Publications by authors named "Tero Tuomivirta"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of hexamine addition to a nitrite-based additive on fermentation quality, Clostridia and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a white lupin-wheat silage.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 19;99(4):1492-1500. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Nitrite and hexamine are used as silage additives because of their adverse effects on Clostridia and Clostridia spores. The effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrite/hexamine mixtures on silage quality was investigated. A white lupin-wheat mixture was treated with sodium nitrite (NaHe0) (900 g t forage), or mixtures of sodium nitrite (900 g t ) and hexamine. The application rate of hexamine was 300 g t (NaHe300) or 600 g t (NaHe600). Additional treatments were the untreated control (Con), and formic acid (FA) applied at a rate of 4 L t (1000 g kg ).

Results: Additives improved silage quality noticeably only by reducing silage ammonia content compared with the control. The addition of hexamine to a sodium nitrite solution did not improve silage quality compared with the solution containing sodium nitrite alone. The increasing addition of hexamine resulted in linearly rising pH values (P < 0.001) and decreasing amounts of lactic acid (P < 0.01). Sodium nitrite based additives were more effective than formic acid in preventing butyric acid formation. Additives did not restrict the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to the control.

Conclusion: The addition of hexamine did not improve silage quality compared with a solution of sodium nitrite. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9322DOI Listing
March 2019

Ericoid plant species and Pinus sylvestris shape fungal communities in their roots and surrounding soil.

New Phytol 2018 04 1;218(2):738-751. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Microbiology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Root-colonizing fungi can form mycorrhizal or endophytic associations with plant roots, the type of association depending on the host. We investigated the differences and similarities of the fungal communities of three boreal ericoid plants and one coniferous tree, and identified the community structure of fungi utilizing photosynthates from the plants studied. The fungal communities of roots and soils of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Pinus sylvestris were studied in an 18-month-long experiment where the plants were grown individually in natural substrate. Photosynthates utilizing fungi were detected with DNA stable-isotope probing using CO ( C-DNA-SIP). The results indicated that the plants studied provide different ecological niches preferred by different fungal species. Those fungi which dominated the community in washed roots had also the highest C-uptake. In addition, a common root endophyte without confirmed mycorrhizal status also obtained C from all the plants, indicating close plant-association of this fungal species. We detect several fungal species inhabiting the roots of both ericoid mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plants. Our results highlight that the ecological role of co-occurrence of fungi with different life styles (e.g. mycorrhizal or endophytic) in plant root systems should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15040DOI Listing
April 2018

Heterobasidion Partitivirus 13 Mediates Severe Growth Debilitation and Major Alterations in the Gene Expression of a Fungal Forest Pathogen.

J Virol 2018 03 12;92(5). Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

The fungal genus includes some of the most devastating conifer pathogens in the boreal forest region. In this study, we showed that the alphapartitivirus Heterobasidion partitivirus 13 from (HetPV13-an1) is the main causal agent of severe phenotypic debilitation in the host fungus. Based on RNA sequencing using isogenic virus-infected and cured fungal strains, HetPV13-an1 affected the transcription of 683 genes, of which 60% were downregulated and 40% upregulated. Alterations observed in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest that the virus causes a state of starvation, which is compensated for by alternative synthesis routes. We used dual cultures to transmit HetPV13-an1 into new strains of and The three strains of that acquired the virus showed noticeable growth reduction on rich culturing medium, while only two of six isolates tested showed significant debilitation. Based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, the response toward HetPV13-an1 infection was somewhat different in and We assessed the effects of HetPV13-an1 on the wood colonization efficacy of in a field experiment where 46 Norway spruce trees were inoculated with isogenic strains with or without the virus. The virus-infected strain showed considerably less growth within living trees than the isolate without HetPV13-an1, indicating that the virus also causes growth debilitation in natural substrates. A biocontrol method restricting the spread of species would be highly beneficial to forestry, as these fungi are difficult to eradicate from diseased forest stands and cause approximate annual losses of €800 million in Europe. We used virus curing and reintroduction experiments and RNA sequencing to show that the alphapartitivirus HetPV13-an1 affects many basic cellular functions of the white rot wood decay fungus , which results in aberrant hyphal morphology and a low growth rate. Dual fungal cultures were used to introduce HetPV13-an1 into a new host species, , and field experiments confirmed the capability of the virus to reduce the growth of in living spruce wood. Taken together, our results suggest that HetPV13-an1 shows potential for the development of a future biocontrol agent against fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01744-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809736PMC
March 2018

Study of the effect of the bacterial and fungal communities present in real wastewater effluents on the performance of fungal treatments.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Feb 23;579:366-377. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

The use of the ligninolytic fungi Trametes versicolor for the degradation of micropollutants has been widely studied. However, few studies have addressed the treatment of real wastewater containing pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) under non-sterile conditions. The main drawback of performing such treatments is the difficulty for the inoculated fungus to successfully compete with the other microorganisms growing in the bioreactor. In the present study, several fungal treatments were performed under non-sterile conditions in continuous operational mode with two types of real wastewater effluent, namely, a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a wastewater treatment plant and a veterinary hospital wastewater (VHW). In all cases, the setup consisted of two parallel reactors: one inoculated with T. versicolor and one non-inoculated, which was used as the control. The main objective of this work was to correlate the operational conditions and traditional monitoring parameters, such as laccase activity, with PhAC removal and the composition of the microbial communities developed inside the bioreactors. For that purpose a variety of biochemical and molecular biology analyses were performed: phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by sequencing. The results show that many indigenous fungi (and not only bacteria, which were the focus of the majority of previously published research) can successfully compete with the inoculated fungi (i.e., Trichoderma asperellum overtook T. versicolor in the ROC treatment). We also showed that the wastewater origin and the operational conditions had a stronger impact on the diversity of microbial communities developed in the bioreactors than the inoculation or not with T. versicolor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.088DOI Listing
February 2017

Impacts of forest harvesting on mobilization of Hg and MeHg in drained peatland forests on black schist or felsic bedrock.

Environ Monit Assess 2016 Apr 15;188(4):228. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Natural Resources Institute Finland, P.O. Box 18, Vantaa, FI-01301, Finland.

Forest harvesting, especially when intensified harvesting method as whole-tree harvesting with stump lifting (WTHs) are used, may increase mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) leaching to recipient water courses. The effect can be enhanced if the underlying bedrock and overburden soil contain Hg. The impact of stem-only harvesting (SOH) and WTHs on the concentrations of Hg and MeHg as well as several other variables in the ditch water was studied using a paired catchment approach in eight drained peatland-dominated catchments in Finland (2008-2012). Four of the catchments were on felsic bedrock and four on black schist bedrock containing heavy metals. Although both Hg and MeHg concentrations increased after harvesting in all treated sites according to the randomized intervention analyses (RIAs), there was only a weak indication of a harvest-induced mobilization of Hg and MeHg into the ditches. Furthermore, no clear differences between WTHs and SOH were found, although MeHg showed a nearly significant difference (p = 0.06) between the harvesting regimes. However, there was a clear bedrock effect, since the MeHg concentrations in the ditch water were higher at catchments on black schist than at those on felsic bedrock. The pH, suspended solid matter (SSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and iron (Fe) concentrations increased after harvest while the sulfate (SO4-S) concentration decreased. The highest abundances of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found on the sites with high MeHg concentrations. The biggest changes in ditch water concentrations occurred first 2 years after harvesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5210-xDOI Listing
April 2016

Microbial ecology in a future climate: effects of temperature and moisture on microbial communities of two boreal fens.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2015 Jul 10;91(7). Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-01370 Vantaa, Finland.

Impacts of warming with open-top chambers on microbial communities in wet conditions and in conditions resulting from moderate water-level drawdown (WLD) were studied across 0-50 cm depth in northern and southern boreal sedge fens. Warming alone decreased microbial biomass especially in the northern fen. Impact of warming on microbial PLFA and fungal ITS composition was more obvious in the northern fen and linked to moisture regime and sample depth. Fungal-specific PLFA increased in the surface peat in the drier regime and decreased in layers below 10 cm in the wet regime after warming. OTUs representing Tomentella and Lactarius were observed in drier regime and Mortierella in wet regime after warming in the northern fen. The ectomycorrhizal fungi responded only to WLD. Interestingly, warming together with WLD decreased archaeal 16S rRNA copy numbers in general, and fungal ITS copy numbers in the northern fen. Expectedly, many results indicated that microbial response on warming may be linked to the moisture regime. Results indicated that microbial community in the northern fen representing Arctic soils would be more sensitive to environmental changes. The response to future climate change clearly may vary even within a habitat type, exemplified here by boreal sedge fen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiv062DOI Listing
July 2015

Nitric oxide for anammox recovery in a nitrite-inhibited deammonification system.

Environ Technol 2015 27;36(19):2477-87. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu , Estonia.

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. In the current research the deammonification reactor in a reverse order (first anammox, then the nitrifying biofilm cultivation) was started up with a high maximum N removal rate (1.4 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Cultivated biofilm total nitrogen removal rates were accelerated the most by anammox intermediate - nitric oxide (optimum 58 mg NO-N L(-1)) addition. Furthermore, NO was added in order to eliminate inhibition caused by nitrite concentrations (>50 mg [Formula: see text]) increasing [Formula: see text] (2/1, respectively) along with a higher ratio of [Formula: see text] (0.6/1, respectively) than stoichiometrical for this optimal NO amount added during batch tests. Planctomycetales clone P4 sequences, which was the closest (98% and 99% similarity, respectively) relative to Candidatus Brocadia fulgida sequences quantities increase to 1 × 10(6) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids to till day 650 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1034791DOI Listing
September 2016

The European race of Gremmeniella abietina hosts a single species of Gammapartitivirus showing a global distribution and possible recombinant events in its history.

Fungal Biol 2015 Mar 12;119(2-3):125-35. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic.

The population genetics of the family Partitiviridae was studied within the European race of the conifer pathogen Gremmeniella abietina. One hundred sixty-two isolates were collected from different countries, including Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States. A unique species of G. abietina RNA virus-MS1 (GaRV-MS1) appears to occur indistinctly in G. abietina biotypes A and B, without a particular geographical distribution pattern. Forty-six isolates were shown to host GaRV-MS1 according to direct specific RT-PCR screening, and the virus was more common in biotype A than B. Phylogenetic analysis based on 46 partial coat protein (CP) cDNA sequences divided the GaRV-MS1 population into two closely related clades, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences revealed only one clade. The evolution of the virus appears to mainly occur through purifying selection but also through recombination. Recombination events were detected within alignments of the three complete CP and RdRp sequences of GaRV-MS1. This is the first time that recombination events have been directly identified in fungal partitiviruses and in G. abietina in particular. The results suggest that the population dynamics of GaRV-MS1 do not have a direct impact on the genetic structure of its host, G. abietina, though they might have had an innocuous ancestral relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2014.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102696PMC
March 2015

Start-up of low-temperature anammox in UASB from mesophilic yeast factory anaerobic tank inoculum.

Environ Technol 2015 Jan-Feb;36(1-4):214-25. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

a Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu , 14a Ravila Rd., Tartu 50411 , Estonia.

Robust start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from non-anammox-specific seeding material was achieved by using an inoculation with sludge-treating industrial [Formula: see text]-, organics- and N-rich yeast factory wastewater. N-rich reject water was treated at 20°C, which is significantly lower than optimum treatment temperature. Increasing the frequency of biomass fluidization (from 1-2 times per day to 4-5 times per day) through feeding the reactor with higher flow rate resulted in an improved total nitrogen removal rate (from 100 to 500 g m(-3)d(-1)) and increased anammox bacteria activity. As a result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, uncultured planctomycetes clone 07260064(4)-2-M13-_A01 (GenBank: JX852965) was identified from the biomass taken from the reactor. The presence of anammox bacteria after cultivation in the reactor was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR); an increase in quantity up to ∼2×10(6) copies g VSS(-1) during operation could be seen in qPCR. Statistical modelling of chemical parameters revealed the roles of several optimized parameters needed for a stable process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.941946DOI Listing
September 2015

Peatland succession induces a shift in the community composition of Sphagnum-associated active methanotrophs.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2014 Jun 11;88(3):596-611. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Southern Finland Regional Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, Finland.

Sphagnum-associated methanotrophs (SAM) are an important sink for the methane (CH4) formed in boreal peatlands. We aimed to reveal how peatland succession, which entails a directional change in several environmental variables, affects SAM and their activity. Based on the pmoA microarray results, SAM community structure changes when a peatland develops from a minerotrophic fen to an ombrotrophic bog. Methanotroph subtypes Ia, Ib, and II showed slightly contrasting patterns during succession, suggesting differences in their ecological niche adaptation. Although the direct DNA-based analysis revealed a high diversity of type Ib and II methanotrophs throughout the studied peatland chronosequence, stable isotope probing (SIP) of the pmoA gene indicated they were active mainly during the later stages of succession. In contrast, type Ia methanotrophs showed active CH4 consumption in all analyzed samples. SIP-derived (13)C-labeled 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed a high diversity of SAM in every succession stage including some putative Methylocella/Methyloferula methanotrophs that are not detectable with the pmoA-based approach. In addition, a high diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences likely representing cross-labeled nonmethanotrophs was discovered, including a significant proportion of Verrucomicrobia-related sequences. These results help to predict the effects of changing environmental conditions on SAM communities and activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.12327DOI Listing
June 2014

Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.

Fungal Biol 2013 Mar 30;117(3):182-90. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland.

Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2013.01.006DOI Listing
March 2013

Occurrence of two different species of mitoviruses in the European race of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina, both hosted by the genetically unique Spanish population.

Fungal Biol 2012 Aug 27;116(8):872-82. Epub 2012 May 27.

Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid, INIA, 34004 Palencia, Spain.

The genetic structure of the genus Mitovirus community hosted by the European pathogenic conifer fungus Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina was investigated. Gremmeniella abietina is a species complex with a divergent mycovirus community, composed mainly of Totivirus, Partitivirus, and Mitovirus species. In this work, the total doubled-stranded (ds)RNA from 353 isolates from Canada, Finland, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, and USA was extracted to look for the presence of a ca. 2.5 kb band typical of mitoviruses' genomes. Based on the banding data, 60 partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) DNA sequences (ca. 500 bp) were amplified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequenced. Two distantly related mitovirus groups (species) were observed in the clustering analysis, one of them related to GMV1-1 and the other one related to a new putative species described in this study, GMV2-1. Viruses in these two clusters seemed to be subjected to purifying selection. The cluster with GMV1-1 included viruses observed in the Finnish biotype A and Spanish strains, whereas the cluster including GMV2-1 was composed of viruses of the Finnish biotype B and one from the Spanish population. Thereby, the Spanish population of G. abietina harboured mitovirus strains occurring in both biotype A and B strains, and it is the first one hosting distantly related mycoviruses of a single genus in one population of G. abietina. This may suggest that horizontal transmission of viruses could have occurred between biotype B and the Spanish population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2012.05.004DOI Listing
August 2012

Methane-cycling microbial communities and methane emission in natural and restored peatlands.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2012 Sep 29;78(17):6386-9. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

General Microbiology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We addressed how restoration of forestry-drained peatlands affects CH(4)-cycling microbes. Despite similar community compositions, the abundance of methanogens and methanotrophs was lower in restored than in natural sites and correlated with CH(4) emission. Poor establishment of methanogens may thus explain low CH(4) emissions on restored peatlands even 10 to 12 years after restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00261-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3416597PMC
September 2012

Water dispersal of methanotrophic bacteria maintains functional methane oxidation in sphagnum mosses.

Front Microbiol 2012 23;3:15. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Finnish Forest Research Institute, Southern Finland Regional Unit Vantaa, Finland.

It is known that Sphagnum associated methanotrophy (SAM) changes in relation to the peatland water table (WT) level. After drought, rising WT is able to reactivate SAM. We aimed to reveal whether this reactivation is due to activation of indigenous methane (CH(4)) oxidizing bacteria (MOB) already present in the mosses or to MOB present in water. This was tested through two approaches: in a transplantation experiment, Sphagna lacking SAM activity were transplanted into flark water next to Sphagna oxidizing CH(4). Already after 3 days, most of the transplants showed CH(4) oxidation activity. Microarray showed that the MOB community compositions of the transplants and the original active mosses had become more similar within 28 days thus indicating MOB movement through water between mosses. Methylocystis-related type II MOB dominated the community. In a following experiment, SAM inactive mosses were bathed overnight in non-sterile and sterile-filtered SAM active site flark water. Only mosses bathed with non-sterile flark water became SAM active, which was also shown by the pmoA copy number increase of over 60 times. Thus, it was evident that MOB present in the water can colonize Sphagnum mosses. This colonization could act as a resilience mechanism for peatland CH(4) dynamics by allowing the re-emergence of CH(4) oxidation activity in Sphagnum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263434PMC
October 2012

A novel putative partitivirus of the saprotrophic fungus Heterobasidion ecrustosum infects pathogenic species of the Heterobasidion annosum complex.

Fungal Biol 2010 Nov-Dec;114(11-12):955-65. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Finnish Forest Research Institute, Jokiniemenkuja 1, P.O. Box 18, 01301 Vantaa, Finland.

We characterized the bisegmented genome of a putative double-stranded (ds) RNA virus from a Chinese isolate of the fungus Heterobasidion ecrustosum, a member of the Heterobasidion insulare species complex. The larger genomic segment of 1885bp encoded a putative RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, 585aa), and the smaller one for a putative coat protein of 521aa (1826bp). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this novel virus species, named as 'Heterobasidion RNA virus 3 from H. ecrustosum, strain 1' (HetRV3-ec1), can be assigned to the family Partitiviridae, being most similar to the Helicobasidium mompa dsRNA mycovirus with RdRp amino acid similarity of 54%. The similarity to known viruses of other Heterobasidion species was notably low (25-39%). The virus could be experimentally transmitted to members of the Heterobasidion annosum complex: the European Heterobasidion abietinum and North American Heterobasidion occidentale, and the original host strain could be cured from the virus by thermal treatment. Microscopical observations showed that hyphae of H. ecrustosum anastomosed occasionally with H. abietinum and H. occidentale, and suggested a possible route for horizontal transmission between these sexually incompatible species. The virus infection seemed to cause variable effects on the growth rate of its fungal hosts, but the results were strongly dependent on fungal strain, growth medium and incubation temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2010.09.006DOI Listing
February 2011

Spanish population of Gremmeniella abietina is genetically unique but related to type A in Europe.

Fungal Biol 2010 Sep 17;114(9):778-89. Epub 2010 Jul 17.

Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid, INIA, 34004 Palencia, Spain.

Genetic structure of the European Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina was analyzed in this study. Ninety-two Spanish isolates, six Swiss isolates of Alpine biotype, 76 Finnish isolates of biotype A and 54 Finnish and seven Russian isolates of biotype B were collected. Genetic variation of different populations was analyzed using sequence analysis of specifically amplified markers GAAA1000, GAAA800 and ACA900. Variation in the GAAA1000 marker was significant, and composed of 33 alleles divided into the following four studied populations: five alleles in the Alpine type, 12 in biotype B, 16 in biotype A and two in the Spanish population. Based on variation in GAAA1000 marker, a subset of isolates were further analyzed using GAAA800 and ACA900 sequences, which showed lower overall genetic variability, and no variation among the Spanish population. Genetic differentiation analysis revealed a high genetic differentiation among populations. Finally, clustering analysis of GAAA1000 sequences showed that the Spanish isolates clearly separated from the rest of the biotypes, whereas the Alpine type was closely related to the B type. However, one of the A-type isolates had an identical GAAA1000 allele with the prevailing allele among Spanish isolates. Altogether, our data suggest that the Spanish population is genetically highly differentiated from any other G. abietina population in Europe with a probable A-type origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2010.07.003DOI Listing
September 2010

The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire.

Ecology 2010 Aug;91(8):2356-65

Department of Forest Ecology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

Peatlands are a major natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are lower than those measured from other mire types. This observation may partly be due to methanotrophic (i.e., methane-consuming) bacteria associated with Sphagnum. Twenty-three of the 41 Sphagnum species in Finland can be found in the peatland at Lakkasuo. To better understand the Sphagnum-methanotroph system, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) all these Sphagnum species support methanotrophic bacteria; (2) water level is the key environmental determinant for differences in methanotrophy across habitats; (3) under dry conditions, Sphagnum species will not host methanotrophic bacteria; and (4) methanotrophs can move from one Sphagnum shoot to another in an aquatic environment. To address hypotheses 1 and 2, we measured the water table and CH4 oxidation for all Sphagnum species at Lakkasuo in 1-5 replicates for each species. Using this systematic approach, we included Sphagnum spp. with narrow and broad ecological tolerances. To estimate the potential contribution of CH4 to moss carbon, we measured the uptake of delta13C supplied as CH4 or as carbon dioxide dissolved in water. To test hypotheses 2-4, we transplanted inactive moss patches to active sites and measured their methanotroph communities before and after transplantation. All 23 Sphagnum species showed methanotrophic activity, confirming hypothesis 1. We found that water level was the key environmental factor regulating methanotrophy in Sphagnum (hypothesis 2). Mosses that previously exhibited no CH4 oxidation became active when transplanted to an environment in which the microbes in the control mosses were actively oxidizing CH4 (hypothesis 4). Newly active transplants possessed a Methylocystis signature also found in the control Sphagnum spp. Inactive transplants also supported a Methylocystis signature in common with active transplants and control mosses, which rejects hypothesis 3. Our results imply a loose symbiosis between Sphagnum spp. and methanotrophic bacteria that accounts for potentially 10-30% of Sphagnum carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/09-1343.1DOI Listing
August 2010

Quantitative PCR of pmoA using a novel reverse primer correlates with potential methane oxidation in Finnish fen.

Res Microbiol 2009 Dec 23;160(10):751-6. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland.

We report a new reverse primer (A621r) for use with A189f in PCR amplification of pmoA alleles in type II methanotrophs. The new primer combination was used to successfully amplify pmoA in peat monolith samples of various depths taken from fen-type peatlands in Finland. In quantitative PCR, pmoA amplicons produced from two sets of three replicate monoliths showed a significant Pearson correlation coefficient (r=0.77 and 0.61) with methane oxidation potential. The maximum methane oxidation potential and number of pmoA amplicons ranged between 8.8-40.5 micromol g (dry weight)(-1) d(-1) and 5.5 x 10(7)-18.7 x 10(7) g (wet weight)(-1), respectively, occurring in depths between 10 and 30 cm beneath the surface in the seven individual monoliths used in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2009.09.008DOI Listing
December 2009

A novel putative virus of Gremmeniella abietina type B (Ascomycota: Helotiaceae) has a composite genome with endornavirus affinities.

J Gen Virol 2009 Sep 3;90(Pt 9):2299-305. Epub 2009 Jun 3.

Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, Jokiniemenkuja 1, PO Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland.

Ascospore and mycelial isolates of Gremmeniella abietina type B were found to contain three different dsRNA molecules with approximate lengths of 11, 5 and 3 kb. The 11 kb dsRNA encoded the genome of a putative virus and is named Gremmeniella abietina type B RNA virus XL (GaBRV-XL). GaBRV-XL probably exists in an unencapsulated state. We identified two distinct dsRNAs (10 374 and 10 375 bp) of GaBRV-XL, both of which coded for the same putative polyprotein (3249 amino acids) and contained four regions similar to putative viral methyltransferases, DExH box helicases, viral RNA helicase 1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. While a cysteine-rich region with several CxCC motifs in GaBRV-XL was similar to that of putative endornaviruses, cluster analyses of conserved regions revealed GaBRV-XL to be distinct from a broad range of viral taxa but most closely related to Discula destructiva virus 3. Collectively, these findings suggest that GaBRV-XL represents a novel virus group related to endornaviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.011973-0DOI Listing
September 2009

Three unrelated viruses occur in a single isolate of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina type A.

Virus Res 2005 Jun;110(1-2):31-9

Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, 01301 Vantaa, Finland.

Five enclosed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bands in electrophoresis, probably of viral origin, were found from a single isolate (SurS4) of Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina type A. Analysis of the dsRNAs revealed that they represented three different viruses, named as Gremmeniella abietina mitochondrial RNA virus S2 (GaMRV-S2), Gremmeniella abietina RNA virus MS2 (GaRV-MS2) and Gremmeniella abietina RNA virus L2 (GaRV-L2). The genome of GaMRV-S2 was 2587 base pairs (bp) long and had a very low GC content (31%). Sequence variations occurred at both ends. The genome coded for a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) under a mitochondrial translation code. The GaRV-MS2 genome was composed of three dsRNA molecules (1781 bp, 1586 bp and 1186 bp). They coded for a putative RdRp, a coat protein (CP) and a protein with an unknown function, respectively. The GaRV-L2 genome was 5129 bp long and contained two ORFs. The 5'-proximal ORF coded for a putative CP, whereas the 3'-proximal ORF encoded for a putative RdRp. The buoyant density of GaRV-MS2 and GaRV-L2 were 1.37 and 1.42 g/ml, respectively. GaMRV-S2, GaRV-MS2 and GaRV-L2 were closely related to the previously described viruses GaMRV-S1, GaRV-MS1 and GaRV-L1, respectively, and are putative members of the genera Mitovirus, Partitivirus and Totivirus, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of viruses of all these different genera in a single fungal isolate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2004.12.005DOI Listing
June 2005
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