Publications by authors named "Tessa Helman"

3 Publications

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Maternal diet high in linoleic acid alters offspring fatty acids and cardiovascular function in a rat model.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6-8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure-volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521001276DOI Listing
April 2021

Synergistic effects of low-level stress and a Western diet on metabolic homeostasis, mood, and myocardial ischemic tolerance.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2020 09 5;319(3):R347-R357. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

School of Medical Science, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia.

How low-level psychological stress and overnutrition interact in influencing cardiometabolic disease is unclear. Mechanistic overlaps suggest potential synergies; however, findings are contradictory. We test whether low-level stress and Western diet (WD) feeding synergistically influence homeostasis, mood, and myocardial ischemic tolerance. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed a control diet or WD (32%/57%/11% calories from fat/carbohydrates/protein) for 12 wk, with subgroups restrained for 30 min/day over the final 3 wk. Metabolism, behavior, tolerance of perfused hearts to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), and cardiac "death proteins" were assessed. The WD resulted in insignificant trends toward increased body weight (+5%), glucose (+40%), insulin (+40%), triglycerides (+15%), and cholesterol (+20%) and reduced leptin (-20%) while significantly reducing insulin sensitivity [100% rise in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), < 0.05]. Restraint did not independently influence metabolism while increasing HOMA-IR a further 50% (and resulting in significant elevations in insulin and glucose to 60-90% above control) in WD mice ( < 0.05), despite blunting weight gain in control and WD mice. Anxiogenesis with restraint or WD was nonadditive, whereas anhedonia (reduced sucrose consumption) only arose with their combination. Neuroinflammation markers (hippocampal TNF-α, Il-1b) were unchanged. Myocardial I/R tolerance was unaltered with stress or WD alone, whereas the combination worsened dysfunction and oncosis [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux]. Apoptosis (nucleosome accumulation) and death protein expression (BAK, BAX, BCL-2, RIP-1, TNF-α, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP) were unchanged. We conclude that mild, anxiogenic yet cardio-metabolically "benign" stress interacts synergistically with a WD to disrupt homeostasis, promote anhedonia (independently of neuroinflammation), and impair myocardial ischemic tolerance (independently of apoptosis and death protein levels).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00322.2019DOI Listing
September 2020

Chronic type 2 but not type 1 diabetes impairs myocardial ischaemic tolerance and preconditioning in C57Bl/6 mice.

Exp Physiol 2019 12 22;104(12):1868-1880. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

School of Medical Science, Griffith University Gold Coast, Southport, Queensland, 4217, Australia.

New Findings: • What is the central question of this study? What is the impact of chronic adult-onset diabetes on cardiac ischaemic outcomes and preconditioning? • What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic adult-onset type 2 but not type 1 diabetes significantly impairs myocardial ischaemic tolerance and ischaemic preconditioning. Preconditioning may be detrimental in type 2 diabetes, exaggerating nitrosative stress and apoptotic protein expression.

Abstract: Effects of diabetes on myocardial responses to ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) and cardioprotective stimuli remain contentious, potentially reflecting influences of disease duration and time of onset. Chronic adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were modelled non-genetically in male C57Bl/6 mice via 5 × 50 mg kg daily streptozotocin (STZ) injections + 12 weeks' standard chow or 1 × 75 mg kg STZ injection + 12 weeks' obesogenic diet (32% calories as fat, 57% carbohydrate, 11% protein), respectively. Systemic outcomes were assessed and myocardial responses to I-R ± ischaemic preconditioning (IPC; 3 × 5 min I-R) determined in Langendorff perfused hearts. Uncontrolled T1D was characterised by pronounced hyperglycaemia (25 mm fasting glucose), glucose intolerance and ∼10% body weight loss, whereas T2D mice exhibited moderate hyperglycaemia (15 mm), hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and 17% weight gain. Circulating ghrelin, resistin and noradrenaline were unchanged with T1D, while leptin increased and noradrenaline declined in T2D mice. Ischaemic tolerance and IPC were preserved in T1D hearts. In contrast, T2D worsened post-ischaemic function (∼40% greater diastolic and contractile dysfunction) and cell death (100% higher troponin efflux), and abolished IPC protection. Whereas IPC reduced post-ischaemic nitrotyrosine and pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax levels in non-diabetic hearts, these effects were reduced in T1D and IPC augmented Bax and nitrosylation in T2D hearts. The data demonstrate chronic T1D does not inhibit myocardial I-R tolerance or IPC, whereas metabolic and endocrine disruption in T2D is associated with ischaemic intolerance and inhibition of IPC. Indeed, normally protective IPC may exaggerate damage mechanisms in T2D hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088024DOI Listing
December 2019