Publications by authors named "Teruna J Siahaan"

98 Publications

Enhancing Intestinal Absorption of a Model Macromolecule via the Paracellular Pathway using E-Cadherin Peptides.

J Pharm Sci 2021 05 23;110(5):2139-2148. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA. Electronic address:

Membrane permeation enhancers have received significant attention in recent years for enabling the oral absorption of poorly permeable drug molecules. In this study, we investigated the ability of His-Ala-Val (HAV) and Ala-Asp-Thr (ADT) peptides derived from the extracellular-1 (EC1) domain of E-cadherin proteins to increase the paracellular permeation and intestinal bioavailability of the poorly permeable model macromolecule, fluorescein-isothiocyanate dextran with average molecular weight 4000 (FD4). The in vitro enzymatic stability of linear and cyclic E-cadherin peptides was characterized under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions, and the cyclic E-cadherin peptides, HAVN1 and ADTC5, which demonstrated excellent stability in vitro, were advanced to in vivo intestinal instillation studies and compared against the established surfactant membrane permeation enhancer, sodium caprate (C). Cyclic HAVN1 and ADTC5 peptides increased FD4 bioavailability by 7.2- and 4.4-fold compared to control, respectively (not statistically significant). In contrast, C provided a statistically significant 10.7-fold relative bioavailability enhancement for FD4. Importantly, this study represents the first report of cyclic E-cadherin peptides as intestinal membrane permeation enhancers. The findings described herein demonstrate the potential of enzymatically stabilized cyclic E-cadherin peptides for increasing poorly permeable drug absorption via the oral route.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.12.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Doxorubicin-loaded iron oxide nanoparticles for glioblastoma therapy: a combinational approach for enhanced delivery of nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2020 07 9;10(1):11292. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Although doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer drug with cytotoxicity in a variety of different tumors, its effectiveness in treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is constrained by insufficient penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stabilized with trimethoxysilylpropyl-ethylenediamine triacetic acid (EDT) were developed as a carrier of DOX for GBM chemotherapy. The DOX-loaded EDT-IONPs (DOX-EDT-IONPs) released DOX within 4 days with the capability of an accelerated release in acidic microenvironments. The DOX-loaded EDT-IONPs (DOX-EDT-IONPs) demonstrated an efficient uptake in mouse brain-derived microvessel endothelial, bEnd.3, Madin-Darby canine kidney transfected with multi-drug resistant protein 1 (MDCK-MDR1), and human U251 GBM cells. The DOX-EDT-IONPs could augment DOX's uptake in U251 cells by 2.8-fold and significantly inhibited U251 cell proliferation. Moreover, the DOX-EDT-IONPs were found to be effective in apoptotic-induced GBM cell death (over 90%) within 48 h of treatment. Gene expression studies revealed a significant downregulation of TOP II and Ku70, crucial enzymes for DNA repair and replication, as well as MiR-155 oncogene, concomitant with an upregulation of caspase 3 and tumor suppressors i.e., p53, MEG3 and GAS5, in U251 cells upon treatment with DOX-EDT-IONPs. An in vitro MDCK-MDR1-GBM co-culture model was used to assess the BBB permeability and anti-tumor activity of the DOX-EDT-IONPs and DOX treatments. While DOX-EDT-IONP showed improved permeability of DOX across MDCK-MDR1 monolayers compared to DOX alone, cytotoxicity in U251 cells was similar in both treatment groups. Using a cadherin binding peptide (ADTC5) to transiently open tight junctions, in combination with an external magnetic field, significantly enhanced both DOX-EDT-IONP permeability and cytotoxicity in the MDCK-MDR1-GBM co-culture model. Therefore, the combination of magnetic enhanced convective diffusion and the cadherin binding peptide for transiently opening the BBB tight junctions are expected to enhance the efficacy of GBM chemotherapy using the DOX-EDT-IONPs. In general, the developed approach enables the chemotherapeutic to overcome both BBB and multidrug resistance (MDR) glioma cells while providing site-specific magnetic targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68017-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347880PMC
July 2020

Non-invasive Brain Delivery and Efficacy of BDNF in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice as a Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Med Res Arch 2020 Feb;8(2)

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66047 USA.

Neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been demonstrated for their potential as a neuroregenerative treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Unfortunately, most proteins cannot be effectively delivered into the brain from the blood stream due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we delivered BDNF using ADTC5 as BBB modulator (BBBM) into the brains of transgenic APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model for AD. As controls, two groups of APP/PS1 mice were treated with BDNF alone and vehicle, respectively. All three groups were subjected to behavioral/cognitive assessments in Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests as well as evaluation of the brain markers activated by BDNF. The results showed that BDNF + ADTC5 group performed significantly better in both the Y-maze and NOR assessments compared to mice that received BDNF alone or vehicle. In addition, significant upregulations of NG2 receptors as well as EGR1 and ARC mRNA transcripts were observed in the brain cortex of mice treated with BDNF + ADTC5, further indicating the efficacy of delivered BDNF in the brain. There were high plaque loads in all groups of mice, suggesting no influence of BDNF on the plaque formation. In summary, ADTC5 can deliver BDNF into the brains of APP/PS1 mice and the activity of BDNF in improving cognitive function was likely due to improvement in synaptic plasticity via NG2 glia cells and not by reducing the plaque load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v8i2.2043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302105PMC
February 2020

Noninvasive Brain Delivery and Efficacy of BDNF to Stimulate Neuroregeneration and Suppression of Disease Relapse in EAE Mice.

Mol Pharm 2020 02 31;17(2):404-416. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

The number of FDA-approved protein drugs (biologics), such as antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, hormones, and enzymes, continues to grow at a rapid rate; most of these drugs are used to treat diseases of the peripheral body. Unfortunately, most of these biologics cannot be used to treat brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and brain tumors in a noninvasive manner due to their inability to permeate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, there is a need to develop an effective method to deliver protein drugs into the brain. Here, we report a proof of concept to deliver a recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the brains of healthy and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice via intravenous (iv) injections by co-administering BDNF with a BBB modulator (BBBM) peptide ADTC5. Western blot evaluations indicated that ADTC5 enhanced the brain delivery of BDNF in healthy SJL/elite mice compared to BDNF alone and triggered the phosphorylation of TrkB receptors in the brain. The EAE mice treated with BDNF + ADTC5 suppressed EAE relapse compared to those treated with BDNF alone, ADTC5 alone, or vehicle. We further demonstrated that brain delivery of BDNF induced neuroregeneration via visible activation of oligodendrocytes, remyelination, and ARC and EGR1 mRNA transcript upregulation. In summary, we have demonstrated that ADTC5 peptide modulates the BBB to permit noninvasive delivery of BDNF to exert its neuroregeneration activity in the brains of EAE mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00644DOI Listing
February 2020

Improving In Vivo Brain Delivery of Monoclonal Antibody Using Novel Cyclic Peptides.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Oct 31;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

Many proteins can be used to treat brain diseases; however, the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) creates an obstacle to delivering them into the brain. Previously, various molecules were delivered through the paracellular pathway of the BBB via its modulation, using ADTC5 and HAV6 peptides. This study goal was to design new cyclic peptides with N-to-C terminal cyclization for better plasma stability and modulation of the BBB. Cyclic HAVN1 and HAVN2 peptides were derived from a linear HAV6 peptide. Linear and N-to-C terminal cyclic ADTHAV peptides were designed by combining the sequences of ADTC5 and HAV6. These novel cyclic peptides were used to deliver an IRdye800CW-labeled IgG monoclonal antibody into the brain. Cyclic HAVN1 and HAVN2 peptides deliver IgG into the brain, while the parent linear HAV6 peptide does not. Cyclic and linear ADTHAV and ADTC5 peptides enhanced brain delivery of IgG mAb, in which cyclic ADTHAV peptide was better than linear ADTHAV ( = 0.07). Cyclic ADTHAV and ADTC5 influenced the distribution of IgG mAb in other organs while HAV6, HAVN1 and HAVN2 did not. In summary, the novel cyclic peptides are generally better BBB modulators than their linear counterparts for delivering IgG mAb into the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920923PMC
October 2019

Brain Delivery and Brain Deposition of Proteins with Various Sizes.

Mol Pharm 2019 12 12;16(12):4878-4889. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

It is very challenging to develop protein drugs for the treatment of brain diseases; this is due to the difficulty in delivering them into the brain because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, alternative delivery methods need further exploration for brain delivery of proteins to diagnose and treat brain diseases. Previously, ADTC5 and HAV6 peptides have been shown to enhance the brain delivery of small- and medium-size molecules across the BBB. This study was carried out to evaluate the ability of ADTC5 and HAV6 peptides to enhance delivery of proteins of various sizes, such as 15 kDa lysozyme, 65 kDa albumin, 150 kDa IgG mAb, and 220 kDa fibronectin, into the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Each protein was labeled with IRdye800CW, and a quantitative method using near IR fluorescence (NIRF) imaging was developed to determine the amount of protein delivered into the brain. ADTC5 peptide significantly enhanced brain delivery of lysozyme, albumin, and IgG mAb but not fibronectin compared to controls. In contrast, HAV6 peptide significantly enhanced the brain delivery of lysozyme but not albumin and IgG mAb. Thus, there is a cutoff size of proteins that can be delivered by each peptide. The distribution of delivered protein in other organs such as liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and heart could be influenced by HAV6 and ADTC5. In summary, ADTC5 is a better BBB modulator than HAV6 in delivering various sizes of proteins into the brain, and the size of the protein affects its brain delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00763DOI Listing
December 2019

Validation of Cadherin HAV6 Peptide in the Transient Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier for the Treatment of Brain Tumors.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Sep 17;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T6, Canada.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a major obstacle by preventing potential therapeutic agents from reaching their intended brain targets at sufficient concentrations. While transient disruption of the BBB has been used to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in treating brain tumors, limitations in terms of magnitude and duration of BBB disruption exist. In the present study, the preliminary safety and efficacy profile of HAV6, a peptide that binds to the external domains of cadherin, to transiently open the BBB and improve the delivery of a therapeutic agent, was evaluated in a murine brain tumor model. Transient opening of the BBB in response to HAV6 peptide administration was quantitatively characterized using both a gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and adenanthin (Ade), the intended therapeutic agent. The effects of HAV6 peptide on BBB integrity and the efficacy of concurrent administration of HAV6 peptide and the small molecule inhibitor, Ade, in the growth and progression of an orthotopic medulloblastoma mouse model using human D425 tumor cells was examined. Systemic administration of HAV6 peptide caused transient, reversible disruption of BBB in mice. Increases in BBB permeability produced by HAV6 were rapid in onset and observed in all regions of the brain examined. Concurrent administration of HAV6 peptide with Ade, a BBB impermeable inhibitor of Peroxiredoxin-1, caused reduced tumor growth and increased survival in mice bearing medulloblastoma. The rapid onset and transient nature of the BBB modulation produced with the HAV6 peptide along with its uniform disruption and biocompatibility is well-suited for CNS drug delivery applications, especially in the treatment of brain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781504PMC
September 2019

Orf239342 from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus is a mannose binding protein.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 07 23;515(1):99-103. Epub 2019 May 23.

Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Industri Selatan V PP-7, Jababeka II Industrial Estate, Cikarang, 17550, Indonesia. Electronic address:

A recently discovered lectin-like protein from mushroom tyrosinase designated as orf239342 inhibits proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This characteristic is likely derived from its ability to recognize sugar entity on the cell surface. Thereby, the binding specificity of orf239342 to sugars was studied. Orf239342 was found to bind specifically to mannose upon analysis with the surface plasmon resonance technique. Finally, our in vitro study showed that mannose impeded orf239342 ability to inhibit proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells, providing further evidence for the mannose binding onto the protein. Our finding is a breakthrough to characterise orf239342 i.e. to define its functioning in the mushroom, association to the tyrosinase, or even possible application in breast cancer therapy. In addition, the finding allows the more appropriate designation of the protein as Agaricus bisporus mannose binding-protein (AbMb).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.05.107DOI Listing
July 2019

Methotrexate disposition, anti-folate activity and efficacy in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model.

Eur J Pharmacol 2019 Jun 2;853:264-274. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Methotrexate (MTX) efficacy in autoimmune arthritis is variable and unpredictable resulting in the need for the identification of biomarkers to guide drug therapy. This study utilizes the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate erythrocyte MTX disposition and anti-folate activity as biochemical markers of efficacy in autoimmune arthritis. Following induction of arthritis, DBA/1J mice were treated with once-weekly subcutaneous MTX at varying doses over a period of 40 days. At the completion of the study tissue samples were analyzed for MTX and folate content and assessed for their relationship with MTX efficacy. MTX treatment resulted in a reduction in disease activity that was variable and dose-dependent. Erythrocyte accumulation of MTX and its polyglutamate metabolites were dose proportionate, however, polyglutamate metabolites represented a mean ± S.E.M. of 8.9 ± 0.4% of total erythrocyte MTX, which is markedly lower than previously observed in humans and failed to display any significant association with MTX efficacy. MTX treatment resulted in reductions in erythrocyte 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) levels that were similar to those previously observed in human studies. Disease induction was associated with a decrease in liver 5mTHF and increased formyl-tetrahydrofolate (fTHF) that was normalized in MTX treated mice. MTX efficacy was associated with reductions in erythrocyte 5mTHF (P = 0.04) and increases in liver 5mTHF (P = 0.0001). Together, these findings demonstrate a relationship between alterations in tissue folate levels and MTX efficacy, and supports erythrocyte levels of 5mTHF as a marker of MTX efficacy in autoimmune arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.03.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500488PMC
June 2019

Protein PEGylation for cancer therapy: bench to bedside.

J Cell Commun Signal 2019 Sep 29;13(3):319-330. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Cancer Research Unit, VA Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, 64128, USA.

PEGylation is a biochemical modification process of bioactive molecules with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which lends several desirable properties to proteins/peptides, antibodies, and vesicles considered to be used for therapy or genetic modification of cells. However, PEGylation of proteins is a complex process and can be carried out using more than one strategy that depends on the nature of the protein and the desired application. Proteins of interest are covalently conjugated or non-covalently complexed with inert PEG strings. Purification of PEGylated protein is another critical step, which is mainly carried out based on electrostatic interactions or molecular sizes using chromatography. Several PEGylated drugs are being used for diseases like anemia, kidney disease, multiple sclerosis, hemophilia and cancers. With the advancement and increased specificity of the PEGylation process, the world of drug therapy, and specifically cancer therapy could benefit by utilizing this technique to create more stable and non-immunogenic therapies. In this article we describe the structure and functions of PEGylation and how this chemistry helps in drug discovery. Moreover, special emphasis has been given to CCN-family proteins that can be targeted or used as therapy to prevent or block cancer progression through PEGylation technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12079-018-0492-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732144PMC
September 2019

Conjugates of Cell Adhesion Peptides for Therapeutics and Diagnostics Against Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases.

Curr Top Med Chem 2017 ;17(32):3425-3443

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Simons Laboratory, 2095 Constant Ave., Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

Overexpressed cell-surface receptors are hallmarks of many disease states and are often used as markers for targeting diseased cells over healthy counterparts. Cell adhesion peptides, which are often derived from interacting regions of these receptor-ligand proteins, mimic surfaces of intact proteins and, thus, have been studied as targeting agents for various payloads to certain cell targets for cancers and autoimmune diseases. Because many cytotoxic agents in the free form are often harmful to healthy cells, the use of cell adhesion peptides in targeting their delivery to diseased cells has been studied to potentially reduce required effective doses and associated harmful side-effects. In this review, multiple cell adhesion peptides from extracellular matrix and ICAM proteins were used to selectively direct drug payloads, signal-inhibitor peptides, and diagnostic molecules, to diseased cells over normal counterparts. RGD constructs have been used to improve the selectivity and efficacy of diagnostic and drug-peptide conjugates against cancer cells. From this precedent, novel conjugates of antigenic and cell adhesion peptides, called Bifunctional Peptide Inhibitors (BPIs), have been designed to selectively regulate immune cells and suppress harmful inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases. Similar peptide conjugations with imaging agents have delivered promising diagnostic methods in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. BPIs have also been shown to generate immune tolerance and suppress autoimmune diseases in animal models of type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Collectively, these studies show the potential of cell adhesion peptides in improving the delivery of drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased cells in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026618666180118154514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835217PMC
March 2018

Peptides and Drug Delivery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1030:167-184

Department of Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS, 66047, USA.

Peptides have been used as drugs to treat various health conditions, and they are also being developed as diagnostic agents. Due to their receptor selectivity, peptides have recently been utilized for drug delivery to target drug molecules to specific types of cells (i.e. cancer cells, immune cells) to lower the side effects of the drugs. In this case, the drug is conjugated to the carrier peptide for directing the drug to the target cells (e.g. cancer cells) with higher expression of a specific receptor that recognizes the carrier peptide. As a result, the drug is directed to the target diseased cells without affecting the normal cells. Peptides are also being developed for improving drug delivery through the intestinal mucosa barrier (IMB) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These peptides were derived from intercellular junction proteins such as occludins, claudins, and cadherins and improve drug delivery through the IMB and BBB via the paracellular pathways. It is hypothesized that the peptides modulate protein-protein interactions in the intercellular junctions of the IMB and BBB to increase the porosity of paracellular pathways of the barriers. These modulator peptides have been shown to enhance brain delivery of small molecules and medium-sized peptides as well as a large protein such as 65 kDa albumin. In the future, this method has the potential to improve oral and brain delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic peptides and proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66095-0_8DOI Listing
April 2018

Improving Brain Delivery of Biomolecules via BBB Modulation in Mouse and Rat: Detection using MRI, NIRF, and Mass Spectrometry.

Nanotheranostics 2017 8;1(2):217-231. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

There is an urgent need to develop new and alternative methods to deliver functional biomolecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the activity of blood-brain barrier (BBB) modulators (, HAV and ADT peptides) to deliver functional biomolecules (, galbumin, IRdye800cw-cLABL, and cIBR7) to the brains of mice and rats. HAV6, cHAVc3, and ADTC5 peptides but not HAV4 peptide significantly enhanced the brain delivery of 65 kDa galbumin compared to control in Balb/c mice as quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-minute pretreatment with ADTC5 peptide still significantly increased brain delivery of galbumin; however, no enhancement was observed after 10-min pretreatment with HAV6. There was no enhancement of galbumin deposition following 40-min pretreatment with ADTC5 or HAV6, suggesting a short duration of the BBB opening for large molecules. ADTC5 peptide also improved the brain delivery of IRdye800cw-cLABL peptide about 3.5-fold compared to control in Balb/c mice as detected by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). The BBB modulator activity of ADTC5 to deliver cIBR7 peptide was also evaluated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The amount of cIBR7 in the brain was detected by LC-MS/MS. ADTC5 peptide enhanced the delivery of cIBR7 peptide into rat brain about 4-fold compared to control and the intact cIBR7 can be efficiently extracted and detected in rat brain. In conclusion, HAV and ADT peptides enhance the brain delivery of functional peptides (, cLABL and cIBR7) and protein (, 65 kDa galbumin) in two animal models, and the duration of the BBB opening for a large molecule (, galbumin) was short.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ntno.19158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588751PMC
June 2017

Synthesis of a Bifunctional Peptide Inhibitor-IgG1 Fc Fusion That Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Bioconjug Chem 2017 07 22;28(7):1867-1877. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

The Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas , Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is estimated to affect over 2.3 million people worldwide. The exact cause for this disease is unknown but involves immune system attack and destruction of the myelin protein surrounding the neurons in the central nervous system. One promising class of compounds that selectively prevent the activation of immune cells involved in the pathway leading to myelin destruction are bifunctional peptide inhibitors (BPIs). Treatment with BPIs reduces neurodegenerative symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. In this work, as an effort to further improve the bioactivity of BPIs, BPI peptides were conjugated to the N- and C-termini of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the human IgG1 antibody. Initially, the two peptides were conjugated to IgG1 Fc using recombinant DNA technology. However, expression in yeast resulted in low yields and one of the peptides being heavily proteolyzed. To circumvent this problem, the poorly expressed peptide was instead produced by solid phase peptide synthesis and conjugated enzymatically using a sortase-mediated ligation. The sortase-mediated method showed near-complete conjugation yield as observed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry in small-scale reactions. This method was scaled up to obtain sufficient quantities for testing the BPI-Fc fusion in mice induced with EAE. Compared to the PBS-treated control, mice treated with the BPI-Fc fusion showed significantly reduced disease symptoms, did not experience weight loss, and showed reduced de-myelination. These results demonstrate that the BPI peptides were highly active at suppressing EAE when conjugated to the large Fc scaffold in this manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.7b00175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659714PMC
July 2017

Endotoxaemia-augmented murine venous thrombosis is dependent on TLR-4 and ICAM-1, and potentiated by neutropenia.

Thromb Haemost 2017 01 15;117(2):339-348. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Peter K. Henke, MD, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Cardiovascular Center - 5463, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5867, USA, Tel.: +1 734 763 0250, Fax: +1 734 647 9867, E-mail:

Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of death during and immediately post-sepsis. Venous thrombosis (VT) is mediated by cell adhesion molecules and leukocytes, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Sepsis, or experimentally, endotoxaemia, shares similar characteristics and is modulated via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). This study was undertaken to determine if endotoxaemia potentiates early stasis thrombogenesis, and secondarily to determine the role of VT TLR4, ICAM-1 and neutrophils (PMNs). Wild-type (WT), ICAM-1 and TLR4 mice underwent treatment with saline or LPS (10 mg/kg i. p.) alone, or followed by inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate stasis VT. In vivo microscopy of leukocyte trafficking was performed in non-thrombosed mice, and tissue and plasma were harvested during early VT formation. Pre-thrombosis, circulating ICAM-1 was elevated and increased leukocyte adhesion and rolling occurred on the IVC of LPS-treated mice. Post-thrombosis, endotoxaemic mice formed larger, platelet-poor thrombi. Endotoxaemic TLR4 mice did not have an augmented thrombotic response and exhibited significantly decreased circulating ICAM-1 compared to endotoxaemic WT controls. Endotoxaemic ICAM-1 mice had significantly smaller thrombi compared to controls. Hypothesising that PMNs localised to the inflamed endothelium were promoting thrombosis, PMN depletion using anti-Ly6G antibody was performed. Paradoxically, VT formed without PMNs was amplified, potentially related to endotoxaemia induced elevation of PAI-1 and circulating FXIII, and decreased uPA. Endotoxaemia enhanced early VT occurs in a TLR-4 and ICAM-1 dependent fashion, and is potentiated by neutropenia. ICAM-1 and/or TLR-4 inhibition may be a unique strategy to prevent sepsis-associated VT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH16-03-0218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436925PMC
January 2017

Gram-Negative Pneumonia Alters Large-Vein Cell-Adhesion Molecule Profile and Potentiates Experimental Stasis Venous Thrombosis.

J Vasc Res 2016 22;53(3-4):186-195. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Conrad Jobst Vascular Research Laboratory, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mich., USA.

Background/aims: Pneumonia is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT). Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) are linked to the pathogenesis of both pneumonia and VT. We hypothesized that remote infection would confer a prothrombogenic milieu via systemic elevation of CAMs.

Methods: Lung injury was induced in wild-type (C57BL/6) mice by lung contusion or intratracheal inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae or saline controls. K. pneumoniae-treated mice and controls additionally underwent inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate VT.

Results: Lung-contusion mice demonstrated no increase in E-selectin or P-selectin whereas mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated increased circulating P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes. Mice with pneumonia formed VT 3 times larger than controls, demonstrated significantly more upregulation of vein-wall and systemic CAMs, and formed erythrocyte-rich thrombi.

Conclusion: Elevated CAM expression was identified in mice with pneumonia, but not lung contusion, indicating that the type of inflammatory stimulus and the presence of infection drive the vein-wall response. Elevation of CAMs was associated with amplified VT and may represent an alternate mechanism by which to target the prevention of VT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428541PMC
May 2017

Comparison of Linear and Cyclic His-Ala-Val Peptides in Modulating the Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability: Impact on Delivery of Molecules to the Brain.

J Pharm Sci 2016 Feb;105(2):797-807

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047. Electronic address:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of peptide cyclization on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) modulatory activity and plasma stability of His-Ala-Val peptides, which are derived from the extracellular 1 domain of human E-cadherin. The activities to modulate the intercellular junctions by linear HAV4 (Ac-SHAVAS-NH2), cyclic cHAVc1 (Cyclo(1,8)Ac-CSHAVASC-NH2), and cyclic cHAVc3 (Cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH2) were compared in in vitro and in vivo BBB models. Linear HAV4 and cyclic cHAVc1 have the same junction modulatory activities as assessed by in vitro MDCK monolayer model and in situ rat brain perfusion model. In contrast, cyclic cHAVc3 was more effective than linear HAV4 in modulating MDCK cell monolayers and in improving in vivo brain delivery of Gd-DTPA on i.v. administration in Balb/c mice. Cyclic cHAVc3 (t1/2 = 12.95 h) has better plasma stability compared with linear HAV4 (t1/2 = 2.4 h). The duration of the BBB modulation was longer using cHAVc3 (2-4 h) compared with HAV4 (<1 h). Both HAV4 and cHAVc3 peptides also enhanced the in vivo brain delivery of IRdye800cw-PEG (25 kDa) as detected by near IR imaging. The result showed that cyclic cHAVc3 peptide had better activity and plasma stability than linear HAV4 peptide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3549(15)00188-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756412PMC
February 2016

Probing the interaction between cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of E-cadherin using NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2017 Jan 12;35(1):92-104. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

a Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry , The University of Kansas , 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence , KS 66047 , USA.

The goal of this work is to probe the interaction between cyclic cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin protein. Cyclic cHAVc3 peptide (cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH) binds to the EC1 domain as shown by chemical shift perturbations in the 2D H,-N-HSQC NMR spectrum. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the EC1 domain showed folding of the C-terminal tail region into the main head region of the EC1 domain. For cHAVc3 peptide, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations generated five structural clusters of cHAVc3 peptide. Representative structures of cHAVc3 and the EC1 structure from MD simulations were used in molecular docking experiments with NMR constraints to determine the binding site of the peptide on EC1. The results suggest that cHAVc3 binds to EC1 around residues Y36, S37, I38, I53, F77, S78, H79, and I94. The dissociation constants (K values) of cHAVc3 peptide to EC1 were estimated using the NMR chemical shifts data and the estimated Ks are in the range of .5 × 10-7.0 × 10 M.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061580PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2015.1133321DOI Listing
January 2017

Brain Delivery of Drug and MRI Contrast Agent: Detection and Quantitative Determination of Brain Deposition of CPT-Glu Using LC-MS/MS and Gd-DTPA Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Mol Pharm 2016 Feb 6;13(2):379-90. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas , Lawrence, Kansas 66047, United States.

Successful treatment and diagnosis of neurological diseases depend on reliable delivery of molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts penetration of pharmaceutical drugs and diagnostic agents into the brain. Thus, developing new noninvasive strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB is critically needed. This study was aimed at evaluating the activity of HAV6 peptide (Ac-SHAVSS-NH2) in improving brain delivery of camptothecin-glutamate (CPT-Glu) conjugate and gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent in Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain delivery of both CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA was evaluated in an in situ rat brain perfusion model in the presence and absence of HAV6 peptide (1.0 mM). Gd-DTPA (0.6 mmol/kg) was intravenously (iv) administered with and without HAV6 peptide (0.019 mmol/kg) in rats. The detection and quantification of CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA in the brain were carried out by LC-MS/MS and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. Rats perfused with CPT-Glu in combination with HAV6 had significantly higher deposition of drug in the brain compared to CPT-Glu alone. MRI results also showed that administration of Gd-DTPA in the presence of HAV6 peptide led to significant accumulation of Gd-DTPA in various regions of the brain in both the in situ rat brain perfusion and in vivo studies. All observations taken together indicate that HAV6 peptide can disrupt the BBB and enhance delivery of small molecules into the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.5b00607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4935662PMC
February 2016

Bifunctional Peptide Inhibitors Suppress Interleukin-6 Proliferation and Ameliorates Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

J Clin Cell Immunol 2014 Dec;5(6)

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and potential mechanism of action of type-II collagen bifunctional peptide inhibitor (CII-BPI) molecules in suppressing rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CII-BPI molecules (CII-BPI-1, CII-BPI-2, and CII-BPI-3) were formed through conjugation between an antigenic peptide derived from type-II collagen and a cell adhesion peptide LABL (CD11a) from the I-domain of LFA-1 via a linker molecule. The hypothesis is that the CII-BPI molecules simultaneously bind to MHC-II and ICAM-1 on the surface of APC and block maturation of the immunological synapse. As a result, the differentiation of naïve T cells is altered from inflammatory to regulatory and/or suppressor T cells. The efficacies of CII-BPI molecules were evaluated upon intravenous injections in CIA mice. Results showed that CII-BPI-1 and CIIBPI-2 suppressed the joint inflammations in CIA mice in a dose-dependent manner and were more potent than the respective antigenic peptides alone. CII-BPI-3 was not as efficacious as CII-BPI-1 and CII-BPI-2. Significantly less joint damage was observed in CII-BPI-2 and CII-2 treated mice than in the control. The production of IL-6 was significantly lower at the peak of disease in mice treated with CII-BPI-2 compared to those treated with CII-2 and control. In conclusion, this is the first proof-of-concept study showing that BPI molecules can be used to suppress RA and may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9899.1000273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524745PMC
December 2014

Immune Tolerance Induction against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Using A New PLP-B7AP Conjugate that Simultaneously Targets B7/CD28 Costimulatory Signal and TCR/MHC-II Signal.

J Mult Scler (Foster City) 2015 Dec;2(1)

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

Most of the current therapies used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are either ineffective or have adverse side effects. As such, there is a need to develop better therapies that specifically target myelin-specific aberrant immune cells involved in CNS inflammation without compromising the general immune system. In the present study, we developed a new bifunctional peptide inhibitor (BPI) that is effective and specific. Our BPI (PLP-B7AP) is composed of an antigenic peptide from myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and a B7 antisense peptide (B7AP) derived from CD28 receptor. The main hypothesis is that PLP-B7AP simultaneously targets MHC-II and B7-costimulatory molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) and possibly alters the differentiation of naïve T cells from inflammatory to regulatory phenotypes. Results showed that PLP-B7AP was very effective in suppressing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared to various controls in a mouse model. PLP-B7AP was effective when administered both before and after disease induction. Secreted cytokines from splenocytes isolated during periods of high disease severity and remission indicated that PLP-B7AP treatment induced an increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, analysis of cortical brain tissue sections showed that PLP-B7AP treated mice had significantly lower demyelination compared to the control group. All these taken together indicate that the T cell receptor (TCR) and the CD28 receptor can be targeted simultaneously to improve efficacy and specificity of potential MS therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2376-0389.1000131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484621PMC
December 2015

Influence of particle size, an elongated particle geometry, and adjuvants on dendritic cell activation.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2015 Aug 26;94:542-9. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology & Biopharmaceutics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Butenandtstr. 5, D-81377 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Modern subunit vaccines have many benefits compared to live vaccines such as convenient and competitive large scale production, better reproducibility and safety. However, the poor immunogenicity of subunit vaccines usually requires the addition of potent adjuvants or drug delivery vehicles. Accordingly, researchers are investigating different adjuvants and particulate vaccine delivery vehicles to boost the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. Despite the rapidly growing knowledge in this field, a comparison of different adjuvants is sparsely found. Until today, little is known about efficient combinations of the different adjuvants and particulate vaccine delivery vehicles. In this study we compared three adjuvants with respect to their immune stimulatory potential and combined them with different particulate vaccine delivery vehicles. For this reason, we investigated two types of polyI:C and a CL264 base analogue and combined these adjuvants with differently sized and shaped particulate vaccine delivery vehicles. A high molecular weight polyI:C combined with a spherical nano-sized particulate vaccine delivery vehicle promoted the strongest dendritic cells activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.06.015DOI Listing
August 2015

Modulation of intercellular junctions by cyclic-ADT peptides as a method to reversibly increase blood-brain barrier permeability.

J Pharm Sci 2015 Mar 12;104(3):1065-75. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047.

It is challenging to deliver molecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This is primarily because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the entry of many molecules into the brain. In this study, cyclic-ADT peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) have been shown to modify the BBB to enhance the delivery of marker molecules [e.g., (14) C-mannitol, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (Gd-DTPA)] to the brain via the paracellular pathways of the BBB. The hypothesis is that these peptides modulate cadherin interactions in the adherens junctions of the vascular endothelial cells forming the BBB to increase paracellular drug permeation. In vitro studies indicated that ADTC5 had the best profile to inhibit adherens junction resealing in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 mM) with a maximal response at 0.4 mM. Under the current experimental conditions, ADTC5 improved the delivery of (14) C-mannitol to the brain about twofold compared with the negative control in the in situ rat brain perfusion model. Furthermore, ADTC5 peptide increased in vivo delivery of Gd-DTPA to the brain of Balb/c mice when administered intravenously. In conclusion, ADTC5 has the potential to improve delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.24309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442687PMC
March 2015

Pathways and progress in improving drug delivery through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers.

Ther Deliv 2014 Oct;5(10):1143-63

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.

One of the major hurdles in developing therapeutic agents is the difficulty in delivering drugs through the intestinal mucosa and blood-brain barriers (BBB). The goal here is to describe the general structures of the biological barriers and the strategies to enhance drug delivery across these barriers. Prodrug methods used to improve drug penetration via the transcellular pathway have been successfully developed, and some prodrugs have been used to treat patients. The use of transporters to improve absorption of some drugs (e.g., antiviral agents) has also been successful in treating patients. Other methods, including blocking the efflux pumps to improve transcellular delivery, and modulation of cell-cell adhesion in the intercellular junctions to improve paracellular delivery across biological barriers, are still in the investigational stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde.14.67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445828PMC
October 2014

Co-delivery of autoantigen and b7 pathway modulators suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

AAPS J 2014 Nov 9;16(6):1204-13. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Drive, 320E, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047, USA.

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by the breakdown of immune tolerance to autoantigens. Targeting surface receptors on immune cells offers a unique strategy for reprogramming immune responses in autoimmune diseases. The B7 signaling pathway was targeted using adaptations of soluble antigen array (SAgA) technology achieved by covalently linking B7-binding peptides and disease causing autoantigen (proteolipid peptide (PLP)) to hyaluronic acid (HA). We hypothesized that co-delivery of a B7-binding peptide and autoantigen would suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Three independent B7-targeted SAgAs were created containing peptides to either inhibit or potentially stimulate the B7 signaling pathway. Surprisingly, all SAgAs were found to suppress EAE disease symptoms. Altered cytokine expression was observed in primary splenocytes isolated from SAgA-treated mice, indicating that SAgAs with different B7-binding peptides may suppress EAE through different immunological mechanisms. This antigen-specific immunotherapy using SAgAs can successfully suppress EAE through co-delivery of autoantigen and peptides targeting with the B7 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9671-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389758PMC
November 2014

Structure, size, and solubility of antigen arrays determines efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

AAPS J 2014 Nov 6;16(6):1185-93. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2030 Becker Dr., Lawrence, Kansas, 66047, USA.

Presentation of antigen with immune stimulating "signal" has been a cornerstone of vaccine design for decades. Here, the antigen plus immune "signal" of vaccines is modified to produce antigen-specific immunotherapies (antigen-SITs) that can potentially reprogram the immune response toward tolerance of an autoantigen. The codelivery of antigen with a cell adhesion inhibitor using Soluble Antigen Arrays (SAgAs) was previously shown to slow or halt experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine form of multiple sclerosis (MS). SAgAs are comprised of a hyaluronic acid backbone with cografted intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 ligand derived from αL-integrin (CD11a237-246, "LABL") and an encephalitogenic epitope peptide of proteolipid protein (PLP139-151, "PLP"). Here, the physical characteristics of the carrier were investigated to evaluate how structure, size, and solubility drive the immune response when treating EAE. A bifunctional peptide (small, soluble), SAgAs (large, soluble), and PLGA nanoparticles (large, insoluble) all displaying PLP and LABL in equimolar ratios were compared. Maximum EAE suppression was achieved with coincident display of both peptides on a soluble construct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9654-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389745PMC
November 2014

(1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone assignment of the EC-1 domain of human E-cadherin.

Biomol NMR Assign 2015 Apr 8;9(1):31-5. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047, USA.

The Extracellular 1 (EC1) domain of E-cadherin has been shown to be important for cadherin-cadherin homophilic interactions. Cadherins are responsible for calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion located at the adherens junction of the biological barriers (i.e., intestinal mucosa and the blood-brain barrier (BBB)). Cadherin peptides can modulate cadherin interactions to improve drug delivery through the BBB. However, the mechanism of modulating the E-cadherin interactions by cadherin peptides has not been fully elucidated. To provide a basis for subsequent examination of the structure and peptide-binding properties of the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin using solution NMR spectroscopy, the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone resonance of the uniformly labeled-EC1 were assigned and the secondary structure was determined based on the chemical shift values. These resonance assignments are essential for assessing protein-ligand interactions and are reported here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12104-013-9539-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4133310PMC
April 2015

Modulation of blood-brain barrier permeability in mice using synthetic E-cadherin peptide.

Mol Pharm 2014 Mar 19;11(3):974-81. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

The present work characterizes the effects of synthetic E-cadherin peptide (HAV) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity using various techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescent imaging (NIRF). The permeability of small molecular weight permeability marker gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent, the large molecular weight permeability marker, IRDye 800CW PEG, and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter contrast agent, rhodamine 800 (R800), were examined in the presence and absence of HAV peptide. The results consistently demonstrated that systemic iv administration of HAV peptide resulted in a reversible disruption of BBB integrity and enhanced the accumulation of all the dyes examined. The magnitude of increase ranged from 2-fold to 5-fold depending on the size and the properties of the permeability markers. The time frame for BBB disruption with HAV peptide was rapid, occurring within 3-6 min following injection of the peptide. Furthermore, modulation of BBB permeability was reversible with the barrier integrity being restored within 60 min of the injection. The increased BBB permeability observed following HAV peptide administration was not attributable to changes in cerebral blood flow. These studies support the potential use of cadherin peptides to rapidly and reversibly modulate BBB permeability of a variety of therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp400624vDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993937PMC
March 2014

Codelivery of antigen and an immune cell adhesion inhibitor is necessary for efficacy of soluble antigen arrays in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2014 9;1:14008. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas , Lawrence, Kansas, USA ; Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of Kansas , Lawrence, Kansas, USA ; Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas , Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are typified by the misrecognition of self-antigen and the clonal expansion of autoreactive T cells. Antigen-specific immunotherapies (antigen-SITs) have long been explored as a means to desensitize patients to offending self-antigen(s) with the potential to retolerize the immune response. Soluble antigen arrays (SAgAs) are composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) cografted with disease-specific autoantigen (proteolipid protein peptide) and an ICAM-1 inhibitor peptide (LABL). SAgAs were designed as an antigen-SIT that codeliver peptides to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Codelivery of antigen and cell adhesion inhibitor (LABL) conjugated to HA was essential for SAgA treatment of EAE. Individual SAgA components or mixtures thereof reduced proinflammatory cytokines in cultured splenocytes from EAE mice; however, these treatments showed minimal to no in vivo therapeutic effect in EAE mice. Thus, carriers that codeliver antigen and a secondary "context" signal (e.g., LABL) in vivo may be an important design criteria to consider when designing antigen-SIT for autoimmune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtm.2014.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4420258PMC
May 2015
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