Publications by authors named "Tengfei Lin"

30 Publications

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High-contrast photochromic Eu-doped KNaNbO ceramics with prominent pellucidity.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 24;50(14):4914-4922. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

The Eu-doped KNaNbO pellucid ceramics were first prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction, and they exhibited light illumination-induced high-contrast photochromism of both optical transmittance and photoluminescence behaviors. Through thermal treatment, the optical performances could return to their initial states and displayed excellent reversibility. Eu ions were selected as the luminescent activator for detecting the local environment of the KNaNbO host. Meanwhile, the effects of the amount of Eu present on phase structures, microstructures, optical transmittance and photoluminescence intensities were systematically investigated. The results suggest that Eu-doped KNaNbO transparent ceramics possess multifunctionality including photochromism, photoluminescence and optical switching properties, and that they exhibit promising potential for non-destructive optical data storage application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00467kDOI Listing
April 2021

Prospective association between baseline plasma zinc concentration and development of proteinuria in Chinese hypertensive patients.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 2;66:126755. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria as well as possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a subset of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) Renal Sub-Study. In the CSPPT, participants were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril only. A total of 783 participants with plasma zinc measurements and without proteinuria at baseline were included in the current study. The study outcome was the development of proteinuria during the follow-up, defined as a urine dipstick reading of trace or ≥1+ at the exit visit.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, the development of proteinuria occurred in 93 (11.9 %) participants. There was an inverse relation of baseline plasma zinc with the development of proteinuria (per SD increment; OR, 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.99), p for trend of quartiles = 0.005.

Conclusions: In Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a significant inverse association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria, although plasma zinc remained in the reference range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126755DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparing the measurement properties of the EQ-5D-5L and the EQ-5D-3L in hypertensive patients living in rural China.

Qual Life Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the measurement properties of two versions of EQ-5D (i.e.EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L) in hypertensive patients in rural China.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in hypertensive patients in rural China. We compared the ceiling effects, redistribution properties, informativity, known-groups validity, and relative efficiency of the 3L and 5L and examined their agreement.

Results: A total of 11,412 patients were enrolled in our study. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.84 (SD 0.21) according to the 5L and 0.86 (SD 0.17) according to the 3L. A good agreement was observed between the 3L and 5L. The overall ceiling effect decreased from 46.4% (3L) to 29.4% (5L). The Shannon index, H' improved in all dimensions when used 5L. When used 3L, the median responses of all groups were consistent with 5L across the three dimensions of 'mobility', 'self-care', 'usual activities', while the median responses were inconsistent for the 'pain/discomfort' and 'anxiety/depression' dimensions. The 3L performed better in eight comorbidities in terms of F-statistics and six comorbidities in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). The 5L performed better both in terms of the F-statistics and AUROCs in age, education level, anti-hypertensive medication use.

Conclusion: Taking all comparisons into account, we recommend the EQ-5D-5L for use in patients with hypertension in rural China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02786-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between plasma copper levels and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Feb 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: Uncertainty remains regarding the association between the risk of stroke and plasma copper levels in population with copper mostly in normal range due to limited data. We examined the association between baseline plasma copper and risk of first stroke in Chinese community-dwelling population.

Methods: We conducted a nested case control study from 'H-type Hypertension and Stroke Prevention and Control Project'. A total of 1255 first stroke cases and 1255 controls matched for age, sex and study site were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between plasma copper and first stroke.

Results: The overall mean of copper was 15.90 (2.66) μmol/L. In total, 94.26% participants' copper concentration was in the normal range by Mayo Clinic laboratory reference values. Smoothing curve showed that the associations of plasma copper with first stroke and its subtypes were linear. Each standard deviation (SD) increment of plasma copper was independently and positively associated with risk of first stroke [odds ratio (OR): 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.28]. The multivariable ORs with 95% CIs for total stroke, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the highest versus the lowest quartile of plasma copper were 1.49 (1.16-1.90; -trend = 0.001), 1.46 (1.12-1.92; -trend = 0.004) and 2.05 (0.95-4.38; -trend = 0.050), respectively.

Conclusions: Baseline plasma copper was positively associated with risk of first ischemic stroke in an approximately linear fashion among Chinese community population (80.32% hypertensives), although their copper levels were mostly within the normal range according to current reference values. Our findings warrant additional investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2021.1875299DOI Listing
February 2021

Multiple-stimuli-responsiveness and conformational inversion of smart supramolecular nanoparticles assembled from spin labeled amphiphilic random copolymers.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 19;585:237-249. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, PR China.

Hypothesis: Organic radical polymers with tailored pendant functionalities have emerged as exciting and promising materials for their application versatility. Moreover, eco-friendly polymer-based organic nanomaterials with redox-active pendant side groups can replace the harmful heavy metal-based inorganic materials. On the other hand, self-assembled nanomaterials are of great interest and attracted more attention recently for their promising application in different advanced fields, but it is yet challenging to predict suitable hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) for stimuli-responsive random copolymers assembly due to structural irregularity. Among several experimental techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy plays a unique and promising role in revealing structural and dynamic information of nanostructured radical containing materials.

Experiments: In this study, a series of spin labeled amphiphilic random copolymers poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopies, TGA, DSC and water contact angle (CA) techniques. Their electrochemical properties have been determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in different organic solvents. EPR spectroscopy has been applied with other analytical techniques to elucidate the smart supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) formation, stimuli-responsiveness and structural changes through the dynamics of different molecular interactions.

Findings: The structural and dynamic information of self-assembled nanoparticles have been observed to be dependent on multiple-stimuli-responsiveness in different microenvironments by applying physiological and chemical parameters such as the different concentration of radicals, pH, temperature, nature of the solvent and reducing agent. The obtained results reveal the knowledge to understand insight into the mechanism for the formation of stimuli-responsive colloidal nanoparticles assembled from amphiphilic random copolymers with apt HLB value. The CV results reveal that the charge transfer process of the nanoparticles in solution was diffusion regulated and depended on the accessibility of radicals. The radical (spin labeled) polymers offer a broad way to develop stimuli-responsive materials in various colloidal nanostructures by changing the microenvironment, appreciating their potential advanced applications in electronic devices, catalysis, stimuli-triggered drug/gene delivery and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.11.042DOI Listing
March 2021

Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Risk of Incident Cancer in Adults with Hypertension: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2020 3;76(5):304-312. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Objective: The association between plasma magnesium and risk of incident cancer remains inconclusive in previous studies. We aimed to investigate the prospective relationship of baseline plasma magnesium concentrations with the risk of incident cancer and to examine possible effect modifiers.

Methods: A nested case-control study with 228 incident cancer cases and 228 matched controls was conducted using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, conducted from May 2008 to August 2013. Study outcomes included incident cancer and its subtypes.

Results: When plasma magnesium concentrations were assessed as quartiles, a significantly higher incident risk of total cancer was found in participants in quartile 1 (<0.76 mmol/L; odds ratio [OR] = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.33-5.49) and quartile 4 (≥0.89 mmol/L; OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.12-3.76), compared with those in quartile 3 (0.83 to <0.89 mmol/L). In cancer site-specific analyses, similar trends were found for gastrointestinal cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and other cancers. Furthermore, none of the variables, including age, sex, current smoking status, current alcohol intake, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels at baseline significantly modified the association between plasma magnesium and cancer risk.

Conclusions: Both low and high plasma magnesium concentrations were significantly associated with an increased incident risk of cancer, compared with the reference concentrations of 0.83 to <0.89 mmol/L among hypertensive adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510214DOI Listing
December 2020

Vitamin B and risk of diabetes: new insight from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 10;8(1)

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Introduction: Previous studies in mostly Western populations have yielded conflicting findings on the association of vitamin B with diabetes risk, in part due to differences in study design and population characteristics. This study sought to examine the vitamin B-diabetes association in Chinese adults with hypertension by both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

Research Design And Methods: This report included a total of 16 699 participants from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, with pertinent baseline and follow-up data. Diabetes mellitus was defined as either physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of glucose-lowering drugs, or fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥7.0 mmol/L. New-onset diabetes was defined as any new case of onset diabetes during the follow-up period or FBG ≥7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit.

Results: At baseline, there were 1872 (11.2%) patients with diabetes; less than 1.5% had clinical vitamin B deficiency (<148.0 pmol/L). Over a median follow-up period of 4.5 years, there were 1589 (10.7%) cases of new-onset diabetes. Cross-sectional analyses showed a positive association between baseline vitamin B levels and FBG levels (β=0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) and diabetes (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.21). However, longitudinal analyses showed no association between baseline vitamin B and new-onset diabetes or changes in FBG levels. Among a subset of the sample (n=4366) with both baseline and exit vitamin B measurements, we found a positive association between an increase in vitamin B and an increase in FBG.

Conclusions: In this large Chinese population of patients with hypertension mostly sufficient with vitamin B, parallel cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses provided new insight into the conflicting findings of previous studies, and these results underscore the need for future studies to consider both baseline vitamin B and its longitudinal trajectory in order to better elucidate the role of vitamin B in the development of diabetes. Such findings would have important clinical and public health implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539576PMC
October 2020

Serum folate modified the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese hypertensive adults.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 11 24;30(12):2303-2311. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: While folate is known for its importance in cardiovascular health, it is unknown whether folate status can modify the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). We aimed to investigate this question in a Chinese hypertensive population, who are at high-risk of low folate and atherosclerosis.

Methods And Results: This report included 14,970 hypertensive adults (mean age 64.5 years; 40.3% male) from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) and analyzed the fasting serum LDL-C and folate, and CIMT data obtained at the last follow-up visit. LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald equation. Serum folate levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Non-parametric smoothing plots, multivariate linear regression analysis, subgroup analyses and interaction testing were performed to examine the LDL-C-CIMI relationship and effect modification by folate. Consistent with graphic plots, multivariate linear regression showed that LDL-C levels were independently and positively associated with CIMT (β = 7.69, 95%CI: 5.76-9.62). More importantly, the relationship between LDL-C and CIMT was significantly attenuated with increasing serum folate levels (1st tertile: β = 10.06, 95%CI: 6.67-13.46; 2nd tertile: β = 6.81, 95%CI: 3.55-10.07; 3rd tertile: β = 5.96, 95%CI: 2.55-9.36; P-interaction = 0.045). Subgroup analyses showed the association between LDL-C and CIMT across serum folate tertiles was robust among various strata (all P-interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: Among Chinese hypertensive adults, the serum folate levels could modify the association between LDL-C and CIMT. Our findings, if further confirmed, have important clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.021DOI Listing
November 2020

Positive relationship of hypertensive retinopathy with carotid intima--media thickness in hypertensive patients.

J Hypertens 2020 10;38(10):2028-2035

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the relationship of hypertensive retinopathy with carotid intima--media thickness (CIMT), and to examine the possible effect modifiers in Chinese adults with hypertension.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 12 342 hypertensive patients with complete exit site visit data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. CIMT was measured by carotid ultrasonography. Hypertensive retinopathy was diagnosed according to the Keith--Wagener--Barker classification.

Results: The mean (SD) CIMT among study participants was 739.9 (111.4) μm. Compared with patients with grade 1 hypertensive retinopathy or without hypertensive retinopathy, a significantly higher CIMT level (β, 7.63, 95% CI: 2.54--12.73) was observed in patients with grade 2-4 hypertensive retinopathy. Moreover, the association between hypertensive retinopathy (grade 2-4 versus grade 1 or normal) and CIMT was stronger in participants of younger age (<60 years; β, 13.70, 95% CI: 5.65--21.75; versus ≥60 years; β, 1.03, 95% CI: -5.58 to 7.63; P interaction = 0.006); or with lower total homocysteine levels [<12.1 μmol/l (median); β, 12.70, 95% CI: 5.98--19.42; versus ≥12.1 μmol/l; β, 2.07, 95% CI: -5.63 to 9.78; P interaction = 0.030). None of the other variables, including sex, BMI, study centers, treatment group, SBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, folate, serum creatinine, current smoking and alcohol drinking, significantly modified the relation of hypertensive retinopathy with CIMT levels.

Conclusion: Hypertensive retinopathy (grade 2 and higher) was significantly associated with increased CIMT in hypertensive patients. The association was stronger in those of younger age or with lower total homocysteine levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002509DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between plasma retinol levels and the risk of all-cause mortality in general hypertensive patients: A nested case-control study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 05 30;22(5):906-913. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

To evaluate the association between plasma retinol levels with all-cause mortality and investigate the possible effect modifiers in general hypertensive patients with no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). This case-control study was nested in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial conducted in 32 communities in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces in China. The current study included 617 cases of all-cause mortality and 617 controls matched on age (≤1 year), sex, treatment group, and study site. All-cause mortality was the main outcome in this analysis, which included death due to any reason. The median follow-up duration was 4.5 years. Overall, there was a U-shaped relation of plasma retinol with all-cause mortality. In the threshold effect analysis, the risk of all-cause mortality significantly decreased with the increase in plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dL increments: OR, 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61-0.87) in participants with plasma retinol <58.3 μg/dL and increased with the increase in plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dL increments: OR, 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.16) in those with plasma retinol ≥58.3 μg/L. In participants with plasma retinol <58.3 μg/dL, a stronger inverse association was observed in those with higher time-averaged SBP (≥140 vs <140 mm Hg; P-interaction = .034), or higher vitamin E levels (≥11.5 [quartile 4]; vs <11.5 μg/mL; P-interaction = .013). The present study demonstrated that there was a U-shaped relationship of plasma retinol levels with the risk of all-cause mortality in general hypertensive patients, with a turning point around 58.3 μg/dL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13866DOI Listing
May 2020

Plasma magnesium and the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive patients.

Br J Nutr 2020 Mar 26:1-8. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing100083, People's Republic of China.

We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricaemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/l in men or ≥357 μmol/l in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4·3 years, new-onset hyperuricaemia occurred in 290 (17·2 %) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (per sd increment; OR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·99) and change in UA levels (per sd increment; β -3·96 μmol/l; 95 % CI -7·14, -0·79). Consistently, when plasma Mg was analysed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) and less increase in UA levels (β -8·35 μmol/l; 95 % CI -16·12, -0·58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885·5 μmol/l) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818·9 μmol/l). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma Mg levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520001099DOI Listing
March 2020

Estimated Stroke-Free Survival of Folic Acid Therapy for Hypertensive Adults: Projection Based on the CSPPT.

Hypertension 2020 02 23;75(2):339-346. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

From the College of Pharmacy (T.Z., T.L., J.J.), Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

The CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial) demonstrated a significant risk reduction of first stroke in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril plus folic acid compared with those with enalapril alone, but the lifetime stroke-free survival associated with the treatment is unknown. By establishing adjusted models for competing risks and an age-based time scale using data from 19 053 participants of the CSPPT, we estimated lifetime incremental stroke-free survival for enalapril-folic acid versus enalapril alone. Compared with enalapril alone, the enalapril plus folic acid treatment projected a mean lifetime stroke-free survival gain of 1.75 months, with an interquartile range from 0.73 to 2.39 months and the maximum gain up to 12.95 months. Subgroup analyses showed greater gain in stroke-free survival in younger, male patients, those with lower baseline folate levels, higher baseline systolic blood pressure, higher baseline total cholesterol and blood glucose, and with MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) C677T CT or TT genotype. Overall, besides significant benefit in certain subgroups, enalapril plus folic acid treatment for hypertensive patients is associated with a modest gain in lifetime stroke-free survival, compared with enalapril alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020900PMC
February 2020

Boosting Upconversion Photoluminescence and Multielectrical Properties via Er-Doping-Modulated Vacancy Control in BaCaTiZrO.

ACS Omega 2019 Jun 24;4(6):11004-11013. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

School of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Integrated Computational Materials Science, International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

The lead-free 0.5(BaCa)TiO-0.5Ba(TiZr)O (BCTZ) ceramics with Er doping have shown good upconversion photoluminescence (PL) and desirable optical temperature sensing properties. To bridge a relationship between the structure/intrinsic defects and properties of rare-earth-doped ferroelectrics, we designed and fabricated a series of BCTZ ceramics doped with 1 mol % Er by combining the first-principles calculations and experimental measurements. Theoretically, we discovered that Er can occupy both A sites (i.e., replacing Ba or Ca) and B sites (i.e., replacing Ti or Zr) in the BCTZ lattice and highlighted that the Er-doping-induced vacancy concentration decreases for both the oxygen vacancies () and cation vacancies (). Experimentally, the enhanced PL performance and the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the Er-doped BCTZ ceramics have been observed. Finally, the physical origin of Er-induced property enhancement in BCTZ has been elaborated according to the charge density and chemical bonding analysis. These results open up a path to investigate the effects of site substitution and vacancies on optoelectronic properties of multifunctional rare-earth-doped ferroelectrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b01391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6648785PMC
June 2019

Plasma selenium levels and risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive adults.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Dec 10;56:6-12. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The association between plasma selenium and new-onset diabetes in hypertensive adults is still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of baseline plasma selenium with new-onset diabetes and examine possible effect modifiers in a post-hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

Methods: A total of 2367 hypertensive, non-diabetic patients with plasma selenium measurements at baseline were included. The primary outcome was new-onset diabetes, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering drugs during the follow-up period, or fasting glucose (FG) ≥126.0 mg/dL at the exit visit.

Results: At baseline, higher FG levels were found among participants with plasma selenium in quartile 4 (≥94.8 μg/L) (β, 1.64 mg/dL; 95%CI: 0.54, 2.73) compared to those in quartiles 1-3. During a median follow-up duration of 4.5 years, new-onset diabetes occurred in 270 (11.4%) participants. Graphic plot showed a positive association between baseline selenium levels and risk of new-onset diabetes. This was further confirmed by adjusted regression analyses; the odds ratios (OR) for new-onset diabetes comparing quartile 4 (≥94.8 μg/L) to quartiles 1-3 was 1.36 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.83). No clear trend was evident across quartiles 1-3.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that high plasma selenium (≥94.8 μg/L) was associated with increased risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.07.003DOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of Photoperiod on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 01 2;65(1):178-188. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a clinically popular analgesic and antipyretic drug, but excessive APAP can cause fatal hepatotoxicity. Many factors affect the degree of APAP-induced liver injury. This study aimed to investigate how circadian rhythm affects the development of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and to clarify the roles of photoperiod and dietary rhythm on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Methods: APAP-induced hepatotoxicity models were established by intraperitoneal injection of APAP (400 mg/kg) to mice. The mice were then divided into three treatment groups: normal diet, reversed diet, and reversed photoperiod.

Results: More severe liver injury was observed at zeitgeber time 12 (ZT12) than at zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) in all treatment groups, suggesting that photoperiod played a critical role in APAP-induced liver injury. We observed a change in the expression of the circadian gene Per2, which may be responsible for regulation of liver injury by photoperiod. Our results showed negligible change in Per2 expression with diet reversion, whereas Cry1, Cry2, and Dbp expressions were more highly affected by diet reversion than was Per2 expression. Downstream effects including liver enzyme expression, GSH level, and inflammation factors were also examined to identify the mechanism of liver injury. The results indicated that the circadian gene Per2 participated in APAP biometabolism by regulating the expression of Cyp2e1, which may explain the more severe hepatotoxicity at ZT12 than at ZT0.

Conclusion: APAP-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by photoperiod through the circadian gene Per2, suggesting that medicines containing APAP should be administered not only with food but also according to the appropriate photoperiod.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05749-6DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of plasma retinol levels with incident cancer risk in Chinese hypertensive adults: a nested case-control study.

Br J Nutr 2019 08 29;122(3):293-300. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, The State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, People's Republic of China.

We aimed to investigate the association between plasma retinol and incident cancer among Chinese hypertensive adults. We conducted a nested case-control study, including 231 patients with incident cancer and 231 matched controls during a median 4·5-year follow-up of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. There was a significant, inverse association between retinol levels and digestive system cancer (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91). When compared with participants in the first quartile of retinol (< 52·3 μg/dl), a significantly lower cancer risk was found in participants in quartile 2-4 ( ≥ 52·3 μg/dl: OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·71). However, there was a U-shaped association between retinol levels and non-digestive system cancers where the risk of cancers decreased (although not significantly) with each increment of plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·31) in participants with retinol < 68·2 μg/dl, and then increased significantly with retinol (per 10 μg/dl increase: OR 1·65; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·44) in participants with retinol ≥ 68·2 μg/dl. In conclusion, there was a significant inverse dose-response association between plasma retinol and the risk of digestive system cancers. However, a U-shaped association was observed between plasma retinol and the risk of non-digestive cancers (with a turning point approximately 68·2 μg/dl).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451900120XDOI Listing
August 2019

Plasma copper and the risk of first stroke in hypertensive patients: a nested case-control study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 07;110(1):212-220

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Previous studies indicated that trace elements may play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. However, data concerning the association between blood copper and the risk of stroke are limited.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma copper and the risk of first stroke, and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study, using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg, or taking antihypertensive medication. A total of 618 first stroke cases and 618 controls matched for age, sex, treatment group, and study site were included in this study. The crude and adjusted risks of first stroke were estimated by ORs and 95% CIs using conditional logistic regression, without or with adjusting for pertinent covariates, respectively.

Results: There were significant positive associations of plasma copper with risk of first stroke (per SD increment-OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.50). When plasma copper was categorized in quartiles, significantly higher risks of first stroke (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.65) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.11) were found in participants in quartile 4 (≥ 117.0 μg/dL) than in those in quartile 1 (< 91.2 μg/dL). Furthermore, the plasma copper-first stroke association was significantly stronger in participants with higher BMI (< 25.0 compared with ≥ 25.0 kg/m2, P-interaction = 0.024). However, there was no significant association between plasma copper and first hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: In Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a significant positive association between baseline plasma copper and the risk of first stroke, especially among those with higher BMI.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz099DOI Listing
July 2019

Treatment Outcomes in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Who Are Ineligible for Stem-Cell Transplantation: Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 08 29;19(8):e478-e488. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; International Cooperative Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization and Innovative Drug Development of Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE), Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; Institute of Dongguan-Jinan University, Dongguan, China. Electronic address:

Many new regimens have been applied to newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma, but no head-to-head research has been performed to compare the efficacy of these treatments. Currently lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rd) is one of the standard treatments. Our aim was to make a comparison of these treatments to Rd by a network meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for articles published from January 1, 1988, to April 26, 2018, as well as research presented at 5 international conferences (American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society of Hematology, European Hematology Association, European Society of Medical Oncology, and International Myeloma Working Group) between January 2015 and December 2018. Our interest outcomes were hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Bayesian fixed-effects mixed-treatment comparisons were used for this study. A total of 23 articles describing 10,401 participants were included for this network meta-analysis. Lenalidomide and dexamethasone plus daratumumab (HR, 0.57; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.43-0.73), daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (HR, 0.59; 95% CrI, 0.36-0.91), and the combination of bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (RVd) (HR, 0.72, 95% CrI, 0.56-0.90) all showed significant effect compared to Rd for PFS. RVd demonstrated significant benefit compared to Rd (HR, 0.72; 95% CrI, 0.53-0.96) for OS. Our study results suggested that lenalidomide and dexamethasone plus daratumumab; daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone; and RVd showed better efficacy than Rd in PFS; and RVd showed better efficacy than Rd in OS in patients with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma in the absence of head-to-head research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.04.009DOI Listing
August 2019

Health-related quality of life among rural men and women with hypertension: assessment by the EQ-5D-5L in Jiangsu, China.

Qual Life Res 2019 Aug 4;28(8):2069-2080. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Hypertension is a major global public health problem, including rural China. However, studies examining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients with hypertension have been mostly conducted in urban populations. This study aimed to use the EuroQol five-dimensional-five-level (EQ-5D-5L) and its recently developed Chinese value set to analyze HRQoL and its influencing factors among hypertensive population in rural China.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based survey. Standard interview of participants was conducted from July to September 2016 in Donghai County's 334 villages of Jiangsu Province, China. Data collection included the EQ-5D-5L, along with sociodemographic characteristics and disease-related factors such as duration of hypertension, antihypertensive treatment and comorbid conditions. The Tobit regression model was employed to analyze potential influencing factors on HRQoL.

Results: A total of 16,596 adults (18 years and older) with hypertension participated in this study. 62.4% were women. The mean utility score was 0.85 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.23). The proportion of participants reporting pain/discomfort problems was highest, while least patients reported problems in self-care dimension. Females, elderly, illiterate patients, ex-smokers and patients with longer duration of hypertension or comorbidities scored lower on HRQoL than others. Stroke, heart failure and coronary heart disease were associated with a larger negative impact on HRQoL among all comorbidities.

Conclusions: The HRQoL was lower in this rural hypertensive population than previously reported urban counterparts. To improve the HRQoL of hypertensive patients in rural areas, it is important to control hypertension and prevent its associated co-morbidities. More attention needs to be directed to elderly female patients with less education who scored much lower HRQoL than their male counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-019-02139-3DOI Listing
August 2019

A Nested Case-Control Study on Plasma Vitamin E and Risk of Cancer: Evidence of Effect Modification by Selenium.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2019 05 31;119(5):769-781. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Background: Evidence from epidemiologic studies has been inconsistent regarding the role of vitamin E in cancer incidence risk.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association between baseline plasma vitamin E levels and subsequent cancer risk in Chinese adults with hypertension, and to identify effect modifiers.

Design: A nested, case-control study was conducted from 20,702 hypertensive participants in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, conducted from May 2008 to August 2013.

Participants: The current study included 229 new cancer cases and 229 controls matched for age (±1 year), sex, treatment group, and study site.

Main Outcome Measures: Plasma vitamin E was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers and plasma selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using Thermo Fisher iCAP Q ICP-MS.

Statistical Analyses: Odds ratios (OR) of cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of vitamin E were calculated using conditional logistic regression models.

Results: Median follow-up duration was 4.5 years. Overall, vitamin E was not associated with subsequent risk of total cancer (per 1-mg/L [2.3 μmol/L] increase: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.09) and non-gastrointestinal cancer (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.24). However, there was a significant, inverse association between vitamin E and gastrointestinal cancer (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99), particularly esophageal cancer (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.95). Moreover, high vitamin E decreased the risk of total cancer (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99) and gastrointestinal cancer (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.95) among patients with high selenium levels (median≥83.7 μg/L [1.1 μmol/L]), and increased the risk of total cancer (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.26) and non-gastrointestinal cancer (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.50) among those with low selenium levels (<83.7 μg/L [1.1 μmol/L]).

Conclusions: This study suggests that higher levels of plasma vitamin E are associated with reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancer. High vitamin E decreased the risk of total cancer among patients with high selenium levels, but increased the risk of total cancer among those with low selenium levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.11.017DOI Listing
May 2019

The temporal trend and distribution characteristics in mortality of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China: Based on the National Mortality Surveillance System (NMS) from 2009 to 2015.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(1):e0210621. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

West China School of Public Health/No. 4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: China is experiencing rapid age, which will lead to increasing burden of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to 1) Explore the temporal trend of mortality of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other forms of dementia in China and 2) Analyze its geographic variations and urban-rural differences and calculate the years of life lost (YLLs) from AD and other forms of dementia.

Data And Methods: Data were extracted from the National Mortality Surveillance System (NMS). Age-standardized mortalities were calculated with the Western Grade 26 Standard Life List, and the YLLs were calculated using the DALY template provided by the WHO / World Bank global burden of disease (GBD) Working Group. The trends in crude and age-standardized mortality of AD and other forms of dementia were examined using Cochran-Armitage trend test.

Results: In China, the crude mortality from AD and other forms of dementia increased from 2009 to 2015, but the age-standardized mortality decreased. The YLLs of AD and other forms of dementia increased during the study period. The age-standardized mortality in the east was higher than those in the west and middle regions, and the age-standardized mortality in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas.

Conclusion: In China, the age-standardized mortality of AD and other forms of dementia decreased from 2009 to 2015. However, the disease burden from AD and other forms of dementia is becoming heavier due to increasing elderly population. Moreover, there were geographic variations and urban-rural differences in mortality of AD and other forms of dementia in China.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210621PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354986PMC
October 2019

Plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke in hypertensive adults: a nested case-control study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 02;109(2):449-456

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Identification of novel risk factors is needed to further lower stroke risk. Data concerning the association between plasma retinol concentrations and the risk of stroke are limited.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of plasma retinol on the risk of first stroke and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.

Methods: The study sample population was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, including 620 cases with first stroke and 620 matched controls. In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. The median treatment duration was 4.5 y.

Results: There was a significant inverse association between plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke (per 10-μg/dL increment; OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.97) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98). When retinol was assessed as quartiles, significantly lower risks of first stroke (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.88) and first ischemic stroke (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96) were found in participants in quartiles 2-4 compared with those in quartile 1. Furthermore, a stronger inverse association between plasma retinol and first stroke was observed in participants with baseline total homocysteine (<10 compared with ≥10 μmol/L; P-interaction = 0.049). However, plasma retinol had no significant effect on first hemorrhagic stroke (per 10-μg/dL increment; OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.18).

Conclusions: Our data showed a significant inverse association between plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke among Chinese hypertensive adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy320DOI Listing
February 2019

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk of incident cancer in adults with hypertension: A nested case-control study.

Clin Nutr 2019 10 5;38(5):2381-2388. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; National Clinical Research Study Center for Kidney Disease, The State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Evidence from epidemiologic studies on the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with the incident risk of cancer has been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the prospective relationship of baseline plasma 25(OH)D concentrations with the risk of cancer, and to examine possible effect modifiers.

Methods: We employed a nested case-control study design, including 231 patients with incident cancer during a median 4.5 years of follow up, and 231 matched controls from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

Results: The prevalence of plasma 25(OH)D <15, <20 and <30 ng/mL was 23.6%, 47.4% and 85.5%, respectively. Overall, there was an inverse relation between risk of cancer and plasma 25(OH)D. The Odds ratios (95% CI) for participants in the second (15.1 to <20.6 ng/mL), third (20.6 to <26.4 ng/mL) and fourth quartiles (≥26.4 ng/mL) were 0.45 (95% CI: 0.25-0.80), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.27-1.06) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.27-1.10), respectively, compared with those in quartile 1. Conversely, low 25(OH)D (<15.1 ng/mL) concentrations were associated with increased risk of cancer (OR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.20-3.59) compared to higher concentrations. These associations were consistent across subtypes of cancer. Several potential effect modifiers were identified, including plasma vitamin E concentrations and alcohol intake.

Conclusions: Low plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (<15.1 ng/mL) were associated with increased total cancer risk among Chinese hypertensive adults, compared to higher 25(OH)D concentrations. This finding and the possible effect modifiers warrant additional investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.10.019DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G Genetic Mutations on Homocysteine Levels in the Chinese Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Transl Int Med 2017 Dec 29;5(4):220-229. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Background And Objectives: The Chinese population typically has inadequate folate intake and no mandatory folic acid fortification. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are the two key regulatory enzymes in the folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Hcy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess whether the MTHFR gene A1298C and the MTRR gene A66G polymorphisms affect Hcy levels in the Chinese population.

Methods: This analysis included 13 studies with Hcy levels reported as one of the study measurements. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using random-effect models.

Results: Overall, there were no significant differences in Hcy concentrations between participants with the MTHFR 1298 CC (12 trials, = 129), AA ( = 2166; β, -0.51 μmol/L; 95%CI: -2.14, 1.11; = 0.53), or AC genotype ( = 958; β, 0.55 μmol/L; 95%CI: -0.72, 1.82; = 0.40). Consistently, compared to those with the MTRR 66 GG genotype (6 trials, = 156), similar Hcy concentrations were found in participants with the AA ( = 832; β, -0.43 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.04, 0.17; = 0.16) or AG ( =743; β, -0.57 μmol/L; 95%CI: -1.46, 0.31; = 0.21) genotype. Similar results were observed for the dominant and recessive models.

Conclusions: Neither the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism nor the MTRR A66G polymorphism affects Hcy levels in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jtim-2017-0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767712PMC
December 2017

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of novel monoclonal antibodies for treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Oncotarget 2017 May;8(20):34001-34017

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, People's Republic of China.

Although two newly launched monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), elotuzumab and daratumumab, performed well in patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), their efficacy and safety remain uncertain. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the most recent clinical trials that evaluated elotuzumab and/or daratumumab for the treatment of patients with RRMM. Our meta-analysis included 13 clinical trials with 2,402 patients participating. The overall response rate (ORR) was 57% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38-76%), and the at least very good partial response rate (VGPR) was 32% (95% CI: 19-46%). mAb-based regimens prolonged progression-free survival (PFS, hazard ratio: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75) compared to non-mAb-based regimens. Additionally, the efficacy of triplet regimens was superior to that of single or doublet regimens. The same trend was observed in a subgroup analysis of daratumumab and elotuzumab. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, pneumonia, and fatigue. Elotuzumab and daratumumab improved the ORR, at least VGPR, and PFS compared to non-mAb-based regimens. In a pooled analysis, both mAbs had promising efficacy and safety profiles, particularly in triplet regimens. The same trend was observed in daratumumab- and elotuzumab-based regimens. Daratumumab triplet therapy (daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone) was superior to other triplet regimens for the treatment of RRMM, and daratumumab monotherapy was more effective than either single agent in heavily pretreated MM patients, suggesting CD38 is an effective target for treatment of RRMM. Additional clinical studies of elotuzumab and daratumumab will be required to validate these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5464929PMC
May 2017

New evidence disclosed for networking in natural rubber by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

Soft Matter 2015 Mar;11(11):2290-9

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Resolving the structure of natural rubber (NR) has been an important issue for a long time and essential progress has been made. It is well established that non-rubber components have significant effects on the performance of NR. A detailed discussion on the effects of proteins and phospholipids on the chain dynamics of NR will be crucial for the in-depth understanding of the role of proteins and phospholipids in NR. However, to date, there is still a lack of elaborate studies on the dielectric spectroscopy of NR. In the present study, we performed detailed dielectric relaxation analysis, together with rheological measurements, to reveal the effects of proteins and phospholipids on the chain dynamics of NR. Distinctly different from the widely accepted segmental mode (SM) and normal mode (NM), a new relaxation mode in deproteinized NR (DPNR) was identified for the first time, which cannot be found either in NR or in transesterified DPNR (TE-DPNR). Because this new mode relaxation process behaves as a thermally activated process and it is about four orders of magnitude slower than NM, it could be rationally attributed to the relaxation of the phospholipids core of DPNR, named branch mode (BM) relaxation. When further conversion of DPNR to TE-DPNR was conducted, the phospholipids were removed and BM disappeared. In addition, a new relaxation mode, which occurs at considerably lower temperature than that for SM, was revealed in TE-DPNR, and may be related to the relaxation of free mono- or di-phosphate groups at the α ends in TE-DPNR. Hence, the identification of the new relaxation modes in DPNR and TE-DPNR provide new evidence for the natural networking structure linked by protein-based ω ends and phospholipids-based α ends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4sm02521kDOI Listing
March 2015

New design strategy for reversible plasticity shape memory polymers with deformable glassy aggregates.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014 Dec 24;6(23):21060-8. Epub 2014 Nov 24.

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou, 510640, P. R. China.

Reversible plasticity shape memory (RPSM) is a new concept in the study of shape memory performance behavior and describes a phenomenon in which shape memory polymers (SMPs) can undergo a large plastic deformation at room temperature and subsequently recover their original shape upon heating. To date, RPSM behavior has been demonstrated in only a few polymers. In the present study, we implement a new design strategy, in which deformable glassy hindered phenol (AO-80) aggregates are incorporated into an amorphous network of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) cured with zinc diacrylate (ZDA), in order to achieve RPSM properties. We propose that AO-80 continuously tunes the glass transition temperature (Tg) and improves the chain mobility of the SMP, providing traction and anchoring the ENR chains by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. The RPSM behavior of the amorphous SMPs is characterized, and the results demonstrate good fixity at large deformations (up to 300%) and excellent recovery upon heating. Large energy storage capacities at Td in these RPSM materials are demonstrated compared with those achieved at elevated temperature in traditional SMPs. Interestingly, the further revealed self-healing properties of these materials are closely related to their RPSM behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am505937pDOI Listing
December 2014

New design of shape memory polymers based on natural rubber crosslinked via oxa-Michael reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014 Apr 8;6(8):5695-703. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China.

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on natural rubber were fabricated by crosslinking epoxidized natural rubber with zinc diacrylate (ZDA) using the oxa-Michael reaction. These SMPs possessed excellent shape fixity and recovery. The glass transition largely accounted for the fixing of the SMPs temporary shape. Increasing the ZDA content allowed the trigger temperature (20-46 °C) and recovery time (14-33 s) of the SMPs to be continuously tuned. Nanosized silica (nanosilica) was incorporated into the neat polymers to further increase the flexibility and tune the recovery stress. The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited exceptionally high strength in a rubbery state (>20 MPa). The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited high transparency, making them suitable in visible heat-shrinkable tubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am500236wDOI Listing
April 2014

Elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of carbon nanotubes: a novel way of fabricating high performance elastomer.

Nanotechnology 2013 Nov 28;24(46):465708. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, People's Republic of China.

State-of-the-art processes cannot achieve rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with satisfactory performance by using pristine MWCNTs and conventional processing equipment. In this work, high performance rubber/MWCNT composites featuring a combination of good mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivities and damping capacity over a wide temperature range are fabricated based on a well-developed master batch process. It is demonstrated that the MWCNTs are dispersed homogeneously due to the disentanglement induced by well-wetting and shearing, and the elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of the MWCNTs by rubber chains via the novel processing method. To further enhance the efficacy of elastic-resilience-induced dispersion for MWCNTs, a slightly pre-crosslinked network is constructed in the master batch. Consequently, we obtain rubber/MWCNT composites with unprecedented performance by amplifying the reinforcing effect of relatively low MWCNT loading. This work provides a novel insight into the fabrication of high performance functional elastomeric composites with pristine CNTs by taking advantage of the unique elastic resilience of rubber chains as the driving force for the disentanglement of CNTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/24/46/465708DOI Listing
November 2013

Scalable and versatile graphene functionalized with the Mannich condensate.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2013 Mar 18;5(6):2174-81. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, PR China.

The functionalized graphene (JTPG) is fabricated by chemical conversion of graphene oxide (GO), using tea polyphenols (TP) as the reducer and stabilizer, followed by further derivatization through the Mannich reaction between the pyrogallol groups on TP and Jeffamine M-2070. JTPG exhibits solubility in a broad spectrum of solvents, long-term stability and single-layered dispersion in water and organic solvents, which are substantiated by AFM, TEM, and XRD. The paper-like JTPG hybrids prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration exhibits an unusual combination of high toughness (tensile strength of ~275 MPa and break strain of ~8%) and high electrical conductivity (~700 S/m). Still, JTPG is revealed to be very promising in the fabrication of polymer/graphene composites due to the excellent solubility in the solvent with low boiling point and low toxicity. Accordingly, as an example, nitrile rubber/JTPG composites are fabricated by the solution compounding in acetone. The resulted composite shows low threshold percolation at 0.23 vol.% of graphene. The versatilities both in dispersibility and performance, together with the scalable process of JTPG, enable a new way to scale up the fabrication of the graphene-based polymer composites or hybrids with high performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am3032822DOI Listing
March 2013