Publications by authors named "Terry Barrett"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

"The more you did, the more it made sense": Problem-based learning to improve early evidence-based practice in an undergraduate physiotherapy professional programme.

Physiother Res Int 2019 Jul 17;24(3):e1774. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centre for Teaching and Learning, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background And Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP), which integrates clinical reasoning skills, research evidence, and patient preference, has become standard in curricula for health care professional programs. Students however perceive EBP as difficult and often irrelevant to clinical practice.

Methods: A problem-based learning (PBL) approach is trialled in an early stage module where EBP knowledge and skills are stated learning outcomes. Prior to this, the content-based approach to EBP teaching and learning received negative student feedback. The impact of delivering EBP through PBL is evaluated by comparing 5 standard Likert feedback scales and open-ended question responses relating to the EBP instruction in the module before and after a PBL approach was implemented. The impact of a PBL approach on EBP profiles is further examined under domains (relevance, sympathy, terminology, practice, and confidence) of the validated Evidence-based Practice Profile Questionnaire.

Results: All mean Likert scores relating to subject understanding, relevance of assessments, achievement of learning outcomes, teaching, and overall module satisfaction improved when the PBL approach was compared with the lecture-based format (p < 0.05). Student comment post-PBL continued to identify EBP as a difficult concept, but now comments on the teaching and assessment approach were mainly positive, addressing the collaborative nature of PBL, identifying EBP, communication and team-working skills acquired, praising the real life, practical application of EBP taken, and commenting on improvement in EBP self-efficacy. Within group change in the Evidence-based Practice Profile Questionnaire following a PBL approach identified significant improvement in EBP domains of terminology (mean change 3.38; p < 0.001); practice (mean change 16.5; p < 0.001), and confidence (mean change 10.1; p = 0.008). Conceptual links, based on constructivist underpinnings of PBL and EBP, are developed in the paper.

Conclusions: Using mixed methods evaluation, PBL is effective at promoting early EBP. Students identified with the interactive, collaborative, and experiential nature of PBL to EBP instruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pri.1774DOI Listing
July 2019

Standing on the Precipice: Evaluating Final-Year Physiotherapy Students' Perspectives of Their Curriculum as Preparation for Primary Health Care Practice.

Physiother Can 2016;68(2):188-196

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin.

To explore final-year physiotherapy students' perceptions of primary health care practice to determine (1) aspects of their curriculum that support their learning, (2) deficiencies in their curriculum, and (3) areas that they believe should be changed to adequately equip them to make the transition from student to primary health care professional. Framework analysis methodology was used to analyze group opinion obtained using structured group feedback sessions. Sixty-eight final-year physiotherapy students from the four higher education institutions in Ireland participated. The students identified several key areas that (1) supported their learning (exposure to evidence-based practice, opportunities to practise with problem-based learning, and interdisciplinary learning experiences); (2) were deficient (primary health care placements, additional active learning sessions, and further education and practice opportunities for communication and health promotion), and (3) required change (practice placements in primary health care, better curriculum organization to accommodate primary health care throughout the programme with the suggestion of a specific primary health care module). This study provides important insights into physiotherapy students' perceptions of primary health care. It also provides important indicators of the curriculum changes needed to increase graduates' confidence in their ability to take up employment in primary health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2015-11EDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125481PMC
January 2016

Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 is a deubiquitinase of CCNB1.

Cell Discov 2015;1. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; School of Life Science and Medicine, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, China.

The elevated level of CCNB1 indicates more aggressive cancer and poor prognosis. However, the factors that cause CCNB1 upregulation remain enigmatic. Herein, we identify USP22 as a CCNB1 interactor and discover that both USP22 and CCNB1 are dramatically elevated with a strong positive correlation in colon cancer tissues. USP22 stabilizes CCNB1 by antagonizing proteasome-mediated degradation in a cell cycle-specific manner. Phosphorylation of USP22 by CDK1 enhances its activity in deubiquitinating CCNB1. The ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) targets USP22 for degradation by using the substrate adapter CDC20 during cell exit from M phase, presumably allowing CCNB1 degradation. Finally, we discover that USP22 knockdown leads to slower cell growth and reduced tumor size. Our study demonstrates that USP22 is a CCNB1 deubiquitinase, suggesting that targeting USP22 might be an effective approach to treat cancers with elevated CCNB1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/celldisc.2015.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809424PMC
October 2015

An additional case of neutrophilic dermatosis histopathologically mimicking Cryptococcus in a patient with Sweet's syndrome.

J Cutan Pathol 2014 Dec 5;41(12):972-4. Epub 2014 Dec 5.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.12407DOI Listing
December 2014

Combinatorial regulation of the dev operon by MrpC2 and FruA during Myxococcus xanthus development.

J Bacteriol 2015 Jan 27;197(2):240-51. Epub 2014 Oct 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Proper expression of the dev operon is important for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus. When starved, these bacteria coordinate their gliding movements to build mounds that become fruiting bodies as some cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the devTRS genes impair sporulation. Expression of the operon occurs within nascent fruiting bodies and depends in part on C signaling. Here, we report that expression of the dev operon, like that of several other C-signal-dependent genes, is subject to combinatorial control by the transcription factors MrpC2 and FruA. A DNA fragment upstream of the dev promoter was bound by a protein in an extract containing MrpC2, protecting the region spanning positions -77 to -54. Mutations in this region impaired binding of purified MrpC2 and abolished developmental expression of reporter fusions. The association of MrpC2 and/or its longer form, MrpC, with the dev promoter region depended on FruA in vivo, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and purified FruA appeared to bind cooperatively with MrpC2 to DNA just upstream of the dev promoter in vitro. We conclude that cooperative binding of the two proteins to this promoter-proximal site is crucial for dev expression. 5' deletion analysis implied a second upstream positive regulatory site, which corresponded to a site of weak cooperative binding of MrpC2 and FruA and boosted dev expression 24 h into development. This site is unique among the C-signal-dependent genes studied so far. Deletion of this site in the M. xanthus chromosome did not impair sporulation under laboratory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02310-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4272585PMC
January 2015

New or unusual dermatopathology tumors: a review.

J Cutan Pathol 2011 Sep;38(9):689-96

University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dermatology, Dallas, TX, USA.

As experience is acquired, there is a constant evolution in both terminology and understanding of various relatively newly described tumors in the realm of dermatopathology. Several mesenchymal tumors of the lower extremity have undergone various changes in nomenclature, molecular discoveries, and histologic grading. Examples include hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion/pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor; superficial acral fibromyxoma; and myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. Primary cutaneous myoepithelioma is also a relatively newly described entity for which grading and classification continue to evolve. Finally, even our understanding of the classic granular cell tumor has expanded to include a non-neural variant. This article reviews the current nomenclature, emerging concepts, and differential diagnosis of these evolving entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2011.01767.xDOI Listing
September 2011

Measurement of walking activity throughout childhood: influence of leg length.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2010 Nov;22(4):581-95

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

The aim of this study was to describe walking (stride) activity frequency and intensity in 428 children ages 2-15 years with a single accelerometer-based device. With comparison with published pedometer-determined data, the influence of leg length was examined. Decline in stride frequency and intensity throughout childhood increased with adjustment for leg length. The accelerometer-based device documented higher stride counts than published pedometer-based data with the greatest discrepancy in 4-5 year olds. Recommended walking levels for optimal weight throughout childhood should be examined with knowledge of the device measurement differences and the natural history of walking activity changes with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.22.4.581DOI Listing
November 2010

Art interpretation as a clinical intervention toward healing.

J Holist Nurs 2011 Mar 30;29(1):68-80. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Ohio State University, USA,

Art interpretation is described as a clinical approach in assisting individuals to move toward ever higher levels of wellness. Using it with healthy as well as ill individuals prompts participants to attend to the connection between themselves and the larger world. Asking individuals in a group setting to look closely at art, to make a connection between what they see and their own life experiences, can help them give voice to emotional experiences that help them connect to one another within a community. The exercise can sharpen perceptual and cognitive skills as well as provide the impetus to increase communication. Very often, participants responded to conversational prompts with new insights that were mediated through the use of the observed works of art. Making such connections, mentally, spiritually, emotionally, and socially, is helpful in developing coping skills that teach such patients new ways to not only survive but also to thrive despite their health challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898010109358768DOI Listing
March 2011

Nevi with site-related atypia: a review of melanocytic nevi with atypical histologic features based on anatomic site.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Oct;35(10):889-98

Department of Dermatology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

A subset of melanocytic nevi share features with melanoma and nevi with architectural disorder but are biologically inert and to date do not appear to portend an increased risk for the development of malignancy. These benign nevi with certain atypical histologic features cluster among specific anatomic sites and are thus designated nevi with site-related atypia. We categorize these lesions into four main groups: acral, genital, special site and conjunctival, based on anatomy and relative prevalence of specific atypical histologic features. As the literature and our recognition of these lesions continue to grow, our understanding of their biology has not kept pace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2008.01041.xDOI Listing
October 2008

Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case of multiple cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas.

Dermatol Online J 2008 Jul 15;14(7). Epub 2008 Jul 15.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

We report a case of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the cylindromatosis gene (CYLD) tumor suppressor gene resulting in multiple cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas. Treatment of these patients can involve surgical excision, laser therapy, or topical applications of aspirin derivatives.
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July 2008

Metastatic myoepithelial carcinoma in a child.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Aug 17;35(8):779-81. Epub 2008 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, TX, USA.

Cutaneous myoepithelial tumors are rare entities, with few reported malignant variants in the literature. The majority of these tumors are reported in the head and neck region of the adult population, with few examples in the literature arising in young patients. We present a case of myoepithelial carcinoma in a 13-year-old girl, with documented metastatic disease. Reproducible predictors of malignant behavior have yet to be clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00901.xDOI Listing
August 2008

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and giant cell fibroblastoma exhibit CD99 positivity.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Jul 14;35(7):647-50. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

According to most authors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) and giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) represent the adult and juvenile forms, respectively, of the same disease entity, as evidenced by similar morphology, an identical chromosomal translocation, and CD34 positivity. It has been shown that DFSP and nuchal-type fibroma (NTF) (which is also CD34-positive) are related lesions, and that there might possibly be a continuum between the two. In addition, NTF exhibits CD99 positivity. It was therefore, hypothesized that both DFSP and GCF would show similar immunopositivity for CD99. Archives of pathology at several institutions were searched for DFSP and GCF tissue blocks. A total of 29 DFSP and 5 GCF were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of CD99. Twenty-three of 29 DFSP (79%) and 2 of 5 GCP (40%) expressed CD99. Comparison of CD99 and CD34 showed that the non-tumoral periphery of DFSP was less probable to be CD99 positive, but this finding was not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00872.xDOI Listing
July 2008

Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: case series and immunohistochemical analysis.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Feb;35(2):192-6

Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (AMFS) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm most often occurring on the extremities of adults. It consists of mixed inflammatory infiltrates with nodules of epithelioid, spindled and bizarre-appearing cells within a fibrosclerotic-to-myxoid stroma. AMFS frequently recurs, but only rarely metastasizes.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of AMFS seen in the past 4 years from the Stanford University Laboratory of Surgical Pathology and collaborating institutions was performed. We sought to better characterize the clinicopathologic characteristics of this rare tumor. Immunohistochemical stains, including CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD117, CD163, Ki67 and p53, were also performed.

Results: Eighteen cases were analyzed, and clinical information was available on 13 of them. The mean age at diagnosis was 48 years old, 10/13 (77%) occurred on the distal extremities and diameter of the lesions ranged from 1.0 to 10.0 cm. Treatment included wide local or radical excision and local recurrences were not reported. Many of the lesions were multinodular. Histologic characteristics included the presence of fibrosclerotic and myxoid stroma, sheets of spindled to round epithelioid cells, Reed-Sternberg or virocyte-like cells, lipoblast-like cells and rare mitotic figures. In most cases, CD34, EGFR and CD163 were diffusely positive. EMA and CD117 were weakly positive in some cases. Ki67 labeled < 10% of cells, and staining with P53 was variable.

Conclusions: Because AMFS may be mistaken for lymphoma, infection or tumors with higher metastatic potential, correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedures and allow for proper clinical management. EGFR positivity suggests possible therapeutic use in aggressive cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00791.xDOI Listing
February 2008

Lymph node biopsy results for desmoplastic malignant melanoma.

Cutis 2007 May;79(5):390-4

Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

Desmoplastic malignant melanoma (DMM) is a rare variant of melanoma with distinct histopathologic and clinical features. Compared with other melanomas, the desmoplastic variant demonstrates a greater frequency of local recurrence and a proclivity for tracking along nerves, but it poses a lower risk of distant metastases. Elective lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are commonly used tools for determining prognosis in thick melanomas. The role of these procedures for DMM remains unclear. This study was designed to characterize DMM and determine the frequency of histologically positive lymph nodes in patients with DMM. This retrospective chart review included patients with DMM treated by Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) physicians between 1998 and 2003. Among the 28 patients included in the study, 18 patients had biopsies performed on lymph nodes (15 SLNBs and 3 radical neck dissections). One patient had a sentinel lymph node with histology positive for DMM. All others had negative results from histology and S100 stains. This study suggests that the frequency of positive SLNBs in DMM may be substantially lower than that of other melanomas.
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May 2007

Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications.

J Cutan Pathol 2007 Jan;34(1):49-54

Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

A 44-year-old man was referred for a right chest nodule of 3 months duration. A 'benign' nodule had been excised from this location 8 years prior. On examination, palpable nodes were noted in the right axilla. Radiographic studies were significant only for right axillary lymphadenopathy. Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor. Features of a clear cell hidradenoma were noted focally. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed reactivity for HMW cytokeratins, CK5 and CK7, p53, p63, CEA (focal), androgen receptor, EGFR, estrogen receptor (ER), MUC5AC, and strong/diffuse membranous staining for Her-2/neu. Negative stains included villin, TTF-1, CDX2, S-100 protein, vimentin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), mammoglobulin, and MUC2. A wide local excision and axillary node dissection was performed. Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis. The patient has completed adjuvant and radiotherapy, including trastuzumab, and is asymptomatic. We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor. In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2006.00570.xDOI Listing
January 2007

Distinction of benign sebaceous proliferations from sebaceous carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.

Am J Dermatopathol 2006 Dec;28(6):465-71

Department of Pathology and Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA.

Sebaceous lesions, including sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceomas, and sebaceous adenomas and carcinomas, are histologically distinctive adnexal proliferations with a spectrum of biological behavior ranging from benign to frankly malignant. The histologic distinction between sebaceous adenomas and carcinomas may be challenging, especially in cases showing atypical features and in small or partial biopsies. We studied multiple oncogenic and therapeutic related proteins by immunohistochemistry to identify differences in expression between benign and malignant sebaceous proliferations. A total of 27 cases, including 9 sebaceous adenomas, 4 sebaceomas, 8 sebaceous carcinomas, and 6 cases of sebaceous hyperplasia, were examined by immunohistochemistry, with antibodies directed against Ki-67 (MIB-1), bcl-2, p53, p21WAF1, p27Kip1, c-erbB-2 (Her-2/neu), CD117 (c-kit), cyclin D1, MDM2, CD99, MLH-1, and MSH-2. We found that sebaceous adenomas and sebaceomas stained like sebaceous hyperplasia did, whereas carcinomas had statistically significantly increased levels of p53 (50% versus 11%, respectively) and Ki-67 (30% versus 10%). The carcinomas also had significantly reduced levels of bcl-2 (7% versus 56%, respectively) and p21 (16% versus 34%) compared to the adenomas. Thus, a combination of several of these markers may be diagnostically useful in challenging cases. In addition, we found little or no Her-2/neu and CD117 staining, indicating that immunotherapy with Herceptin or Gleevac would likely not be useful for sebaceous carcinomas. Moreover, these results show that sebaceous adenomas and carcinomas are distinct neoplasms and provide no support for the theory that all sebaceous adenomas are truly malignant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.dad.0000245200.65600.a4DOI Listing
December 2006

Identification and optimization of anthranilic sulfonamides as novel, selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

J Med Chem 2006 Oct;49(21):6371-90

Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

A high throughput screening approach to the identification of selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK-2R) ligands resulted in the discovery of a novel series of antagonists, represented by 1-[2-[(2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-ylsulfonyl)amino]-5-chlorobenzoyl]-piperidine (1; CCK-2R, pK(I) = 6.4). Preliminary exploration of the structure-activity relationships around the anthranilic ring and the amide and sulfonamide moieties led to a nearly 50-fold improvement of receptor affinity and showed a greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the related cholecystokinin-1 receptor. Pharmacokinetic evaluation led to the identification of 4-[4-iodo-2-[(5-quinoxalinylsulfonyl)amino]benzoyl]-morpholine, 26d, a compound that demonstrates promising pharmacokinetic properties in the rat and dog with respect to plasma clearance and oral bioavailability and is a potent inhibitor in vivo of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in the rat when dosed orally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm060590xDOI Listing
October 2006

Inflammatory dermatoses of the vulva.

J Cutan Pathol 2005 Oct;32(9):604-11

Division of Dermatopathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Inflammatory, non-neoplastic epidermal alterations of the vulva can be correctly diagnosed using classification schemes applied to skin elsewhere on the body. A wide range of inflammatory disorders may occur on the vulva, and they may have a similar clinical presentation to HPV lesions. However, HPV is incurable and often is treated surgically. Accordingly, as inflammatory dermatoses commonly occur on the vulva and are often curable with topical therapy, an awareness of these entities and an ability to distinguish them from HPV are imperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0303-6987.2005.00385.xDOI Listing
October 2005

Absence of V599E BRAF mutations in desmoplastic melanomas.

Cancer 2005 Feb;103(4):788-92

Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Background: Desmoplastic melanoma is an uncommon variant of cutaneous melanoma that mimics soft tissue sarcoma both clinically and morphologically. An activating point mutation of the BRAF oncogene has been identified in a high proportion of conventional cutaneous melanomas, but its frequency in the desmoplastic subtype is not known.

Methods: The authors tested 12 desmoplastic melanoma specimens for the thymine (T)-->adenine (A) missense mutation at nucleotide 1796 of the BRAF gene using a newly developed assay that employs a novel primer extension method. They also tested 57 vertical growth phase cutaneous nondesmoplastic melanoma specimens.

Results: The 1796 T-->A mutation was detected in 23 of the 57 conventional cutaneous melanoma specimens but in none of the 12 desmoplastic melanoma specimens (40% vs. 0%; P=0.0006, Fisher exact 2-tailed test).

Conclusions: The relative importance of BRAF mutational activation in melanocytic tumorigenesis clearly was not the same across the various subtypes of melanoma, even for melanomas of cutaneous origin that are associated with sun exposure. In contrast to conventional cutaneous melanomas, the desmoplastic variant frequently did not harbor an activating mutation of BRAF. Accordingly, patients with melanomas should not be collectively regarded as a uniform group as new therapeutic strategies are developed that target specific genetic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20861DOI Listing
February 2005

Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

J Cutan Pathol 2004 Jul;31(6):409-18

Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA.

A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0303-6987.2004.00208.xDOI Listing
July 2004

Strictures from Crohn's disease diagnosed by video capsule endoscopy.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2004 Apr;38(4):346-9

Division of Gastroenterology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Video capsule endoscopy is a new diagnostic modality that allows imaging of the entire small intestine. We report on a patient with a presumed but undocumented case of Crohn's disease who was found to have 9 ileal strictures by video capsule endoscopy. These strictures were undetected by small intestinal contrast studies and required surgical intervention. This case report suggests that small bowel radiographic studies may not be as sensitive for the detection of clinically significant luminal lesions as once thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200404000-00009DOI Listing
April 2004

Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part 1--the "blue" granulomas.

J Cutan Pathol 2004 May;31(5):353-61

Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, PO Box 980164, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. "blue" granulomas vs. "red" granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In this first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and histologic features of the "blue" collagenolytic granulomas are discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In the subsequent half of this two-part series, the "red" collagenolytic granulomas will be discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's syndrome).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0303-6987.2004.00194.xDOI Listing
May 2004

Basaloid follicular hamartoma with trichoblastomatous proliferations.

J Cutan Med Surg 2003 Sep-Oct;7(5):395-8. Epub 2003 Sep 24.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

Background: Basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH) are rare, benign, adnexal lesions with diverse clinical presentations. Previous studies documented BFHs with fibroepithelioma of Pinkus-like proliferations, or proliferations that resemble trichoepitheliomas.

Objective: We report on a patient with linear, unilateral BFH and extensive trichoblastomatous proliferations involving the right arm, torso, and leg. An 18-year-old female presented with multiple, hyperkeratotic, linear nodules and plaques limited to her right side from the shoulder to the leg. The lesions had existed since birth and gradually increased over time.

Results: The lesions contained hyperpigmented, exophytic nodules with acanthosis, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, focally associated with hyperkeratosis, and squamous eddies. Some areas contained trichoepithelioma-like proliferations, or large nodules of basaloid cells with numerous cystic spaces, marked hyperpigmentation, and melanophages. The diagnosis was linear, unilateral BFH with an unusual trichoblastomatous component.

Conclusion: While trichoblastomatous proliferations could occur in a BFH, to our knowledge this finding has not been reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10227-002-0147-9DOI Listing
March 2004

An unusual case of calciphylaxis.

J Cutan Med Surg 2004 Jan-Feb;8(1):19-22. Epub 2004 Jan 23.

Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Cutaneous calciphylaxis is a rare disorder that occurs most frequently in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), those on hemodialysis, and renal transplant recipients. It is frequently associated with hyperparathyroidism and a markedly elevated calcium-phosphate product, and it carries a high mortality rate. The usual clinical presentation is of painful, stellate necrosis of the thighs or buttocks, often in the setting of livedo reticularis. Death usually results from septicemia.

Objective: This report documents an unusual case of recurrent, self-limiting calciphylaxis in the setting of a patient with ESRD and discusses the clinical and pathologic features of this potentially very fatal disorder.

Methods And Results: A 52-year-old woman presented with a greater than one-year history of relapsing and remitting, exquisitely painful, necrotic, numular plaques on the abdomen, breast, and arm. This patient had a markedly elevated calcium-phosphate product and parathyroid hormone level. The diagnosis of calciphylaxis was made by wedge biopsy of the most recent plaque, revealing calcification of medium-sized subcutaneous vessels and lobular capillaries with associated epidermal necrosis.

Conclusions: This case demonstrates an unusual clinical variant of calciphylaxis that presented without the characteristic stellate necrosis or livedo reticularis that normally marks this condition and spontaneous resolution without incurring septicemia. Regardless of morphology, calciphylaxis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of painful, necrotic lesions occurring in the setting of ESRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10227-003-0101-5DOI Listing
February 2005

Images in pathology: birefringent cryptococcus.

Int J Surg Pathol 2003 Oct;11(4):314

Division of Dermatopathology, Department of Dermatology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106689690301100410DOI Listing
October 2003

Disseminated cellulitic cryptococcosis in the setting of prednisone monotherapy for pemphigus vulgaris.

J Dermatol 2003 May;30(5):405-10

Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

Cryptococcal infections are seen mainly in immunocompromised hosts. The cutaneous manifestations of infection can include papules, plaques, nodules, vesicles, ulcers, ecchymosis, and, rarely, cellulitis. Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening complication of this disease. Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare auto-immune blistering disease that can also be life-threatening. Treatment of pemphigus commonly entails both corticosteroids and steroid-sparing agents. We present a case of disseminated cryptococcal infection in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris treated with high dose corticosteroids as monotherapy. This case provides an opportunity to discuss the difficulty of managing two potentially mortal conditions in which the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris may exacerbate the disseminated cryptococcal infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2003.tb00407.xDOI Listing
May 2003