Publications by authors named "Terese B Hart"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A natural history of Chlorocebus dryas from camera traps in Lomami National Park and its buffer zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo, with notes on the species status of Cercopithecus salongo.

Am J Primatol 2021 06 6;83(6):e23261. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

The natural history and taxonomic status of two central African primates, Cercopithecus dryas and Cercopithecus salongo have long been in question. Recent studies confirmed that C. dryas is a basal member of the savanna monkey clade, and that it prefers dense undergrowth in lowland rainforest. While these studies advanced our knowledge of this enigmatic species, key aspects of its natural history remain poorly documented. Furthermore, the lack of a field study that documents pelage patterns of both sexes and different age classes of C. dryas has led to a disagreement over the validity of C. salongo as a sister taxon to C. dryas. Using the results of two multi-strata camera trap surveys in Lomami National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and its buffer zone, we conducted a third survey in the understory of degraded forest to accumulate videos of C. dryas/salongo. We used these videos to test the hypothesis that C. dryas and C. salongo are synonymous, and to assess the species' group composition, density, behavior and vocalizations. Camera traps revealed an ontogenetic change in pelage pattern that supports the view that C. salongo is the adult of C. dryas. Videos revealed that adult males develop a blue perineum and scrotum, and a red subcaudal patch, similar to other savanna monkeys. We provide a preliminary assessment of C. dryas' group composition, density, behavior, and vocalizations. This long-overlooked monkey is an exceptional member of the Chlorocebus clade, and all aspects of its biology require further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23261DOI Listing
June 2021

Morphological analysis of new Dryas Monkey specimens from the Central Congo Basin: Taxonomic considerations and an emended diagnosis.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Vertebrate Zoology, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Objectives: The little known guenon Cercopithecus dryas has a controversial taxonomic history with some recognizing two taxa (C. dryas and C. salongo) instead of one. New adult specimens from the TL2 region of the central Congo Basin allow further assessment of C. dryas morphology and, along with CT scans of the juvenile holotype, provide ontogenetically stable comparisons across all C. dryas and "C. salongo" specimens for the first time.

Materials And Methods: The skins and skulls of two newly acquired C. dryas specimens, male YPM MAM 16890 and female YPM MAM 17066, were compared to previously described C. dryas and "C. salongo" specimens, along with a broader guenon comparative sample (cranial sample n = 146, dental sample n = 102). Qualitative and quantitative assessments were made on the basis of commonly noted pelage features as well as craniodental characters in the form of shape ratios and multivariate discriminant analyses.

Results: All C. dryas specimens, including the TL2 adults, are comparatively small in overall cranial size, have relatively small I s, and display tall molar cusps; these osteological characters, along with pelage features, are shared with known "C. salongo" specimens. Discriminant analyses of dental features separate C. dryas/salongo specimens from all other guenons.

Discussion: In addition to pelage-based evidence, direct osteological evidence suggests "C. salongo" is a junior synonym of C. dryas. Combined with molecular analyses suggesting C. dryas is most closely related to Chlorocebus spp., we emend the species diagnosis and support its transfer to Chlorocebus or possibly a new genus to reflect its distinctiveness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24278DOI Listing
April 2021

CD4 receptor diversity represents an ancient protection mechanism against primate lentiviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, BP 2012, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Infection with human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV) requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the host protein CD4 on the surface of immune cells. Although invariant in humans, the Env binding domain of the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants circulating in wild populations. Here, we show that within-species CD4 diversity is not unique to chimpanzees but found in many African primate species. Characterizing the outermost (D1) domain of the CD4 protein in over 500 monkeys and apes, we found polymorphic residues in 24 of 29 primate species, with as many as 11 different coding variants identified within a single species. D1 domain amino acid replacements affected SIV Env-mediated cell entry in a single-round infection assay, restricting infection in a strain- and allele-specific fashion. Several identical CD4 polymorphisms, including the addition of -linked glycosylation sites, were found in primate species from different genera, providing striking examples of parallel evolution. Moreover, seven different guenons ( spp.) shared multiple distinct D1 domain variants, pointing to long-term trans-specific polymorphism. These data indicate that the HIV/SIV Env binding region of the primate CD4 protein is highly variable, both within and between species, and suggest that this diversity has been maintained by balancing selection for millions of years, at least in part to confer protection against primate lentiviruses. Although long-term SIV-infected species have evolved specific mechanisms to avoid disease progression, primate lentiviruses are intrinsically pathogenic and have left their mark on the host genome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025914118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020793PMC
March 2021

Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests.

Science 2020 05 21;368(6493):869-874. Epub 2020 May 21.

Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw7578DOI Listing
May 2020

Asynchronous carbon sink saturation in African and Amazonian tropical forests.

Nature 2020 03 4;579(7797):80-87. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia.

Structurally intact tropical forests sequestered about half of the global terrestrial carbon uptake over the 1990s and early 2000s, removing about 15 per cent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Climate-driven vegetation models typically predict that this tropical forest 'carbon sink' will continue for decades. Here we assess trends in the carbon sink using 244 structurally intact African tropical forests spanning 11 countries, compare them with 321 published plots from Amazonia and investigate the underlying drivers of the trends. The carbon sink in live aboveground biomass in intact African tropical forests has been stable for the three decades to 2015, at 0.66 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.53-0.79), in contrast to the long-term decline in Amazonian forests. Therefore the carbon sink responses of Earth's two largest expanses of tropical forest have diverged. The difference is largely driven by carbon losses from tree mortality, with no detectable multi-decadal trend in Africa and a long-term increase in Amazonia. Both continents show increasing tree growth, consistent with the expected net effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and air temperature. Despite the past stability of the African carbon sink, our most intensively monitored plots suggest a post-2010 increase in carbon losses, delayed compared to Amazonia, indicating asynchronous carbon sink saturation on the two continents. A statistical model including carbon dioxide, temperature, drought and forest dynamics accounts for the observed trends and indicates a long-term future decline in the African sink, whereas the Amazonian sink continues to weaken rapidly. Overall, the uptake of carbon into Earth's intact tropical forests peaked in the 1990s. Given that the global terrestrial carbon sink is increasing in size, independent observations indicating greater recent carbon uptake into the Northern Hemisphere landmass reinforce our conclusion that the intact tropical forest carbon sink has already peaked. This saturation and ongoing decline of the tropical forest carbon sink has consequences for policies intended to stabilize Earth's climate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2035-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Skeletal morphology of the lesula (Cercopithecus lomamiensis) and the evolution of guenon locomotor behavior.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 05 3;172(1):3-24. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

PhD Program in Anthropology, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, New York.

Objectives: The guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are a diverse and primarily arboreal radiation of Old World monkeys from Africa. However, preliminary behavioral observations of the lesula (Cercopithecus lomamiensis), a little-known guenon species described in 2012, report it spending substantial amounts of time on the ground. New specimens allow us to present the first description of lesula postcranial morphology and apply a comparative functional morphology approach to supplement our knowledge of its locomotor behavior.

Materials And Methods: To infer the substrate use preferences of the lesula, 22 postcranial variables correlated with locomotion were assessed in a sample of 151 adult guenon specimens, including two C. lomamiensis. Using multivariate statistical analyses, we predict the amount of time the lesula spends on the ground relative to the comparative sample.

Results: Results suggest that the lesula spends nearly half its time on the ground, and the two available individuals were classified as semiterrestrial and terrestrial with strong support. Comparisons with two outgroup cercopithecid taxa (Colobus guereza and Macaca mulatta) demonstrate that, as a group, guenons retain signals of a generalized, semiterrestrially adapted postcranium compared to specialized arboreal cercopithecids.

Discussion: These results corroborate preliminary behavioral observations of the lesula as a semiterrestrial to terrestrial primate and imply multiple evolutionary transitions in substrate use among the guenon radiation. A broader view of cercopithecoid evolution suggests that a semiterrestrial ancestor for extant guenons is more parsimonious than an arboreal one, indicating that the arboreal members of the group are probably recently derived from a more semiterrestrial ancestor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24025DOI Listing
May 2020

Ancient Introgression between Two Ape Malaria Parasite Species.

Genome Biol Evol 2019 11;11(11):3269-3274

Institute of Evolutionary Biology, and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

The Laverania clade comprises the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum as well as at least seven additional parasite species that infect wild African apes. A recent analysis of Laverania genome sequences (Otto TD, et al. 2018. Genomes of all known members of a Plasmodium subgenus reveal paths to virulent human malaria. Nat Microbiol. 3: 687-697) reported three instances of interspecies gene transfer, one of which had previously been described. Generating gene sequences from additional ape parasites and re-examining sequencing reads generated in the Otto et al. study, we identified one of the newly described gene transfers as an assembly artifact of sequences derived from a sample coinfected by two parasite species. The second gene transfer between ancestors of two divergent chimpanzee parasite lineages was confirmed, but involved a much larger number of genes than originally described, many of which encode exported proteins that remodel, or bind to, erythrocytes. Because successful hybridization between Laverania species is very rare, it will be important to determine to what extent these gene transfers have shaped their host interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145702PMC
November 2019

The Genome of the Endangered Dryas Monkey Provides New Insights into the Evolutionary History of the Vervets.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 Jan;37(1):183-194

Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Genomic data can be a powerful tool for inferring ecology, behavior, and conservation needs of highly elusive species, particularly, when other sources of information are hard to come by. Here, we focus on the Dryas monkey (Cercopithecus dryas), an endangered primate endemic to the Congo Basin with cryptic behavior and possibly <250 remaining adult individuals. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we show that the Dryas monkey represents a sister lineage to the vervets (Chlorocebus sp.) and has diverged from them ∼1.4 Ma with additional bidirectional gene flow ∼750,000-∼500,000 years ago that has likely involved the crossing of the Congo River. Together with evidence of gene flow across the Congo River in bonobos and okapis, our results suggest that the fluvial topology of the Congo River might have been more dynamic than previously recognized. Despite the presence of several homozygous loss-of-function mutations in genes associated with sperm mobility and immunity, we find high genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic load in the studied Dryas monkey individual. This suggests that the current population carries sufficient genetic variability for long-term survival and might be larger than currently recognized. We thus provide an example of how genomic data can directly improve our understanding of highly elusive species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984364PMC
January 2020

Allometry and Ecology of the Bilaterian Gut Microbiome.

mBio 2018 03 27;9(2). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Classical ecology provides principles for construction and function of biological communities, but to what extent these apply to the animal-associated microbiota is just beginning to be assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of several well-known ecological principles on animal-associated microbiota by characterizing gut microbial specimens from bilaterally symmetrical animals () ranging from flies to whales. A rigorously vetted sample set containing 265 specimens from 64 species was assembled. Bacterial lineages were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Previously published samples were also compared, allowing analysis of over 1,098 samples in total. A restricted number of bacterial phyla was found to account for the great majority of gut colonists. Gut microbial composition was associated with host phylogeny and diet. We identified numerous gut bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences that diverged deeply from previously studied taxa, identifying opportunities to discover new bacterial types. The number of bacterial lineages per gut sample was positively associated with animal mass, paralleling known species-area relationships from island biogeography and implicating body size as a determinant of community stability and niche complexity. Samples from larger animals harbored greater numbers of anaerobic communities, specifying a mechanism for generating more-complex microbial environments. Predictions for species/abundance relationships from models of neutral colonization did not match the data set, pointing to alternative mechanisms such as selection of specific colonists by environmental niche. Taken together, the data suggest that niche complexity increases with gut size and that niche selection forces dominate gut community construction. The intestinal microbiome of animals is essential for health, contributing to digestion of foods, proper immune development, inhibition of pathogen colonization, and catabolism of xenobiotic compounds. How these communities assemble and persist is just beginning to be investigated. Here we interrogated a set of gut samples from a wide range of animals to investigate the roles of selection and random processes in microbial community construction. We show that the numbers of bacterial species increased with the weight of host organisms, paralleling findings from studies of island biogeography. Communities in larger organisms tended to be more anaerobic, suggesting one mechanism for niche diversification. Nonselective processes enable specific predictions for community structure, but our samples did not match the predictions of the neutral model. Thus, these findings highlight the importance of niche selection in community construction and suggest mechanisms of niche diversification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00319-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5874926PMC
March 2018

Wild bonobos host geographically restricted malaria parasites including a putative new Laverania species.

Nat Commun 2017 11 21;8(1):1635. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Malaria parasites, though widespread among wild chimpanzees and gorillas, have not been detected in bonobos. Here, we show that wild-living bonobos are endemically Plasmodium infected in the eastern-most part of their range. Testing 1556 faecal samples from 11 field sites, we identify high prevalence Laverania infections in the Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba (TL2) area, but not at other locations across the Congo. TL2 bonobos harbour P. gaboni, formerly only found in chimpanzees, as well as a potential new species, Plasmodium lomamiensis sp. nov. Rare co-infections with non-Laverania parasites were also observed. Phylogenetic relationships among Laverania species are consistent with co-divergence with their gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo hosts, suggesting a timescale for their evolution. The absence of Plasmodium from most field sites could not be explained by parasite seasonality, nor by bonobo population structure, diet or gut microbiota. Thus, the geographic restriction of bonobo Plasmodium reflects still unidentified factors that likely influence parasite transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01798-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696340PMC
November 2017

The mitochondrial ancestor of bonobos and the origin of their major haplogroups.

PLoS One 2017 3;12(5):e0174851. Epub 2017 May 3.

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.

We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of bonobos (Pan paniscus) ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA) and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River's left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0.95 million years ago (Ma). Six major haplogroups had very old origins of 0.38 Ma or older. The reconstruction of the ancestral area revealed the mitochondrial ancestor of the bonobo populations ranged in the eastern area of the current bonobos' habitat. The haplogroups may have been formed from either the riparian forests along the Congo River or the center of the southern Congo Basin. Fragmentation of the forest refugia during the cooler periods may have greatly affected the formation of the genetic structure of bonobo populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174851PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5414932PMC
September 2017

Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome.

Sci Rep 2017 01 17;7:39102. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep39102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240619PMC
January 2017

CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change.

Glob Chang Biol 2015 Feb 25;21(2):528-49. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Republic of Panama; Conservation Ecology Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA, USA.

Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ≥ 1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25 °S-61 °N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 °C), changes in precipitation (up to ± 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1 g S m(-2) yr(-1)), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12712DOI Listing
February 2015

African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

Nat Commun 2014 ;5:3346

Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK.

Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089193PMC
November 2015

Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2013 22;368(1625):20120295. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Department of Geography, University College London, UK.

We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha⁻¹) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3720018PMC
March 2014

Genetic structure of wild bonobo populations: diversity of mitochondrial DNA and geographical distribution.

PLoS One 2013 27;8(3):e59660. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan.

Bonobos (Pan paniscus) inhabit regions south of the Congo River including all areas between its southerly tributaries. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship among bonobo populations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 376 fecal samples collected in seven study populations located within the eastern and western limits of the species' range. In 136 effective samples from different individuals (range: 7-37 per population), we distinguished 54 haplotypes in six clades (A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D), which included a newly identified clade (D). MtDNA haplotypes were regionally clustered; 83 percent of haplotypes were locality-specific. The distribution of haplotypes across populations and the genetic diversity within populations thus showed highly geographical patterns. Using population distance measures, seven populations were categorized in three clusters: the east, central, and west cohorts. Although further elucidation of historical changes in the geological setting is required, the geographical patterns of genetic diversity seem to be shaped by paleoenvironmental changes during the Pleistocene. The present day riverine barriers appeared to have a weak effect on gene flow among populations, except for the Lomami River, which separates the TL2 population from the others. The central cohort preserves a high genetic diversity, and two unique clades of haplotypes were found in the Wamba/Iyondji populations in the central cohort and in the TL2 population in the eastern cohort respectively. This knowledge may contribute to the planning of bonobo conservation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059660PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609822PMC
September 2013

Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

PLoS One 2012 12;7(9):e44271. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa, Gombe, Democratic Republic of Congo ; Division of Vertebrate Zoology, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044271PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440422PMC
March 2013

Assessing evidence for a pervasive alteration in tropical tree communities.

PLoS Biol 2008 Mar;6(3):e45

Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique CNRS/Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

In Amazonian tropical forests, recent studies have reported increases in aboveground biomass and in primary productivity, as well as shifts in plant species composition favouring fast-growing species over slow-growing ones. This pervasive alteration of mature tropical forests was attributed to global environmental change, such as an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, nutrient deposition, temperature, drought frequency, and/or irradiance. We used standardized, repeated measurements of over 2 million trees in ten large (16-52 ha each) forest plots on three continents to evaluate the generality of these findings across tropical forests. Aboveground biomass increased at seven of our ten plots, significantly so at four plots, and showed a large decrease at a single plot. Carbon accumulation pooled across sites was significant (+0.24 MgC ha(-1) y(-1), 95% confidence intervals [0.07, 0.39] MgC ha(-1) y(-1)), but lower than reported previously for Amazonia. At three sites for which we had data for multiple census intervals, we found no concerted increase in biomass gain, in conflict with the increased productivity hypothesis. Over all ten plots, the fastest-growing quartile of species gained biomass (+0.33 [0.09, 0.55] % y(-1)) compared with the tree community as a whole (+0.15 % y(-1)); however, this significant trend was due to a single plot. Biomass of slow-growing species increased significantly when calculated over all plots (+0.21 [0.02, 0.37] % y(-1)), and in half of our plots when calculated individually. Our results do not support the hypothesis that fast-growing species are consistently increasing in dominance in tropical tree communities. Instead, they suggest that our plots may be simultaneously recovering from past disturbances and affected by changes in resource availability. More long-term studies are necessary to clarify the contribution of global change to the functioning of tropical forests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270308PMC
March 2008

Stable isotope ecology in the Ituri Forest.

Oecologia 2004 Jan 3;138(1):5-12. Epub 2003 Oct 3.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

The Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) is an example of a closed canopy forest showing extreme depletion in (13)C. delta(13)C values for plants from the canopy top, from gaps in the canopy, and from the subcanopy average -29.0+/-1.7 per thousand, -30.4+/-0.9 per thousand, and -34.0+/-1.5 per thousand, respectively. The delta(13)C of forest mammals show these differences, with the subcanopy browsers (okapi, dwarf antelope) having delta(13)C values for tooth enamel much more negative than subcanopy frugivores who derive their food from the canopy top, and from folivores and omnivores living in gap or clearing areas. Nitrogen isotopes in plants from this ecosystem have an average delta(15)N value of 5.4+/-1.8 per thousand and do not show significant differences at the 95% confidence interval between plants from the canopy top, from gaps in the canopy, and from the subcanopy. The delta(18)O(SMOW) values of surface waters in the study area are between -2.0 and -2.7. The delta(18)O(PDB) for tooth enamel ranged from -3 to +7 per thousand.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1375-4DOI Listing
January 2004