Publications by authors named "Tee Guat Hiong"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effectiveness of training stop-smoking advisers to deliver cessation support to the UK national proposed standard versus usual care in Malaysia: a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Addiction 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK.

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of training stop smoking services providers in Malaysia to deliver support for smoking cessation based on the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training (NCSCT) standard treatment programme compared with usual care.

Design: Two-arm cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial across 19 sites with follow-up at 4-week, 3-month, and 6-month.

Setting: Stop smoking services operating in public hospitals in Malaysia.

Participants: Five hundred and two smokers [mean ± standard deviation (SD), age 45.6 (13.4) years; 97.4% male] attending stop smoking services in hospital settings in Malaysia: 330 in 10 hospitals in the intervention condition and 172 in nine hospitals in the control condition.

Intervention And Comparator: The intervention consisted of training stop-smoking practitioners to deliver support and follow-up according to the NCSCT Standard Treatment Programme. The comparator was usual care (brief support and follow-up).

Measurements: The primary outcome was continuous tobacco smoking abstinence up to 6 months in smokers who received smoking cessation treatment, verified by expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) concentration. Secondary outcomes were continuous CO-verified tobacco smoking abstinence up to 4 weeks and 3 months.

Results: Follow-up rates at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months were 80.0, 70.6 and 53.3%, respectively, in the intervention group and 48.8, 30.8 and 23.3%, respectively, in the control group. At 6-month follow-up, 93 participants in the intervention group and 19 participants in the control group were abstinent from smoking, representing 28.2 versus 11.0% in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis assuming that participants with missing data had resumed smoking, and 52.8 versus 47.5% in a follow-up-only (FUO) analysis. Unadjusted odds ratios (accounting for clustering) were 5.04, (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-20.77, P = 0.025) and 1.70, (95% CI = 0.25-11.53, P = 0.589) in the ITT and FUO analyses, respectively. Abstinence rates at 4 week and 3 month follow-ups were significantly higher in the intervention versus control group in the ITT but not the FUO analysis.

Conclusions: On an intention-to-treat analysis with missing-equals-smoking imputation, training Malaysian stop smoking service providers in the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training standard treatment programme appeared to increase 6 month continuous abstinence rates in smokers seeking help with stopping compared with usual care. However, the effect may have been due to increasing follow-up rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15346DOI Listing
November 2020

The burden of typhoid fever in Klang Valley, Malaysia, 2011-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 16;20(1):843. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Center of Communicable Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Typhoid fever causes global morbidity and mortality and is a significant health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The direct fecal-oral route is the main transmission mode, but indirect environmental transmission could occur, particularly in urban settings. This study aimed to investigate the burden and trend of typhoid fever, reporting the coverage system between government and private practice and pattern of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid cases in the urban Klang Valley area from 2011 to 2015.

Methods: The data from a cross-sectional study retrieved from the e-Notifikasi System, a national reporting system for communicable diseases provided by the Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia and secondary data of all the typhoid cases were obtained from the public and private hospitals and laboratories in Klang Valley. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the sociodemographic characteristics, spatial mapping was conducted to examine trends, and the crude incidence rates of confirmed typhoid cases and percentage of reporting coverage were calculated. Significant differences between MDR and non-MDR Salmonella typhi were determined in the patient's sociodemographic characteristics, which were analyzed using χ test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: In total, 507 typhoid fever cases were reported in Klang Valley; however, only 265 cases were confirmed by culture tests. The crude incidence rates of confirmed cases were between 0.5 to 0.7 but peaked at 1.42 per 100,000 population in 2015. Most typhoid fever cases were observed among men (55.6%), individuals aged 21 to 30 years (27.6%), Malaysians (86.3%) and individuals of Malay ethnicity (52.1%). The reporting coverage of confirmed cases was 78.9% and non-reporting coverage of unconfirmed typhoid cases was 79.5%. The predictive value positive (PVP) was 89.3, and 7.5% were detected as MDR Salmonella typhi. Statistical significance was found in gender, citizenship and ethnicity regarding MDR Salmonella typhi (p = 0.004, p = 0.008 and p = 0.034, respectively).

Conclusions: The local transmission of typhoid is still prevalent in the Klang Valley despite rapid urbanization and development in recent years. These findings are essential for policy makers to plan and implement focused and effective preventative activities to curb typhoid infection in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05500-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667819PMC
November 2020

Cigarette Smoking Among Secondary School-Going Male Adolescents in Malaysia: Findings From the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 19;31(8_suppl):80S-87S. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Smoking is a learned behavior during adolescence, and it is found predominantly among male adolescents in Malaysia. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictive factors of current cigarette smoking among school-going male adolescents in Malaysia. Data were derived from the National Health and Morbidity Survey: Adolescent Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study that utilized a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling to select a nationally representative sample of school-going adolescents in Malaysia (n = 27 497). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among male adolescents in Malaysia. Male adolescents aged 16 to 17 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.70), current illicit drug users (AOR = 8.14; 95% CI = 6.37-10.41), current alcohol users (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.65-2.23), those from rural schools (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.46-1.76), those whose parents were widowed/divorced/separated (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21-1.55), and those whose parents/guardians were tobacco product users (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.33-5.16) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. Tobacco control strategies should be aimed at both adolescents at risk and at promoting parental smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519874948DOI Listing
November 2019

Perception of Harms and Benefits of Electronic Cigarettes Among Adult Malaysian Men: A Comparison by Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Status.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 21;31(7_suppl):32S-43S. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Little is known about the perceptions of harm and benefit associated with the use of e-cigarettes in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample comprising 1987 males (≥18 years of age). Current, former, and never users of conventional cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes participated in a questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face interviews. The relationship between participant characteristics and perceptions of harm and benefit of e-cigarettes were determined with multivariable logistic regression. There were 950 current, 377 former, and 660 never users of e-cigarettes. Government employees (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.66, = .001), private sector employees (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.27-2.18, = .001), and the self-employed people (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31-2.17, = .001) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as more harmful than conventional cigarettes compared with respondents who were not wage earners. All current users in the form of e-cigarette users (OR = 7.87, 95% CI = 3.23-19.18), conventional cigarette smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.33), and dual users (OR = 8.59, 95% CI = 4.76-15.52) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as useful in quitting conventional cigarette smoking compared with former and never users. Our findings constitute an important snapshot into the perceptions of e-cigarette harms and benefits, which could inform targeted public health messaging strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519860730DOI Listing
October 2019

The Prevalence of E-Cigarette Use Among Adults in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 17;31(7_suppl):9S-21S. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new method for the consumption of nicotine. A nationwide survey among 4288 Malaysian adults was conducted in 2016 to measure the prevalence and to describe the population characteristics of e-cigarette users. A complex sampling design was used, and data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of current, ever, former, and dual users of e-cigarettes in Malaysia were 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.5-4.1), 11.9% (95% CI = 10.5-13.5), 8.6% (95% CI = 7.5-9.8), and 2.3% (95% CI = 1.8-3.1), respectively. The prevalence of all type of e-cigarette use was higher in urban than in rural areas. Current e-cigarette users were likely to be younger, males, and with higher education level. Among current e-cigarette users, 74% (95% CI = 64-82) also smoked conventional cigarettes (dual user). E-cigarette use is prevalent in Malaysia. It is common among younger adults, males, and cigarette smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519834735DOI Listing
October 2019

Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

Public Health Nutr 2017 May 12;20(7):1226-1234. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

1Epidemiology & Biostatistics Unit,Institute for Medical Research,Jalan Pahang,50588 Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.

Objective: To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults.

Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers.

Setting: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

Subjects: Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey.

Results: Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2).

Conclusions: Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898001600344XDOI Listing
May 2017

Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Five Low and Middle-Income Countries - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2011 - 2012.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(3):1269-76

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia E-mail :

Background: Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012.

Materials And Methods: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.

Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.

Conclusions: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.3.1269DOI Listing
January 2017

Systematic review on international practices in controlling waterpipe tobacco smoking.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(9):3659-65

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia E-mail :

Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating.

Results: Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.9.3659DOI Listing
February 2016

Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

Nicotine Tob Res 2016 Apr 20;18(4):501-7. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA;

Introduction: Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries.

Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users.

Results: Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers.

Conclusions: E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100820PMC
April 2016

Comparison of the Framingham Risk Score, SCORE and WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk prediction models in an Asian population.

Int J Cardiol 2014 Sep 15;176(1):211-8. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Cardiovascular risk-prediction models are used in clinical practice to identify and treat high-risk populations, and to communicate risk effectively. We assessed the validity and utility of four cardiovascular risk-prediction models in an Asian population of a middle-income country.

Methods: Data from a national population-based survey of 14,863 participants aged 40 to 65 years, with a follow-up duration of 73,277 person-years was used. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation)-high and -low cardiovascular-risk regions and the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) models were assessed. The outcome of interest was 5-year cardiovascular mortality. Discrimination was assessed for all models and calibration for the SCORE models.

Results: Cardiovascular risk factors were highly prevalent; smoking 20%, obesity 32%, hypertension 55%, diabetes mellitus 18% and hypercholesterolemia 34%. The FRS and SCORE models showed good agreement in risk stratification. The FRS, SCORE-high and -low models showed good discrimination for cardiovascular mortality, areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were 0.768, 0.774 and 0.775 respectively. The WHO/ISH model showed poor discrimination, AUC=0.613. Calibration of the SCORE-high model was graphically and statistically acceptable for men (χ(2) goodness-of-fit, p=0.097). The SCORE-low model was statistically acceptable for men (χ(2) goodness-of-fit, p=0.067). Both SCORE-models underestimated risk in women (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The FRS and SCORE-high models, but not the WHO/ISH model can be used to identify high cardiovascular risk in the Malaysian population. The SCORE-high model predicts risk accurately in men but underestimated it in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.066DOI Listing
September 2014

Correlates of current smoking among Malaysian secondary school children.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2014 Sep 25;26(5 Suppl):70S-80S. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539514540468DOI Listing
September 2014

Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting.

BMC Fam Pract 2013 May 27;14:69. Epub 2013 May 27.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Jalan Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur 50590, Malaysia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Methods: The study was cross sectional in design and carried out in 12 randomly selected primary care government clinics in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 2508 eligible consenting respondents participated in the study. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 21 questionnaire was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16 software using both descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among Type II diabetics were 11.5%, 30.5% and 12.5% respectively. Using multiple logistic regression, females, Asian Indians, marital status (never married, divorced/widowed/separated), a family history of psychiatric illness, less than 2 years duration of diabetes and current alcohol consumption were found to be significant predictors of depression. For anxiety, unemployment, housewives, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and lack of physical activity were independent risk factors. Stress was significantly associated with females, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, presence of co-morbidity, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and current alcohol consumption. For depression (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1; 7.0), anxiety (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1;5.5) and stress (adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8; 9.8), a family history of psychiatric illness was the strongest predictor.

Conclusion: We found the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms to be high among Type II diabetics, with almost a third being classified as anxious. Screening of high risk Type II diabetics for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in the primary care setting is recommended at regular intervals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-14-69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3669622PMC
May 2013

Identification of effective screening strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention in a developing country: using cardiovascular risk-estimation and risk-reduction tools for policy recommendations.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2013 Feb 25;13:10. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Clinical Research Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Recent increases in cardiovascular risk-factor prevalences have led to new national policy recommendations of universal screening for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. This study assessed whether the current national policy recommendation of universal screening was optimal, by comparing the effectiveness and impact of various cardiovascular screening strategies.

Methods: Data from a national population based survey of 24 270 participants aged 30 to 74 was used. Five screening strategies were modelled for the overall population and by gender; universal and targeted screening (four age cut-off points). Screening strategies were assessed based on the ability to detect high cardiovascular risk populations (effectiveness), incremental effectiveness, impact on cardiovascular event prevention and cost of screening.

Results: 26.7% (95% confidence limits 25.7, 27.7) were at high cardiovascular risk, men 34.7% (33.6, 35.8) and women 18.9% (17.8, 20). Universal screening identified all those at high-risk and resulted in one high-risk individual detected for every 3.7 people screened, with an estimated cost of USD60. However, universal screening resulted in screening an additional 7169 persons, with an incremental cost of USD115,033 for detection of one additional high-risk individual in comparison to targeted screening of those aged ≥35 years. The cost, incremental cost and impact of detection of high-risk individuals were more for women than men for all screening strategies. The impact of screening women aged ≥45 years was similar to universal screening in men.

Conclusions: Targeted gender- and age-specific screening strategies would ensure more optimal utilisation of scarce resources compared to the current policy recommendations of universal screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-13-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599418PMC
February 2013

Methodology of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia, 2011.

Int J Public Health Res 2013;3(2):297-305

World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, Switzerland.

Introduction: Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies.

Methods: GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Results: GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays.

Conclusions: The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593763PMC
January 2013

Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country: a call for urgency.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2013 Apr 24;20(2):368-75. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Clinical Research Centre, Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and its clustering. The findings are to help shape the Malaysian future healthcare planning for cardiovascular disease prevention and management.

Methods: Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was used. The survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire. A total of 37,906 eligible participants aged 18 years and older was identified, of whom 34,505 (91%) participated. Focus was on hypertension, hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired fasting glucose), hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity.

Results: Overall, 63% (95% confidence limits 62, 65%) of the participants had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, 33% (32, 35%) had two or more and 14% (12, 15%) had three risk factors or more. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity were 38%, 15%, 24% and 37%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors for most age groups; adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.1 (0.91, 1.32) to 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for the presence of one risk factor and 1.07 (0.91, 1.32) to 2.00 (1.78, 2.25) for two or more risk factors.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk-factor clustering provides a clear impression of the true burden of cardiovascular disease risk in the population. Women displayed higher prevalence and a younger age shift in clustering was seen. These findings signal the presence of a cardiovascular epidemic in an upcoming middle-income country and provide evidence that drastic measures have to be taken to safeguard the health of the nation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487312437327DOI Listing
April 2013