Publications by authors named "Tetiana Taran"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Correlative Biomarker Analysis of Intrinsic Subtypes and Efficacy Across the MONALEESA Phase III Studies.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 26;39(13):1458-1467. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.

Purpose: The prognostic and predictive value of intrinsic subtypes in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy and ribociclib (RIB) is currently unknown. We evaluated the association of intrinsic subtypes with progression-free survival (PFS) in the MONALEESA trials.

Methods: A retrospective and exploratory PAM50-based analysis of tumor samples from the phase III MONALEESA-2, MONALEESA-3, and MONALEESA-7 trials was undertaken. The prognostic relationship of PAM50-based subtypes with PFS and risk of disease progression by subtype and treatment were evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, prior chemotherapy, performance status, visceral disease, bone-only metastases, histological grade, number of metastatic sites, prior endocrine therapy, and de novo metastatic disease.

Results: Overall, 1,160 tumors from the RIB (n = 672) and placebo (n = 488) cohorts were robustly profiled. Subtype distribution was luminal A (LumA), 46.7%; luminal B (LumB), 24.0%; normal-like, 14.0%; HER2-enriched (HER2E), 12.7%; and basal-like, 2.6% and was generally consistent across treatment arms and trials. The associations between subtypes and PFS were statistically significant in both arms ( < .001). The risks of disease progression for LumB, HER2E, and basal-like subtypes were 1.44, 2.31, and 3.96 times higher compared with those for LumA, respectively. All subtypes except basal-like demonstrated significant PFS benefit with RIB. HER2E (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; < .0001), LumB (HR, 0.52; < .0001), LumA (HR, 0.63; = .0007), and normal-like (HR, 0.47; = .0005) subtypes derived benefit from RIB. Patients with basal-like subtype (n = 30) did not derive benefit from RIB (HR, 1.15; = .77).

Conclusion: In this retrospective exploratory analysis of hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer, each intrinsic subtype exhibited a consistent PFS benefit with RIB, except for basal-like.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02977DOI Listing
May 2021

Overall Survival with Ribociclib plus Fulvestrant in Advanced Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 02 11;382(6):514-524. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

From the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (D.J.S.); Multidisciplinary Breast Center, Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven, Leuven (P.N.), and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Liège and Liege University, Liege (G.J.) - all in Belgium; the British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada (S.C.); University Hospital Erlangen, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, and Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (P.A.F.), and the Practice for Hematology and Internal Oncology, Velbert (A.N.) - all in Germany; Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples (M.D.L.), and Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (G.V.B.) - both in Italy; Seoul National University Hospital, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (S.-A.I.); Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic (K.P.); New York University Langone Health, New York (F.J.E.); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañon, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (M.M.), and Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Department of Medicine, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (L.D.C.-M.) - both in Spain; Netherlands Cancer Institute-Borstkanker Onderzoek Groep Study Center, Amsterdam (G.S.S.); Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR (J.T.B.); Institut Régional du Cancer, Strasbourg, France (X.P.); Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ (M.S., A.C., K.R.-L.); and Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland (Y.W., T.T.).

Background: In an earlier analysis of this phase 3 trial, ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a greater benefit with regard to progression-free survival than fulvestrant alone in postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Here we report the results of a protocol-specified second interim analysis of overall survival.

Methods: Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either ribociclib or placebo in addition to fulvestrant as first-line or second-line treatment. Survival was evaluated by means of a stratified log-rank test and summarized with the use of Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results: This analysis was based on 275 deaths: 167 among 484 patients (34.5%) receiving ribociclib and 108 among 242 (44.6%) receiving placebo. Ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a significant overall survival benefit over placebo plus fulvestrant. The estimated overall survival at 42 months was 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.0 to 63.2) in the ribociclib group and 45.9% (95% CI, 36.9 to 54.5) in the placebo group, for a 28% difference in the relative risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.00455). The benefit was consistent across most subgroups. In a descriptive update, median progression-free survival among patients receiving first-line treatment was 33.6 months (95% CI, 27.1 to 41.3) in the ribociclib group and 19.2 months (95% CI, 14.9 to 23.6) in the placebo group. No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusions: Ribociclib plus fulvestrant showed a significant overall survival benefit over placebo plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. (Funded by Novartis; MONALEESA-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02422615.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1911149DOI Listing
February 2020

Alpelisib for PIK3CA-Mutated Advanced Breast Cancer. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2019 08;381(7):687

Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1907856DOI Listing
August 2019

Overall Survival with Ribociclib plus Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2019 07 4;381(4):307-316. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

From Seoul National University Hospital, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.-A.I.), the Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System (J.S.), and the Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (K.-H.J.), Seoul, and the Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi-do (K.-S.L.) - all in South Korea; National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (Y.-S.L.); Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (A.B.); the Breast Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany (N.H.); the Division of Medical Senology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (M.C.); Hospital de Caridade de Ijuí, CACON, Ijuí, Brazil (F.F.); the Organisation for Oncology and Translational Research, Hong Kong (L.C.); Centro Oncológico Estatal, Instituto de Seguridad Social del Estado de México y Municipios, Toluca, Mexico (S.C.-G.); Institut Català d'Oncologia, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi, Barcelona (R.V.-V.); Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ (A.C., K.R.-L., T.T.); Novartis, Basel, Switzerland (G.H., I.G.); the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.H.); and the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (D.T.).

Background: An earlier analysis of this phase 3 trial showed that the addition of a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor to endocrine therapy provided a greater benefit with regard to progression-free survival than endocrine therapy alone in premenopausal or perimenopausal patients with advanced hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Here we report the results of a protocol-specified interim analysis of the key secondary end point of overall survival.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients to receive either ribociclib or placebo in addition to endocrine therapy (goserelin and either a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor or tamoxifen). Overall survival was evaluated with the use of a stratified log-rank test and summarized with the use of Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results: A total of 672 patients were included in the intention-to-treat population. There were 83 deaths among 335 patients (24.8%) in the ribociclib group and 109 deaths among 337 patients (32.3%) in the placebo group. The addition of ribociclib to endocrine therapy resulted in significantly longer overall survival than endocrine therapy alone. The estimated overall survival at 42 months was 70.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.5 to 76.0) in the ribociclib group and 46.0% (95% CI, 32.0 to 58.9) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95; P = 0.00973 by log-rank test). The survival benefit seen in the subgroup of 495 patients who received an aromatase inhibitor was consistent with that in the overall intention-to-treat population (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.98). The percentage of patients who received subsequent antineoplastic therapy was balanced between the groups (68.9% in the ribociclib group and 73.2% in the placebo group). The time from randomization to disease progression during receipt of second-line therapy or to death was also longer in the ribociclib group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.87).

Conclusions: This trial showed significantly longer overall survival with a CDK4/6 inhibitor plus endocrine therapy than with endocrine therapy alone among patients with advanced hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. No new concerns regarding toxic effects emerged with longer follow-up. (Funded by Novartis; MONALEESA-7 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02278120.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1903765DOI Listing
July 2019

Industry's Giant Leap Into Cellular Therapy: Catalyzing Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T) Immunotherapy.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2019 02;14(1):47-55

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We describe the significant technological leap from bench to bedside that was achieved through a strong academic-industry collaboration between dedicated clinicians and researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Novartis to commercialize the chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy tisagenlecleucel (CTL019; Kymriah®; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland).

Recent Findings: Tisagenlecleucel was the first CAR-T therapy and the first gene therapy to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2017, with an initial indication for pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, followed by approval in May 2018 for a second indication in adult patients with r/r diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Subsequent approvals in the European Union, Switzerland, and Canada soon followed. The tisagenlecleucel success story represents the development and commercialization of a first-of-its-kind personalized cellular therapy with a manufacturing process that supports commercial production and ongoing global clinical trials in a growing number of countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11899-019-0498-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical Pharmacology of Tisagenlecleucel in B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 12 6;24(24):6175-6184. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: Tisagenlecleucel is an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T-cell therapy approved for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Patients And Methods: We evaluated the cellular kinetics of tisagenlecleucel, the effect of patient factors, humoral immunogenicity, and manufacturing attributes on its kinetics, and exposure-response analysis for efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamic endpoints in 79 patients across two studies in pediatric B-ALL (ELIANA and ENSIGN).

Results: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify levels of tisagenlecleucel transgene, responders ( = 62) had ≈2-fold higher tisagenlecleucel expansion in peripheral blood than nonresponders ( = 8; 74% and 104% higher geometric mean Cmax and AUC0-28d, respectively) with persistence measurable beyond 2 years in responding patients. Cmax increased with occurrence and severity of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Tisagenlecleucel continued to expand and persist following tocilizumab, used to manage CRS. Patients with B-cell recovery within 6 months had earlier loss of the transgene compared with patients with sustained clinical response. Clinical responses were seen across the entire dose range evaluated (patients ≤50 kg: 0.2 to 5.0 × 10/kg; patients >50 kg: 0.1 to 2.5 × 10 CAR-positive viable T cells) with no relationship between dose and safety. Neither preexisting nor treatment-induced antimurine CAR19 antibodies affected the persistence or clinical response.

Conclusions: Response to tisagenlecleucel was associated with increased expansion across a wide dose range. These results highlight the importance of cellular kinetics in understanding determinants of response to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433345PMC
December 2018

Everolimus Plus Exemestane vs Everolimus or Capecitabine Monotherapy for Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: The BOLERO-6 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2018 10;4(10):1367-1374

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Importance: Everolimus plus exemestane and capecitabine are approved second-line therapies for advanced breast cancer.

Objective: A postapproval commitment to health authorities to estimate the clinical benefit of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus or capecitabine monotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer.

Design: Open-label, randomized, phase 2 trial of treatment effects in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that had progressed during treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to 3 treatment regimens: (1) everolimus (10 mg/d) plus exemestane (25 mg/d); (2) everolimus alone (10 mg/d); and (3) capecitabine alone (1250 mg/m2 twice daily).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival (PFS) for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone (primary objective) or capecitabine alone (key secondary objective). Safety was a secondary objective. No formal statistical comparisons were planned.

Results: A total of 309 postmenopausal women were enrolled, median age, 61 years (range, 32-88 years). Of these, 104 received everolimus plus exemestane; 103, everolimus alone; and 102, capecitabine alone. Median follow-up from randomization to the analysis cutoff (June 1, 2017) was 37.6 months. Estimated HR of PFS was 0.74 (90% CI, 0.57-0.97) for the primary objective of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone and 1.26 (90% CI, 0.96-1.66) for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine alone. Between treatment arms, potential informative censoring was noted, and a stratified multivariate Cox regression model was used to account for imbalances in baseline characteristics; a consistent HR was observed for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus (0.73; 90% CI, 0.56-0.97), but the HR was closer to 1 for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine (1.15; 90% CI, 0.86-1.52). Grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more frequent with capecitabine (74%; n = 75) vs everolimus plus exemestane (70%; n = 73) or everolimus alone (59%; n = 61). Serious adverse events were more frequent with everolimus plus exemestane (36%; n = 37) vs everolimus alone (29%; n = 30) or capecitabine (29%; n = 30).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that everolimus plus exemestane combination therapy offers a PFS benefit vs everolimus alone, and they support continued use of this therapy in this setting. A numerical PFS difference with capecitabine vs everolimus plus exemestane should be interpreted cautiously owing to imbalances among baseline characteristics and potential informative censoring.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01783444.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233772PMC
October 2018

Phase III Randomized Study of Ribociclib and Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: MONALEESA-3.

J Clin Oncol 2018 08 3;36(24):2465-2472. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Dennis J. Slamon, University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Santa Monica, CA; Patrick Neven, Multidisciplinary Breast Centre, Universitair Ziekenhuis, Leuven; Guy Jerusalem, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege and Liege University, Liège, Belgium; Stephen Chia, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Peter A. Fasching, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen; Arnd Nusch, Practice for Hematology and Internal Oncology, Velbert, Germany; Michelino De Laurentiis, Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione G. Pascale," Naples; Giulia Val Bianchi, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; Seock-Ah Im, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Katarina Petrakova, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; Francisco J. Esteva, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY; Miguel Martín, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Marañon, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama, Universidad Complutense, Madrid; Luis De la Cruz-Merino, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain; Gabe S. Sonke, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Borstkanker Onderzoek Groep Study Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; J. Thaddeus Beck, Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR; Xavier Pivot, Institut Régional du Cancer, Strasbourg, France; Gena Vidam, Karen Rodriguez Lorenc, Michelle Miller, and Tetiana Taran, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ; and Yingbo Wang, Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose This phase III study evaluated ribociclib plus fulvestrant in patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer who were treatment naïve or had received up to one line of prior endocrine therapy in the advanced setting. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to ribociclib plus fulvestrant or placebo plus fulvestrant. The primary end point was locally assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, overall response rate, and safety. Results A total of 484 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to ribociclib plus fulvestrant, and 242 were assigned to placebo plus fulvestrant. Median progression-free survival was significantly improved with ribociclib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant: 20.5 months (95% CI, 18.5 to 23.5 months) versus 12.8 months (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.3 months), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.593; 95% CI, 0.480 to 0.732; P < .001). Consistent treatment effects were observed in patients who were treatment naïve in the advanced setting (hazard ratio, 0.577; 95% CI, 0.415 to 0.802), as well as in patients who had received up to one line of prior endocrine therapy for advanced disease (hazard ratio, 0.565; 95% CI, 0.428 to 0.744). Among patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate was 40.9% for the ribociclib plus fulvestrant arm and 28.7% for placebo plus fulvestrant. Grade 3 adverse events reported in ≥ 10% of patients in either arm (ribociclib plus fulvestrant v placebo plus fulvestrant) were neutropenia (46.6% v 0%) and leukopenia (13.5% v 0%); the only grade 4 event reported in ≥ 5% of patients was neutropenia (6.8% v 0%). Conclusion Ribociclib plus fulvestrant might represent a new first- or second-line treatment option in hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.78.9909DOI Listing
August 2018

Tisagenlecleucel in Children and Young Adults with B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

N Engl J Med 2018 02;378(5):439-448

From the Departments of Pediatrics (S.L.M., S.A.G.) and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (C.H.J., B.L.L.), Perelman School of Medicine, and Abramson Cancer Center (C.H.J., B.L.L.), University of Pennsylvania, and the Division of Oncology, Center for Childhood Cancer Research and Cancer Immunotherapy Program, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (S.L.M., S.A.G.) - all in Philadelphia; the Department of Pediatrics and Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and the Pauline Allen Gill Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's Health, Dallas (T.W.L.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (J.B.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu Barcelona, Barcelona (S.R.); the Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (M.B.); the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, and the Hematology Oncology Division and Charles-Bruneau Cancer Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal (H.B.), and the Division of Haematology/Oncology/Bone Marrow Transplantation, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (J.K.) - all in Canada; the Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany (P.B.); the Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (M.R.V., H.E.S.); Children's Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO (G.D.M.); Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Emory University, Atlanta (M.Q.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Ghent University Hospital, and the Cancer Research Institute Ghent (CRIG), Ghent, Belgium (B.D.M.); the Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (H.H.); the Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (K. Schlis, K.L.D.), and the Division of Hematology, Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplant, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles (M.A.P.) - all in California; the Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (P.L.M.); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (E.R.N.); C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (G.A.Y.); the Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna (C.P.); University Hospital Robert Debré and University Paris Diderot (A. Baruchel), and Saint-Louis Hospital and University Paris Diderot (N.B.), Paris; the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (F.M.); Clinica Pediatrica Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy (A. Balduzzi); and Novartis Pharmaceuticals (P.W., T.T., M.L., Y.Z., K. Sen, D.L.) and Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (K.T.M.) - both in East Hanover, NJ.

Background: In a single-center phase 1-2a study, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel produced high rates of complete remission and was associated with serious but mainly reversible toxic effects in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: We conducted a phase 2, single-cohort, 25-center, global study of tisagenlecleucel in pediatric and young adult patients with CD19+ relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL. The primary end point was the overall remission rate (the rate of complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) within 3 months.

Results: For this planned analysis, 75 patients received an infusion of tisagenlecleucel and could be evaluated for efficacy. The overall remission rate within 3 months was 81%, with all patients who had a response to treatment found to be negative for minimal residual disease, as assessed by means of flow cytometry. The rates of event-free survival and overall survival were 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60 to 82) and 90% (95% CI, 81 to 95), respectively, at 6 months and 50% (95% CI, 35 to 64) and 76% (95% CI, 63 to 86) at 12 months. The median duration of remission was not reached. Persistence of tisagenlecleucel in the blood was observed for as long as 20 months. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were suspected to be related to tisagenlecleucel occurred in 73% of patients. The cytokine release syndrome occurred in 77% of patients, 48% of whom received tocilizumab. Neurologic events occurred in 40% of patients and were managed with supportive care, and no cerebral edema was reported.

Conclusions: In this global study of CAR T-cell therapy, a single infusion of tisagenlecleucel provided durable remission with long-term persistence in pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL, with transient high-grade toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02435849 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1709866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996391PMC
February 2018

A combined treatment of hydration and dynamical effects for the modeling of host-guest binding thermodynamics: the SAMPL5 blinded challenge.

J Comput Aided Mol Des 2017 01 30;31(1):29-44. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Department of Chemistry, Brooklyn College, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, 11210, USA.

As part of the SAMPL5 blinded experiment, we computed the absolute binding free energies of 22 host-guest complexes employing a novel approach based on the BEDAM single-decoupling alchemical free energy protocol with parallel replica exchange conformational sampling and the AGBNP2 implicit solvation model specifically customized to treat the effect of water displacement as modeled by the Hydration Site Analysis method with explicit solvation. Initial predictions were affected by the lack of treatment of ionic charge screening, which is very significant for these highly charged hosts, and resulted in poor relative ranking of negatively versus positively charged guests. Binding free energies obtained with Debye-Hückel treatment of salt effects were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Water displacement effects contributed favorably and very significantly to the observed binding affinities; without it, the modeling predictions would have grossly underestimated binding. The work validates the implicit/explicit solvation approach employed here and it shows that comprehensive physical models can be effective at predicting binding affinities of molecular complexes requiring accurate treatment of conformational dynamics and hydration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10822-016-9956-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477994PMC
January 2017

Molecular Alterations and Everolimus Efficacy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancers: Combined Exploratory Biomarker Analysis From BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3.

J Clin Oncol 2016 06 18;34(18):2115-24. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Fabrice André, Institut Gustav Roussy, INSERM Unit U981, Université Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; Sara Hurvitz and Dennis Slamon, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Angelica Fasolo, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Ling-Ming Tseng, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Guy Jerusalem, University of Liège, Liege, Belgium; Sharon Wilks, Cancer Care Center of South Texas, San Antonio, TX; Ruth O'Regan, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI; Claudine Isaacs, Georgetown University, Washington DC; Masakazu Toi, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan; Howard Burris, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; Wei He, Douglas Robinson, and Markus Riester, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA; and Tetiana Taran and David Chen, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.

Purpose: Two recent phase III trials, BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus), evaluated the addition of everolimus to trastuzumab and chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer. The current analysis aimed to identify biomarkers to predict the clinical efficacy of everolimus treatment.

Methods: Archival tumor samples from patients in BOLERO-1 and BOLERO-3 were analyzed using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Sanger sequencing.

Results: Biomarker data were available for 549 patients. PIK3CA activating mutations and PTEN loss were reported in 30% and 16% of BOLERO-1 samples and in 32% and 12% of BOLERO-3 samples, respectively. PI3K pathway was hyperactive (PIK3CA mutations and/or PTEN loss and/or AKT1 mutation) in 47% of BOLERO-1 and 41% of BOLERO-3 samples. In both studies, differential progression-free survival (PFS) benefits of everolimus were consistently observed in patient subgroups defined by their PI3K pathway status. When analyzing combined data sets of both studies, everolimus was associated with a decreased hazard of progression in patients with PIK3CA mutations (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.00), PTEN loss (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.96), or hyperactive PI3K pathway (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.93). Patients with wild-type PIK3CA (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.46), normal PTEN (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26), or normal PI3K pathway activity (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.62) did not derive PFS benefit from everolimus.

Conclusion: This analysis, although exploratory, suggests that patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer having tumors with PIK3CA mutations, PTEN loss, or hyperactive PI3K pathway could derive PFS benefit from everolimus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.63.9161DOI Listing
June 2016

Correlative Analysis of Genetic Alterations and Everolimus Benefit in Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Results From BOLERO-2.

J Clin Oncol 2016 Feb 26;34(5):419-26. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; David Chen, Tetiana Taran, and David Lebwohl, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ; Martine Piccart and Fabienne Lebrun, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels; Ines Deleu, Oncology Centre, AZ Nikolaas, Sint-Nikolaas, Belgium; Hope S. Rugo, University of California, San Francisco; Ian Anderson, Redwood Regional Oncology Center, Santa Rosa, CA; Howard A. Burris III, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; Kathleen I. Pritchard, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Mario Campone, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Nantes-Saint-Herblain; Thomas Bachelot, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; Shinzaburo Noguchi, Osaka University Medical School; Norikazu Masuda, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; Alejandra T. Perez, Memorial Cancer Institute, Hollywood, FL; Mikhail Shtivelband, Ironwood Cancer & Research Centers, Chandler, AZ; Shaker Dakhil, Cancer Center of Kansas, Wichita, KS; Douglas M. Robinson, Wei He, Abhishek Garg, E. Robert McDonald III, Hans Bitter, and Alan Huang, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA; and José Baselga, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: To explore the genetic landscape of tumors from patients enrolled on the BOLERO-2 trial to identify potential correlations between genetic alterations and efficacy of everolimus treatment. The BOLERO-2 trial has previously demonstrated that the addition of everolimus to exemestane prolonged progression-free survival by more than twofold in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors.

Patients And Methods: Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze genetic status of cancer-related genes in 302 archival tumor specimens from patients representative of the BOLERO-2 study population. Correlations between the most common somatic alterations and degree of chromosomal instability, and treatment effect of everolimus were investigated.

Results: Progression-free survival benefit with everolimus was maintained regardless of alteration status of PIK3CA, FGFR1, and CCND1 or the pathways of which they are components. However, quantitative differences in everolimus benefit were observed between patient subgroups defined by the exon-specific mutations in PIK3CA (exon 20 v 9) or by different degrees of chromosomal instability in the tumor tissues.

Conclusion: The data from this exploratory analysis suggest that the efficacy of everolimus was largely independent of the most commonly altered genes or pathways in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. The potential impact of chromosomal instabilities and low-frequency genetic alterations on everolimus efficacy warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.60.1971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070556PMC
February 2016

Combination of everolimus with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (BOLERO-1): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Jul 16;16(7):816-29. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: mTOR inhibition reverses trastuzumab resistance via the hyperactivated PIK/AKT/mTOR pathway due to PTEN loss, by sensitising PTEN-deficient tumours to trastuzumab. The BOLERO-1 study assessed the efficacy and safety of adding everolimus to trastuzumab and paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomised, double-blind trial, patients were enrolled across 141 sites in 28 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with locally assessed HER2-positive advanced breast cancer, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, who had not received previous trastuzumab or chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer within 12 months of randomisation, had measurable disease as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) or bone lesions in the absence of measurable disease, without previous systemic treatment for advanced disease except endocrine therapy. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) with an interactive voice and web response system to receive either 10 mg everolimus once a day orally or placebo plus weekly trastuzumab intravenously at 4 mg/kg loading dose on day 1 with subsequent weekly doses of 2 mg/kg of each 4 week cycle plus paclitaxel intravenously at a dose of 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 4 week cycle. Randomisation was stratified according to previous use of trastuzumab and visceral metastasis. Patients and investigators were masked to the assigned treatments. Identity of experimental treatments was concealed by use of everolimus and placebo that were identical in packaging, labelling, appearance, and administration schedule. The two primary objectives were investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the full study population and in the subset of patients with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer at baseline; the latter was added during the course of the study, before unmasking based on new clinical and biological findings from other studies. All efficacy analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Enrolment for this trial is closed and results of the final progression-free survival analyses are presented here. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00876395.

Findings: Between Sept 10, 2009, and Dec 16, 2012, 719 patients were randomly assigned to receive everolimus (n=480) or placebo (n=239). Median follow-up was 41·3 months (IQR 35·4-46·6). In the full population, median progression-free survival was 14·95 months (95% CI 14·55-17·91) with everolimus versus 14·49 months (12·29-17·08) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·73-1·08; p=0·1166). In the HR-negative subpopulation (n=311), median progression-free survival with everolimus was 20·27 months (95% CI 14·95-24·08) versus 13·08 months (10·05-16·56) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·48-0·91; p=0·0049); however, the protocol-specified significance threshold (p=0·0044) was not crossed. The most common adverse events with everolimus were stomatitis (314 [67%] of 472 patients in the everolimus group vs 77 [32%] of 238 patients in the placebo group), diarrhoea (267 [57%] vs 111 [47%] patients), and alopecia (221 [47%] vs 125 [53%]). The most frequently reported grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the everolimus group versus the placebo group were neutropenia (117 [25%] vs 35 [15%]), stomatitis (59 [13%] vs three [1%]), anaemia (46 [10%] vs six [3%]) and diarrhoea (43 [9%] vs 10 [4%]) On-treatment adverse event-related deaths were reported in 17 (4%) patients in the everolimus group and none in the placebo group.

Interpretation: Although progression-free survival was not significantly different between groups in the full analysis population, the 7·2 months prolongation we noted with the addition of everolimus in the HR-negative, HER2-positive population warrants further investigation, even if it did not meet prespecified criteria for significance. The safety profile was generally consistent with what was previously reported in BOLERO-3. Proactive monitoring and early management of adverse events in patients given everolimus and chemotherapy is crucial.

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00051-0DOI Listing
July 2015

Everolimus for women with trastuzumab-resistant, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer (BOLERO-3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2014 May 14;15(6):580-91. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Ospedale San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Disease progression in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer receiving trastuzumab might be associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR intracellular signalling pathway. We aimed to assess whether the addition of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to trastuzumab might restore sensitivity to trastuzumab.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited women with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced breast carcinoma who had previously received taxane therapy. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a central patient screening and randomisation system to daily everolimus (5 mg/day) plus weekly trastuzumab (2 mg/kg) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m(2)) or to placebo plus trastuzumab plus vinorelbine, in 3-week cycles, stratified by previous lapatinib use. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment in the intention-to-treat population. We report the final analysis for PFS; overall survival follow-up is still in progress. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01007942.

Findings: Between Oct 26, 2009, and May 23, 2012, 569 patients were randomly assigned to everolimus (n=284) or placebo (n=285). Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 20.2 months (IQR 15.0-27.1). Median PFS was 7.00 months (95% CI 6.74-8.18) with everolimus and 5.78 months (5.49-6.90) with placebo (hazard ratio 0.78 [95% CI 0.65-0.95]; p=0.0067). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (204 [73%] of 280 patients in the everolimus group vs 175 [62%] of 282 patients in the placebo group), leucopenia (106 [38%] vs 82 [29%]), anaemia (53 [19%] vs 17 [6%]), febrile neutropenia (44 [16%] vs ten [4%]), stomatitis (37 [13%] vs four [1%]), and fatigue (34 [12%] vs 11 [4%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 117 (42%) patients in the everolimus group and 55 (20%) in the placebo group; two on-treatment deaths due to adverse events occurred in each group.

Interpretation: The addition of everolimus to trastuzumab plus vinorelbine significantly prolongs PFS in patients with trastuzumab-resistant and taxane-pretreated, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer. The clinical benefit should be considered in the context of the adverse event profile in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70138-XDOI Listing
May 2014

Safety and efficacy of everolimus with exemestane vs. exemestane alone in elderly patients with HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in BOLERO-2.

Clin Breast Cancer 2013 Dec;13(6):421-432.e8

Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer in whom disease progresses or there is recurrence while taking a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) are usually treated with exemestane (EXE), but no single standard of care exists in this setting. The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus (EVE) to EXE improved progression-free survival (PFS) while maintaining quality of life when compared with EXE alone. Because many women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer are elderly, the tolerability profile of EVE plus EXE in this population is of interest.

Patients And Methods: BOLERO-2, a phase III randomized trial, compared EVE (10 mg/d) and placebo (PBO), both plus EXE (25 mg/d), in 724 postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after treatment with NSAIs. Safety and efficacy data in elderly patients are reported at 18-month median follow-up.

Results: Baseline disease characteristics and treatment histories among the elderly subsets (≥ 65 years, n = 275; ≥ 70 years, n = 164) were generally comparable with younger patients. The addition of EVE to EXE improved PFS regardless of age (hazard ratio, 0.59 [≥ 65 years] and 0.45 [≥ 70 years]). Adverse events (AEs) of special interest (all grades) that occurred more frequently with EVE than with PBO included stomatitis, infections, rash, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. Elderly EVE-treated patients had similar incidences of these AEs as did younger patients but had more on-treatment deaths.

Conclusion: Adding EVE to EXE offers substantially improved PFS over EXE and was generally well tolerated in elderly patients with HR(+) advanced breast cancer. Careful monitoring and appropriate dose reductions or interruptions for AE management are recommended during treatment with EVE in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2013.08.011DOI Listing
December 2013

ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations in hormone-resistant breast cancer.

Nat Genet 2013 Dec 3;45(12):1439-45. Epub 2013 Nov 3.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, New York, USA.

Seventy percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptor (ER), and most of these are sensitive to ER inhibition. However, many such tumors for unknown reasons become refractory to inhibition of estrogen action in the metastatic setting. We conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of two independent cohorts of metastatic ER-positive breast tumors and identified mutations in ESR1 affecting the ligand-binding domain (LBD) in 14 of 80 cases. These included highly recurrent mutations encoding p.Tyr537Ser, p.Tyr537Asn and p.Asp538Gly alterations. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the structures of the Tyr537Ser and Asp538Gly mutants involve hydrogen bonding of the mutant amino acids with Asp351, thus favoring the agonist conformation of the receptor. Consistent with this model, mutant receptors drive ER-dependent transcription and proliferation in the absence of hormone and reduce the efficacy of ER antagonists. These data implicate LBD-mutant forms of ER in mediating clinical resistance to hormonal therapy and suggest that more potent ER antagonists may be of substantial therapeutic benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3903423PMC
December 2013

Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR(+) breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis.

Adv Ther 2013 Oct 25;30(10):870-84. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville, TN, 37203, USA,

Introduction: Effective treatments for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer (BC) following relapse/progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy are needed. Initial Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial data demonstrated that everolimus and exemestane significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus exemestane alone in this patient population.

Methods: BOLERO-2 is a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, international trial comparing everolimus (10 mg/day) plus exemestane (25 mg/day) versus placebo plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced BC with recurrence/progression during or after NSAIs. The primary endpoint was PFS by local investigator review, and was confirmed by independent central radiology review. Overall survival, response rate, and clinical benefit rate were secondary endpoints.

Results: Final study results with median 18-month follow-up show that median PFS remained significantly longer with everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane [investigator review: 7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.54); log-rank P < 0.0001; central review: 11.0 versus 4.1 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.31-0.48); log-rank P < 0.0001] in the overall population and in all prospectively defined subgroups, including patients with visceral metastases, [corrected] and irrespective of age. The incidence and severity of adverse events were consistent with those reported at the interim analysis and in other everolimus trials.

Conclusion: The addition of everolimus to exemestane markedly prolonged PFS in patients with HR(+) advanced BC with disease recurrence/progression following prior NSAIs. These results further support the use of everolimus plus exemestane in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00863655.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-013-0060-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898123PMC
October 2013

A phase 2 study of everolimus combined with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in patients with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer that progressed during prior trastuzumab and taxane therapy.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2013 Oct 8;141(3):437-46. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, 10945 Le Conte Avenue, PVUB Suite 3360, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA,

Increased activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is a common factor in putative mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance, resulting in dysregulation of cell migration, growth, proliferation, and survival. Data from preclinical and phase 1/2 clinical studies suggest that adding everolimus (an oral mTOR inhibitor) to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy may enhance the efficacy of, and restore sensitivity to, trastuzumab-based therapy. In this phase 2 multicenter study, adult patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab and pretreated with a taxane received everolimus 10 mg/day in combination with paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) and trastuzumab (4 mg/kg loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly), administered in 28-day cycles. Endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Fifty-five patients were enrolled; one remained on study treatment at the time of data cutoff. The median number of prior chemotherapy lines for advanced disease was 3.5 (range 1-11). The ORR was 21.8 %, the clinical benefit rate was 36.4 %, the median PFS estimate was 5.5 months (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 4.99-7.69 months), and the median OS estimate was 18.1 months (95 % CI: 12.85-24.11 months). Hematologic grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) included neutropenia (25.5 % grade 3, 3.6 % grade 4), anemia (7.3 % grade 3), and thrombocytopenia (5.5 % grade 3, 1.8 % grade 4). Nonhematologic grade 3/4 AEs included stomatitis (20.0 %), diarrhea (5.5 %), vomiting (5.5 %), fatigue (5.5 %), and pneumonia (5.5 %), all grade 3. These findings suggest that the combination of everolimus plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel is feasible, with promising activity in patients with highly resistant HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. This combination is currently under investigation in the BOLERO-1 phase 3 trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-013-2689-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3824346PMC
October 2013

Health-related quality of life and disease symptoms in postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer treated with everolimus plus exemestane versus exemestane monotherapy.

Curr Med Res Opin 2013 Nov 4;29(11):1463-73. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest - Centre Rene Gauducheau , Saint Herblain , France.

Objective: Everolimus (EVE)+exemestane (EXE; n = 485) more than doubled median progression-free survival versus placebo (PBO) + EXE (n = 239), with a manageable safety profile and no deterioration in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) advanced breast cancer (ABC) who recurred or progressed on/after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy. To further evaluate EVE + EXE impact on disease burden, we conducted additional post-hoc analyses of patient-reported HRQOL.

Research Design And Methods: HRQOL was assessed using EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires at baseline and every 6 weeks thereafter until treatment discontinuation because of disease progression, toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Endpoints included the QLQ-C30 Global Health Status (QL2) scale, the QLQ-BR23 breast symptom (BRBS), and arm symptom (BRAS) scales. Between-group differences in change from baseline were assessed using linear mixed models with selected covariates. Sensitivity analysis using pattern-mixture models determined the effect of study discontinuation on/before week 24. Treatment arms were compared using differences of least squares mean (LSM) changes from baseline and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each timepoint and overall.

Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00863655.

Main Outcome Measures: Progression-free survival, survival, response rate, safety, and HRQOL.

Results: Linear mixed models (primary model) demonstrated no statistically significant overall difference between EVE + EXE and PBO + EXE for QL2 (LSM difference = -1.91; 95% CI = -4.61, 0.78), BRBS (LSM difference = -0.18; 95% CI = -1.98, 1.62), or BRAS (LSM difference = -0.42; 95% CI = -2.94, 2.10). Based on pattern-mixture models, patients who dropped out early had worse QL2 decline on both treatments. In the expanded pattern-mixture model, EVE + EXE-treated patients who did not drop out early had stable BRBS and BRAS relative to PBO + EXE.

Key Limitations: HRQOL data were not collected after disease progression.

Conclusions: These analyses confirm that EVE + EXE provides clinical benefit without adversely impacting HRQOL in patients with HR(+) ABC who recurred/progressed on prior NSAIs versus endocrine therapy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2013.836078DOI Listing
November 2013

Effect of visceral metastases on the efficacy and safety of everolimus in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: subgroup analysis from the BOLERO-2 study.

Eur J Cancer 2013 Aug 1;49(12):2621-32. Epub 2013 Jun 1.

Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest-René Gauducheau, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie, Boulevard Jacques Monod, 44805 Saint Herblain-Nantes cedex, France.

Background: Everolimus (EVE; an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]) enhances treatment options for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer (ABC) who progress on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). This is especially true for patients with visceral disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. The BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trial of OraLEveROlimus-2) trial showed that combination treatment with EVE and exemestane (EXE) versus placebo (PBO)+EXE prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) by both investigator (7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively) and independent (11.0 versus 4.1 months, respectively) central assessment in postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) ABC recurring/progressing during/after NSAI therapy. The BOLERO-2 trial included a substantial proportion of patients with visceral metastases (56%).

Methods: Prespecified exploratory subgroup analysis conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EVE+EXE versus PBO+EXE in a prospectively defined subgroup of patients with visceral metastases.

Findings: At a median follow-up of 18 months, EVE+EXE significantly prolonged median PFS compared with PBO+EXE both in patients with visceral metastases (N=406; 6.8 versus 2.8 months) and in those without visceral metastases (N=318; 9.9 versus 4.2 months). Improvements in PFS with EVE+EXE versus PBO+EXE were also observed in patients with visceral metastases regardless of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS). Patients with visceral metastases and ECOG PS 0 had a median PFS of 6.8 months with EVE+EXE versus 2.8 months with PBO+EXE. Among patients with visceral metastases and ECOG PS ≥1, EVE+EXE treatment more than tripled median PFS compared with PBO+EXE (6.8 versus 1.5 months).

Interpretation: Adding EVE to EXE markedly extended PFS by ≥4 months among patients with HR(+) HER2(-) ABC regardless of the presence of visceral metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.04.011DOI Listing
August 2013

Health-related quality of life of patients with advanced breast cancer treated with everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane in the phase 3, randomized, controlled, BOLERO-2 trial.

Cancer 2013 May 15;119(10):1908-15. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Drug Development Program, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: The randomized, controlled BOLERO-2 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus) trial demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival with the use of everolimus plus exemestane (EVE + EXE) versus placebo plus exemestane (PBO + EXE) in patients with advanced breast cancer who developed disease progression after treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. This analysis investigated the treatment effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Methods: Using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire, HRQOL was assessed at baseline and every 6 weeks thereafter until disease progression and/or treatment discontinuation. The 30 items in 15 subscales of the QLQ-C30 include global health status wherein higher scores (range, 0-100) indicate better HRQOL. This analysis included a protocol-specified time to definitive deterioration (TDD) analysis at a 5% decrease in HRQOL versus baseline, with no subsequent increase above this threshold. The authors report additional sensitivity analyses using 10-point minimal important difference decreases in the global health status score versus baseline. Treatment arms were compared using the stratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for trial stratum (visceral metastases, previous hormone sensitivity), age, sex, race, baseline global health status score and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, prognostic risk factors, and treatment history.

Results: Baseline global health status scores were found to be similar between treatment groups (64.7 vs 65.3). The median TDD in HRQOL was 8.3 months with EVE + EXE versus 5.8 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio, 0.74; P = .0084). At the 10-point minimal important difference, the median TDD with EVE + EXE was 11.7 months versus 8.4 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio, 0.80; P = .1017).

Conclusions: In patients with advanced breast cancer who develop disease progression after treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors, EVE + EXE was associated with a longer TDD in global HRQOL versus PBO + EXE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28010DOI Listing
May 2013

Effect of everolimus on bone marker levels and progressive disease in bone in BOLERO-2.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2013 May 19;105(9):654-63. Epub 2013 Feb 19.

Department of Surgery and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus 2 (BOLERO-2), a phase III study in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer progressing despite nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy, showed statistically significant benefits with adding everolimus to exemestane. Moreover, in preclinical studies, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition was associated with decreased osteoclast survival and activity. Exploratory analyses in BOLERO-2 evaluated the effect of everolimus on bone marker levels and progressive disease in bone.

Methods: Patients were treated with exemestane (25mg/day) and randomized (2:1) to everolimus (10mg/day; combination) or placebo (exemestane only). Exploratory endpoints included changes in bone turnover marker levels vs baseline and progressive disease in bone, defined as unequivocal progression of a preexisting bone lesion or the appearance of a new bone lesion.

Results: Baseline disease characteristics were well balanced between arms (N = 724); baseline bisphosphonate use was not (43.9% combination vs 54.0% exemestane only). At a median of 18 months of follow-up, median progression-free survival (primary endpoint) was statistically significantly longer with the combination vs exemestane only (Cox proportional hazard ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.54; log-rank, 1-sided P < .0001). Bone marker levels at 6 and 12 weeks increased with exemestane only, as expected, but decreased with the combination. The cumulative incidence rate of progressive disease in bone was lower in the combination arm. Bone-related adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both arms (3.3% combination vs 4.2% exemestane only).

Conclusion: These exploratory analyses suggest that everolimus has beneficial effects on bone turnover and progressive disease in bone in patients receiving exemestane for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer progressing during/after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430494PMC
May 2013

Efficacy of everolimus with exemestane versus exemestane alone in Asian patients with HER2-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in BOLERO-2.

Breast Cancer 2014 Nov 13;21(6):703-14. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan,

Background: The addition of mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) to exemestane (EXE) was evaluated in an international, phase 3 study (BOLERO-2) in patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer refractory to letrozole or anastrozole. The safety and efficacy of anticancer treatments may be influenced by ethnicity (Sekine et al. in Br J Cancer 99:1757-62, 2008). Safety and efficacy results from Asian versus non-Asian patients in BOLERO-2 are reported.

Methods: Patients were randomized (2:1) to 10 mg/day EVE + EXE or placebo (PBO) + EXE. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, response rate, clinical benefit rate, and safety.

Results: Of 143 Asian patients, 98 received EVE + EXE and 45 received PBO + EXE. Treatment with EVE + EXE significantly improved median PFS versus PBO + EXE among Asian patients by 38 % (HR = 0.62; 95 % CI, 0.41-0.94). Median PFS was also improved among non-Asian patients by 59 % (HR = 0.41; 95 % CI, 0.33-0.50). Median PFS duration among EVE-treated Asian patients was 8.48 versus 4.14 months for PBO + EXE, and 7.33 versus 2.83 months, respectively, in non-Asian patients. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events (stomatitis, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, hyperglycemia, and dyspnea) occurred at similar frequencies in Asian and non-Asian patients. Grade 1/2 interstitial lung disease occurred more frequently in Asian patients. Quality of life was similar between treatment arms in Asian patients.

Conclusion: Adding EVE to EXE provided substantial clinical benefit in both Asian and non-Asian patients with similar safety profiles. This combination represents an improvement in the management of postmenopausal women with HR(+)/HER2(-) advanced breast cancer progressing on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors, regardless of ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-013-0444-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4210660PMC
November 2014