the proportion of endovascular treatment for AIS increased 13.8% in 2014 compared with 6.3% in 2010. The number of patients requiring neuroendovascular treatment in Japan is increasing since 2010-2013, but that declined a little in 2014 caused by study operation suspended at the end of 2013. The outcomes of such therapy are clinically acceptable. Details of each type of treatment will be investigated in sub-analyses of the database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2018-0267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434423PMC
March 2019

Treatment Outcome of Intracranial Tumor Embolization in Japan: Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3).

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Feb 26;59(2):41-47. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital.

Embolization for intracranial tumor is performed as a standard endovascular treatment. A retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted to clarify the nature, frequency, and risk factors of complications in intracranial tumor embolization. Patients were derived from the Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy (JR-NET3) using data taken from January 2010 through December 2014 in Japan. A total of 40,169 patients were enrolled in JR-NET3, of which, 1,545 patients (3.85%) with intracranial tumors underwent embolization. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-2 (independency) at 30 days after embolization. The secondary end point was the occurrence of complications related to the procedures. The risk factors of the development of complications were analyzed. The proportion of patients with mRS scores ≤2 at 30 days after procedure was 89.5%. Complications occurred in 57 of the 1544 patients (3.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that target vessels other than external carotid artery (ECA) (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.03-6.25; P <0.001) and use of liquid material (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.50-4.68; P <0.001) were significantly associated with the development of complications. In JR-NET3, the primary end point was 89.5%, and the procedure-related complication rate was 3.7%. Embolization from other than ECA was significant risk factor of the complications. In addition, increasing usage of liquid embolic material worsened the risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2018-0220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375818PMC
February 2019

Parent Artery Occlusion for Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: Results of the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Jan 7;59(1):1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation.

Although the current standard treatment for unruptured aneurysms comprises surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, these techniques are not suitable for some cases, such as large, giant, and fusiform aneurysms. Endovascular parent artery occlusion (PAO), which includes internal trapping and proximal occlusion, is a well-established alternative treatment for such cases. Here, we retrospectively reviewed PAO cases from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3, a nation-wide survey of all neuroendovascular therapy cases between 2010 and 2014. This dataset included 274 procedures with a mean patient age of 57.1 years and 55.4% female patients. For the treatment strategy, internal trapping was selected in 213 aneurysm cases (77.7%) and proximal occlusion in 61 aneurysm cases (22.2%). Most of the procedures were successfully completed (272/274: 99.2%). Immediately after treatment, angiographical complete occlusion was achieved in 248 cases (90.5%). Although the feasibility of this technique was excellent, there were 60 periprocedural complications (21.8%), including 48 ischemic complications (17.5%), seven hemorrhagic complications (2.5%). Overall, morbidity and mortality at 30 days postoperative were 5.8% and 0.7%, respectively. Among the pretreatment variables, a patient age of 70 and older was associated with ischemic complications [odds ratio (OR); 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.02-5.25; P = 0.04] and a small aneurysm size (<5 mm) was associated with hemorrhagic complications (OR; 9.85, 95% CI; 1.07-221.0; P = 0.04) by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, PAO for unruptured cerebral aneurysms is feasible, but is associated with a complication rate of approximately 20%. Various alternative treatment options should be carefully considered with deconstructive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.st.2018-0190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350003PMC
January 2019

Endovascular Treatment for Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Based on Data of JR-NET3.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2018 Dec 21;58(12):495-502. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University.

Endovascular treatments for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage are typically performed for patients who are refractory to recommended medical therapies. We analyzed the current status of endovascular treatments based on the data of Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET)3, and evaluated factors related to improvement of imaging findings and neurological condition, and to mechanical hemorrhage complications. We collected data of 1211 treatments performed from 2010 to 2014. Target vessels for treatments were anterior circulation (n = 1079), posterior circulation (n = 91), and both (n = 32); the distribution of vasospasm was the proximal vessel (n = 754) to the Circle of Willis, distal vessel (n = 329), and both (n = 119). Of the treatments, 948 cases (78.3%) were intra-arterial administration of vasodilators and 259 (21.4%) were percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); 879 cases were the first intervention. The treatment time from onset was within 3 h in 378 (31.2%) cases, between 3 and 6 h in 349 (28.8%) cases, and over 6 h in 245 (20.2%) cases. The statistically significant factors associated with improvement on imaging findings was the first treatment, and treatment within 3 h from onset compared with that after 6 h. Additionally, the first and early treatments after the symptoms were associated with significantly improved neurological condition. All complications of mechanical hemorrhage occurred along with PTA. The findings show that endovascular treatment for vasospasm was effective, especially for cases who suffered from symptomatic vasospasm with a short interval after onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2018-0212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300693PMC
December 2018

Selective Shunt Occlusion of Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula with Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome by Multidevice Technique: A Case Report and Technical Note.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 2;122:123-128. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a vascular disease associated with a genetic collagen abnormality. It is characterized by vessel fragility, vessel rupture, and massive hemorrhage. Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is the most frequent neurovascular complication of vEDS. However, CCF treatment using conventional diagnostic angiography and neuroendovascular therapy can result in a high rate of major complications.

Case Description: We report a case of a right CCF in a 48-year-old man with vEDS. The carotid artery and jugular vein were exposed by direct neck dissection. To avoid systemic vascular complications, multiple catheters were inserted into the shunt segment via the carotid artery and jugular vein. This transarterial and transvenous multidevice technique enabled compact placement of coils in the shunt segment. The CCF was eliminated via selective shunt occlusion. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed occlusion of the right CCF.

Conclusions: Selective shunt occlusion via a transarterial and transvenous multidevice technique is a useful and safe approach for treating vEDS-associated CCF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.10.158DOI Listing
February 2019

Multimodal Interventional Treatment and Outcomes for Unruptured Arteriovenous Malformations.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2018;129:115-120

Department of Neurosurgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the selection and outcomes of multimodal interventional treatment for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (uAVMs) in ARUBA-eligible patients in a single institution.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 94 patients with uAVMs treated between 2002 and 2014. They were divided into an intervention group and a conservative group. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of death or symptomatic stroke. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: The intervention and conservative groups included 75 and 19 patients, respectively, with mean follow-up periods of 59.2 ± 41.6 and 72.8 ± 39.2 months (P = 0.20), among whom the primary outcome occurred in 9 (12.3%) and 3 (17.6%) patients, respectively (P = 0.91). The proportion of patients with an mRS score ≥ 2 at last follow-up was not significantly different between the two groups (6.9% vs. 11.7%). In the intervention group, the incidence of death or stroke was lower and functional outcomes were better among patients with grade I/II AVMs than among patients with grade III AVMs.

Conclusion: For patients with uAVMs, interventional treatment is not inferior to medical treatment alone, and careful selection should be made for patients with grade III AVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73739-3_17DOI Listing
January 2019

Vascular wall components in thrombi obtained by acute stroke thrombectomy: clinical significance and related factors.

J Neurointerv Surg 2019 Mar 10;11(3):232-236. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Vascular wall components (VWCs) are sometimes identified as collagen fibers in specimens retrieved by thrombectomy from acute stroke patients. However, their clinical significance and associated factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors associated with VWCs in retrieved thrombi.

Methods: Consecutive acute stroke patients treated endovascularly using the Penumbra aspiration catheter or stent retrievers (SRs) at our institute from November 2013 to April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and the retrieved thrombi were evaluated histopathologically. VWCs were defined as banded collagen fibers with a distinct boundary observed at the rim or outside of the retrieved thrombi. Factors associated with the presence of VWCs were studied.

Results: A total of 150 specimens (76 specimens retrieved by the Penumbra, 74 by SRs) from 101 patients (47 women, age 74.9±11.1 years) were investigated. Applied thrombectomy devices were aspiration catheters in 42 patients, SRs in 21 patients, and both in 38 patients. VWCs were observed in 24 specimens (16%) from 22 patients. A low proportion of erythrocyte components (41.7±24.8% vs 55.0±26.3%, P=0.01), a high frequency of the devices reaching the M2/P2 (75% vs 50%, P=0.02), and a high number of device passages (P for trend=0.02) were associated with VWC positive thrombi. Successful recanalization (Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia ≥2b) tended to be less frequent in patients with VWC positive thrombi than in those without (73% vs 89%, P=0.06).

Conclusions: The histopathology of occlusive thrombi, arterial sites where devices reached, and number of device passages, might affect the presence of VWCs in retrieved thrombi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-014041DOI Listing
March 2019