Publications by authors named "Teresa R Haugsgjerd"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of Dietary Choline Intake, Contributing Food Items and Associations with One-carbon and Lipid Metabolites in Middle-aged and Elderly Adults: The Hordaland Health Study.

J Nutr 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Centre for Nutrition, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Choline is an essential nutrient for humans and is involved in various physiological functions. Through its metabolite betaine, it is closely connected to the one-carbon metabolism and the fat-soluble choline form phosphatidylcholine is essential for very-low-density-lipoprotein synthesis and secretion in the liver connecting choline to the lipid metabolism. Dietary recommendations for choline are not available in the Nordic countries primarily due to data scarcity.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake of total choline and individual choline forms, dietary sources, and the association of total choline intake with circulating one-carbon metabolites and lipids.

Methods: We included 5746 participants in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), a survey including community-dwelling adults born in 1925-1927 (mean age 72 years, 55% women) and 1950-1951 (mean age 48 years, 57% women). Dietary data was obtained using a 169-item food frequency questionnaire and choline content was calculated using the USDA Database for Choline Content of Common Foods, release 2. Metabolites of the one-carbon and lipid metabolism were measured in a non-fasting blood sample obtained at baseline and association with total choline intake were assessed using polynomial splines.

Results: The geometric mean (95% prediction interval) energy-adjusted total choline intake was 260 (170, 389) mg/d with phosphatidylcholine being the main form (44%). The major food items providing dietary choline were eggs, low-fat milk, potatoes, and leafy vegetables. Dietary total choline was inversely associated with circulating concentrations of total homocysteine, glycine and serine and positively associated with choline, methionine, cystathionine, cysteine, trimethyllysine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylglycine. A weak association was observed between choline intake and serum lipids.

Conclusion: Phosphatidylcholine was the most consumed choline form in community-dwelling adults in Norway. Our findings suggest that choline intake is associated with the concentration of most metabolites involved in the one-carbon and lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab367DOI Listing
October 2021

Stage 1 hypertension, sex, and acute coronary syndromes during midlife: the Hordaland Health Study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, PO Box 7804, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

Aims: Hypertension has been suggested as a stronger risk factor for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in women than men. Whether this also applies to stage 1 hypertension [blood pressure (BP) 130-139/80-89 mmHg] is not known.

Methods And Results: We tested associations of stage 1 hypertension with ACS in 12 329 participants in the Hordaland Health Study (mean baseline age 41 years, 52% women). Participants were grouped by baseline BP category: Normotension (BP < 130/80 mmHg), stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mmHg). ACS was defined as hospitalization or death due to myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris during 16 years of follow-up. At baseline, a lower proportion of women than men had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, respectively (25 vs. 35% and 14 vs. 31%, P < 0.001). During follow-up, 1.4% of women and 5.7% of men experienced incident ACS (P < 0.001). Adjusted for diabetes, smoking, body mass index, cholesterol, and physical activity, stage 1 hypertension was associated with higher risk of ACS in women [hazard ratio (HR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-3.60], while the association was non-significant in men (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.71). After additional adjustment for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, stage 1 diastolic hypertension was associated with ACS in women (HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.62-4.82]), but not in men (HR 1.24 [95% CI 0.95-1.62]), while stage 1 systolic hypertension was not associated with ACS in either sex.

Conclusion: Among subjects in their early 40s, stage 1 hypertension was a stronger risk factor for ACS during midlife in women than in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab068DOI Listing
May 2021

The Association of Meat Intake With All-Cause Mortality and Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Age-Dependent in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

Front Nutr 2021 4;8:642612. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Science, Centre for Nutrition, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Red and processed meat intake have been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and a restricted intake is encouraged in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, evidence on the association between total meat intake and clinical outcomes in this patient group is lacking. To investigate the association between total meat intake and risk of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer in patients with stable angina pectoris. We also investigated whether age modified these associations. This prospective cohort study consisted of 1,929 patients (80% male, mean age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris from the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial. Dietary assessment was performed by the administration of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between a relative increase in total meat intake and the outcomes of interest. The association per 50 g/1,000 kcal higher intake of total meat with morbidity and mortality were generally inconclusive but indicated an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction [HR: 1.26 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.61)] and gastrointestinal cancer [1.23 (0.70, 2.16)]. However, we observed a clear effect modification by age, where total meat intake was associated with an increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction among younger individuals, but an attenuation, and even reversal of the risk association with increasing age. Our findings support the current dietary guidelines emphasizing a restricted meat intake in cardiovascular disease patients but highlights the need for further research on the association between meat intake and health outcomes in elderly populations. Future studies should investigate different types of meat separately in other CVD-cohorts, in different age-groups, as well as in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.642612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969515PMC
March 2021

Intake of carbohydrates and SFA and risk of CHD in middle-age adults: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

Public Health Nutr 2020 Sep 10:1-15. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Årstadveien 17, 5009Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Limiting SFA intake may minimise the risk of CHD. However, such reduction often leads to increased intake of carbohydrates. We aimed to evaluate associations and the interplay of carbohydrate and SFA intake on CHD risk.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: We followed participants in the Hordaland Health Study, Norway from 1997-1999 through 2009. Information on carbohydrate and SFA intake was obtained from a FFQ and analysed as continuous and categorical (quartiles) variables. Multivariable Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Theoretical substitution analyses modelled the substitution of carbohydrates with other nutrients. CHD was defined as fatal or non-fatal CHD (ICD9 codes 410-414 and ICD10 codes I20-I25).

Participants: 2995 men and women, aged 46-49 years.

Results: Adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and smoking, SFA was associated with lower risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·44, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·76, Ptrend = 0·002). For carbohydrates, the opposite pattern was observed (HRQ4 v. Q1 2·10, 95 % CI 1·22, 3·63, Ptrend = 0·003). SFA from cheese was associated with lower CHD risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·44, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·83, Ptrend = 0·006), while there were no associations between SFA from other food items and CHD. A 5 E% substitution of carbohydrates with total fat, but not SFA, was associated with lower CHD risk (HR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·62, 0·90).

Conclusions: Higher intake of predominantly high glycaemic carbohydrates and lower intake of SFA, specifically lower intake from cheese, were associated with higher CHD risk. Substituting carbohydrates with total fat, but not SFA, was associated with significantly lower risk of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020003043DOI Listing
September 2020

Association of dietary vitamin K and risk of coronary heart disease in middle-age adults: the Hordaland Health Study Cohort.

BMJ Open 2020 05 21;10(5):e035953. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: The role of vitamin K in the regulation of vascular calcification is established. However, the association of dietary vitamins K1 and K2 with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is inconclusive.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: We followed participants in the community-based Hordaland Health Study from 1997 - 1999 through 2009 to evaluate associations between intake of vitamin K and incident (new onset) CHD. Baseline diet was assessed by a past-year food frequency questionnaire. Energy-adjusted residuals of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 intakes were categorised into quartiles.

Participants: 2987 Norwegian men and women, age 46-49 years.

Methods: Information on incident CHD events was obtained from the nationwide Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR) Project. Multivariable Cox regression estimated HRs and 95% CIs with test for linear trends across quartiles. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, smoking and education. A third model further adjusted K1 intake for energy-adjusted fibre and folate, while K2 intake was adjusted for energy-adjusted saturated fatty acids and calcium.

Results: During a median follow-up time of 11 years, we documented 112 incident CHD cases. In the adjusted analyses, there was no association between intake of vitamin K1 and CHD (HR = 0.92 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.57), p for trend 0.64), while there was a lower risk of CHD associated with higher intake of energy-adjusted vitamin K2 (HR = 0.52 (0.29 to 0.94), p for trend 0.03). Further adjustment for potential dietary confounders did not materially change the association for K1, while the association for K2 was slightly attenuated (HR = 0.58 (0.28 to 1.19)).

Conclusions: A higher intake of vitamin K2 was associated with lower risk of CHD, while there was no association between intake of vitamin K1 and CHD.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03013725.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247390PMC
May 2020

Factors associated with increase in blood pressure and incident hypertension in early midlife: the Hordaland Health Study.

Blood Press 2020 10 13;29(5):267-275. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

We aimed to identify sex-specific factors associated with increase in blood pressure (BP) and incident hypertension in early midlife. 2,008 women and 1,610 men aged 40-43 years were followed for six years in the Hordaland Health Study. Participants taking antihypertensive medication at baseline were excluded. High-normal BP was defined as baseline BP 130-139/85-89 mmHg, and incident hypertension as BP≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication at follow-up. During follow-up, an increase in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP was observed in 54% and 30% of women vs. 44% and 41% of men, respectively (both <0.001). In both sexes higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and increases in BMI and serum lipids were associated with increases in SBP and DBP during follow-up (all <0.05). Incident hypertension was more common in men (14 vs.11%, <0.01), and predicted by higher BMI and high-normal BP at baseline in both sexes, and by higher serum triglyceride level in women (all <0.01). In the Hordaland Health Study, BP development differed between women and men in early midlife. The main factors associated with BP increase in both sexes were higher BMI, weight gain and increases in serum lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08037051.2020.1762070DOI Listing
October 2020
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