Publications by authors named "Terry A Adirim"

14 Publications

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Continuation of Gender-affirming Hormones Among Transgender Adolescents and Adults.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Aug;107(9):e3937-e3943

Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: Concerns about future regret and treatment discontinuation have led to restricted access to gender-affirming medical treatment for transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) minors in some jurisdictions. However, these concerns are merely speculative because few studies have examined gender-affirming hormone continuation rates among TGD individuals.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of 2009 to 2018 medical and pharmacy records from the US Military Healthcare System. We identified TGD patients who were children and spouses of active-duty, retired, or deceased military members using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes. We assessed initiation and continuation of gender-affirming hormones using pharmacy records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses estimated continuation rates.

Results: The study sample included 627 transmasculine and 325 transfeminine individuals with an average age of 19.2 ± 5.3 years. The 4-year gender-affirming hormone continuation rate was 70.2% (95% CI, 63.9-76.5). Transfeminine individuals had a higher continuation rate than transmasculine individuals 81.0% (72.0%-90.0%) vs 64.4% (56.0%-72.8%). People who started hormones as minors had higher continuation rate than people who started as adults 74.4% (66.0%-82.8%) vs 64.4% (56.0%-72.8%). Continuation was not associated with household income or family member type. In Cox regression, both transmasculine gender identity (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.50-3.86) and starting hormones as an adult (hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.14-2.52) were independently associated with increased discontinuation rates.

Discussion: Our results suggest that >70% of TGD individuals who start gender-affirming hormones will continue use beyond 4 years, with higher continuation rates in transfeminine individuals. Patients who start hormones, with their parents' assistance, before age 18 years have higher continuation rates than adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgac251DOI Listing
August 2022

COVID-19 control in the United States: the case for masking.

Am J Manag Care 2021 07 1;27(7):e218-e220. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd, BC-71, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Email:

As of May 2021, the United States remains the world leader with 33 million of 165 million cases worldwide (20%) and 590,000 of 3.4 million deaths worldwide (17%) from COVID-19. Achieving herd immunity by disease spread and vaccination may result in 2 million to 4 million total US deaths. The future perfect of the vaccine should not be the enemy of the present good, which is masking. Masking, especially when combined with social distancing, crowd avoidance, frequent hand and face washing, increased testing capabilities, and contact tracing, is likely to prevent at least as many premature deaths as the widespread utilization of an effective and safe vaccine. Worldwide, masking is the oldest and simplest engineered control to prevent transmission of respiratory pathogens. Masking has been a cornerstone of infection control in hospitals, operating rooms, and clinics for more than a century. Unfortunately, since the epidemic began in the United States, masking has become politicized. All countries, but especially the United States, must adopt masking as an urgent necessity and a component of coordinated public health strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Any economic advantages of pandemic politics are short-lived and shortsighted in comparison with public health strategies of proven benefit that can prevent needless and mostly avoidable premature deaths from COVID-19. During the worst epidemic in more than 100 years, most Americans (75%) trust their health care providers. As competent and compassionate health care professionals, we recommend that effective strategies, especially masking, and not pandemic politics, should inform all rational clinical and public health decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37765/ajmc.2021.88670DOI Listing
July 2021

Mental Healthcare Utilization of Transgender Youth Before and After Affirming Treatment.

J Sex Med 2021 08 8;18(8):1444-1454. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD; Department of Family Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Objective: Transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) adolescents experience increased mental health risk compared to cisgender peers. Limited research suggests improved outcomes following gender-affirmation. This study examined mental healthcare and psychotropic medication utilization among TGD youth compared to their siblings without gender-related diagnoses and explored utilization patterns following gender-affirming care.

Method: This retrospective cohort study used military healthcare data from 2010-2018 to identify mental healthcare diagnoses and visits, and psychotropic medication prescriptions among TGD youth who received care for gender dysphoria before age 18, and their siblings. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses compared mental health diagnosis, visits, and psychotropic prescriptions of TGD youth to their siblings, and compared healthcare utilization pre- and post-initiation of gender-affirming pharmaceuticals among TGD adolescents.

Results: 3,754 TGD adolescents and 6,603 cisgender siblings were included. TGD adolescents were more likely to have a mental health diagnosis (OR 5.45, 95% CI [4.77-6.24]), use more mental healthcare services (IRR 2.22; 95% CI [2.00-2.46]), and be prescribed more psychotropic medications (IRR = 2.57; 95% CI [2.36-2.80]) compared to siblings. The most pronounced increases in mental healthcare were for adjustment, anxiety, mood, personality, psychotic disorders, and suicidal ideation/attempted suicide. The most pronounced increased in psychotropic medication were in SNRIs, sleep medications, anti-psychotics and lithium. Among 963 TGD youth (M: 18.2) using gender-affirming pharmaceuticals, mental healthcare did not significantly change (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI [0.95-1.25]) and psychotropic medications increased (IRR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.46-1.91]) following gender-affirming pharmaceutical initiation; older age was associated with decreased care and prescriptions.

Conclusion: Results support clinical mental health screening recommendations for TGD youth. Further research is needed to elucidate the longer-term impact of medical affirmation on mental health, including family and social factors associated with the persistence and discontinuation of mental healthcare needs among TGD youth. Hisle-Gorman E, Schvey NA, Adirim TA, et al. Mental Healthcare Utilization of Transgender Youth Before and After Affirming Treatment. J Sex Med 2021;18:1444-1454.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2021.05.014DOI Listing
August 2021

Public Health Strategies Contain and Mitigate COVID-19: A Tale of Two Democracies.

Am J Med 2020 12 15;133(12):1365-1366. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428712PMC
December 2020

The Emerging Pandemic of Coronavirus and the Urgent Need for Public Health Leadership.

Am J Med 2020 06 19;133(6):648-650. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270735PMC
June 2020

An Unusual Cause of Back Pain in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 May;33(5):352-355

From the *A.I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE; and †St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

A 10-year-old girl with a 2-week history of atraumatic back pain presented to the emergency department with difficulty ambulating and a history of 2 episodes of urinary incontinence in the past week. Her examination was significant for pain with movement, tenderness to palpation in the lower thoracic spine, and no neurological deficits. In this case, the child was found to have a Schmorl node at T8 in the superior aspect of the vertebral body. Schmorl nodes are protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent that is more commonly reported in the adult population. In this child, radiographic findings were normal, with no evidence of the Schmorl node. The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. The child's symptoms significantly resolved with ibuprofen anti-inflammatory therapy. In children with atraumatic back pain lasting greater than 2 weeks with a sudden increase in severity and associated with a neurological deficit, advanced imaging is strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000808DOI Listing
May 2017

Transition outcomes for young adults with disabilities.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2015 ;8(1):23-30

Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: Transition to adulthood can be very challenging for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) especially for those with disabilities who experience functional limitations in activities at home, in school, and in the community. The study examined the transition outcomes in areas of health, education, and independent living for young adult with special health care needs (YASHCN) with disabilities.

Method: The study is a secondary data analysis of the 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health (SATH). Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the association between having disabilities and the transition outcomes.

Results: Overall, YASHCN with disabilities reported favorable health related transition outcomes with improved access to primary care, care coordination, and physician engagement in transition discussions and connection to mentors. Furthermore, YASCHN with disabilities had higher odds of receiving Medicaid or other insurance for low income or disabilities as an adult (AOR=5.26, 95% CI=3.74, 7.04). However, they were less likely to report having control over personal finances, making friends, and obtaining a high school diploma.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that YASHCN with disabilities may be among the small proportion of CSHCNs who had a positive transition to adult health care services. However, transition outcomes related to independent living still need more improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-150315DOI Listing
November 2015

Emergency medical services for children: thirty years of advancing high-quality emergency care for children.

Authors:
Terry A Adirim

Pediatr Emerg Care 2015 Feb;31(2):151-6

From the St Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA.

The purpose of this article is to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) program. For the last 30 years, the EMSC has had a significant impact on transforming emergency care for children. The program has contributed to the creation of pediatric emergency medicine as a subspecialty and, importantly, has institutionalized pediatrics into the nation's emergency medical services systems.This article describes the history of the program, its components, and the return on investment over the years. The EMSC has undergone many changes since its inception, and now, because the health care system is rapidly changing, the EMSC must continue to ensure that children and their families receive the best emergency care possible. The EMSC community is poised to envision and adapt its mission to leverage opportunities in this rapidly changing environment to ensure that children receive and continue to receive high-quality emergency care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000333DOI Listing
February 2015

The role of medical home in emergency department use for children with developmental disabilities in the United States.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2014 Aug;30(8):534-9

From the *Bureau of Primary Health Care and †Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, MD.

Objective: Children with developmental disabilities (DDs) have higher rates of emergency department use (EDU) than their typically developing peers do. This study sought to elucidate the relationship between EDU frequency and access to a comprehensive medical home for children with DD.

Methods: This study conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis on data from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs to explore the association between EDU frequency among children with DD and medical home.

Results: Compared with children with DD reporting zero EDU, children with 3 or more EDU were less likely to report access to usual health care source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.88). Moreover, children with DD who had 3 or more EDU were less likely to have clinicians who listen to parental concerns (AOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.76), demonstrate sensitivity toward family values and customs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.46, 0.78), and build meaningful family partnerships (AOR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89).

Conclusions: The study suggests that children with DD reporting 3 or more EDU per year would likely reduce their EDU by having access to usual source of primary care services and to clinicians with skills in building meaningful partnership with the parents. The inclusion of these medical home attributes in the adoption of patient-centered medical homes with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act presents a mechanism to improve care at lower cost as well as facilitate chronic disease management and coordination between emergency medicine and primary care physicians that may lead to reductions in EDU and unnecessary hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000184DOI Listing
August 2014

Intrathecal baclofen overdose and withdrawal.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2006 Apr;22(4):258-61

Department of Emergency Medicine, St Christopher's Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is being used increasingly to treat medically intractable spasticity in children with cerebral palsy and spinal cord injuries. Baclofen overdose and withdrawal are potentially life-threatening complications of pump and spinal catheter system malfunction. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy, on long-term ITB therapy, who presents to our emergency department with an overdose of ITB, which is followed by withdrawal symptoms. The patient initially presented obtunded and in respiratory arrest. His symptoms of respiratory arrest, obtundation, fixed pupils, and hypotension mimicked other diagnoses, such as head trauma. The history obtained from the family about the pump reservoir being refilled just before the onset of symptoms led to the diagnosis. During hospitalization, as the patient recovered from the overdose, he began to experience symptoms of baclofen withdrawal, including hypertension, hyperthermia, and hallucinations. The pump was found to be disconnected and was revised. The patient was discharged home without permanent sequelae. With increased use of ITB, emergency medicine physicians must be aware of the mechanics of these pumps and the management of baclofen toxicity and withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pec.0000210175.40763.c5DOI Listing
April 2006

Intrathecal baclofen overdose followed by withdrawal: clinical and EEG features.

Pediatr Neurol 2005 Nov;33(5):373-7

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA.

Intrathecal baclofen therapy is increasingly used to alleviate medically intractable spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, and generalized dystonia. Complications like overdose or withdrawal can occur and could be the result of pump malfunction (device-related) or refilling and programming mistakes (human errors). This report describes a case, with emphasis on electroencephalographic changes, of a 12-year old male on long-term intrathecal baclofen therapy who had sequential occurrence of both acute inadvertent baclofen overdose followed by withdrawal symptoms. During baclofen intoxication, electroencephalography documented periodic generalized epileptiform discharges, occasionally followed by intermittent electro-decremental responses on a background of diffuse delta slowing (1-2 Hz). During withdrawal, mild generalized slowing during wakefulness was observed along with the appearance of high-amplitude, sharply contoured delta activity resembling frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity in sleep. To our knowledge, this temporal profile of electroencephalographic features during baclofen intoxication followed by withdrawal has not been described before in pediatric patients. It is important for treating physicians to recognize the evolution of this electroencephalographic pattern in order to avoid misinterpretation of diagnosis and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.05.017DOI Listing
November 2005

Children with special health care needs: a template for prehospital protocol development.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2003 Jul-Sep;7(3):336-51

Center for Prehospital Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

There are 12 million children in the United States with special health care needs. Improvements in medical technology, managed care, and changing social views about the institutionalization of children have all contributed to an increasing number of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) residing primarily in their home communities. Because of the dynamic and fragile nature of the medical conditions typically borne by CSHCN, the need for emergency care is not uncommon and prehospital providers are increasingly likely to encounter this population. Few states have initiated emergency medical services (EMS) protocols addressing field assessment, management, and stabilization of CSHCN and existing model protocols have not yet incorporated a distinct CSHCN component. With the support of grant funding from the federal Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) program, a project was undertaken by investigators in the Center for Prehospital Pediatrics at Children's National Medical Center to develop prehospital protocols for CSHCN. This report details the protocol development process, discusses suggestions for their use, and presents the detailed protocols. The protocols are intended to serve as a resource template for the development and/or revision of jurisdiction-specific, customized practice guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10903120390936545DOI Listing
October 2003

Overview of injuries in the young athlete.

Sports Med 2003 ;33(1):75-81

Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

It is estimated that 30 million children in the US participate in organised sports programmes. As more and more children participate in sports and recreational activities, there has been an increase in acute and overuse injuries. Emergency department visits are highest among the school-age to young adult population. Over one-third of school-age children will sustain an injury severe enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse. The yearly costs have been estimated to be as high as 1.8 billion US dollars. There are physical and physiological differences between children and adults that may cause children to be more vulnerable to injury. Factors that contribute to this difference in vulnerability include: children have a larger surface area to mass ratio, children have larger heads proportionately, children may be too small for protective equipment, growing cartilage may be more vulnerable to stresses and children may not have the complex motor skills needed for certain sports until after puberty. The most commonly injured areas of the body include the ankle and knee followed by the hand, wrist, elbow, shin and calf, head, neck and clavicle. Contusions and strains are the most common injuries sustained by young athletes. In early adolescence, apophysitis or strains at the apophyses are common. The most common sites are at the knee (Osgood-Schlatter disease), at the heel (Sever's disease) and at the elbow (Little League Elbow). Non-traumatic knee pain is one of the most common complaints in the young athlete. Patellar Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) has a constellation of causes that include overuse, poor tracking of the patellar, malalignment problems of the legs and foot problems, such as pes planus. In the child, hip pathology can present as knee pain so a careful hip exam is important in the child presenting with an insidious onset of knee pain. Other common injuries in young athletes discussed include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, ankle sprains and ankle fractures. Prevention of sports and recreation-related injuries is the ideal. There are six potential ways to prevent injuries in general: (i) the pre-season physical examination; (ii) medical coverage at sporting events; (iii) proper coaching; (iv) adequate hydration; (v) proper officiating; and (vi) proper equipment and field/surface playing conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333010-00006DOI Listing
April 2003
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