Publications by authors named "Ted S Strom"

13 Publications

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Numerical analysis of in vivo platelet consumption data from ITP patients.

Authors:
Ted S Strom

BMC Hematol 2015 19;15:14. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Memphis Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1030 Jefferson Ave, Memphis, TN 38104 USA ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN USA.

Background: Numerical methods have recently allowed quantitative interpretation of in vivo murine platelet consumption data in terms of values for the random destruction rate constant (RD), intrinsic lifespan (LS), and the standard deviation of ln LS (SD), as well as the platelet production rate (PR) and age distribution (AD). But application of these methods to data obtained in thrombocytopenic patients is problematic for two reasons. First, such data has in all cases been obtained with radiolabeled platelets, and uptake of the radio-isotope by long lived cells complicates the analysis. Second, inferred values of the platelet production rate (PR) and random destruction rate (RD) are difficult to interpret, since increased RD can occur either as a cause or a consequence of thrombocytopenia.

Methods: We used a numerical method to analyze in vivo platelet consumption data from a series of 41 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). An additional parameter, the fraction of labeled long-lived cells (LL), was evaluated concurrently with RD, LS, and SD. To provide a basis for interpreting these values, we used an iterative interpolation process to predict their response to different pathophysiologic mechanisms. The process also generates predicted effects on the widely used immature platelet fraction (IPF).

Results: Optimal parameter value sets were identified in 76 % (31 of 41) of the data sets. 27 of 31 ITP patients showed no substantial homeostatic increase in platelet production, with the remaining 4 showing both augmented platelet consumption and a compensatory increase in PR. Up to 1/3 of the patients showed the degree of increased RD expected to result from reduced thrombopoiesis only. "Jacknife" resampling yielded CV values of <0.5 in over 75 % of the evaluable data sets. Predicted platelet age distributions indicate that interpretation of the IPF and absolute IPF (aIPF) is a complex function of platelet count. We found, counter-intuitively, that reduced PR can increase the IPF, and increased RD can reduce the aIPF.

Conclusions: Our findings support the feasibility of using numerical analysis to quantitatively interpret in vivo platelet consumption data, to identify likely etiologies of thrombocytopenias, and to assess the utility of IPF measurements in that context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12878-015-0034-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615868PMC
October 2015

Loss of the F-BAR protein CIP4 reduces platelet production by impairing membrane-cytoskeleton remodeling.

Blood 2013 Sep 23;122(10):1695-706. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center and Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Megakaryocytes generate platelets through extensive reorganization of the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Cdc42 interacting protein 4 (CIP4) is an F-BAR protein that localizes to membrane phospholipids through its BAR domain and interacts with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) via its SRC homology 3 domain. F-BAR proteins promote actin polymerization and membrane tubulation. To study its function, we generated CIP4-null mice that displayed thrombocytopenia similar to that of WAS(-) mice. The number of megakaryocytes and their progenitors was not affected. However, the number of proplatelet protrusions was reduced in CIP4-null, but not WAS(-), megakaryocytes. Electron micrographs of CIP4-null megakaryocytes showed an altered demarcation membrane system. Silencing of CIP4, not WASP, expression resulted in fewer proplatelet-like extensions. Fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that loss of CIP4 resulted in a more rigid membrane. Micropipette aspiration demonstrated decreased cortical actin tension in megakaryocytic cells with reduced CIP4 or WASP protein. These studies support a new biophysical mechanism for platelet biogenesis whereby CIP4 enhances the complex, dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane (WASP independent) and actin cortex network (as known for WASP and cortical actin) to reduce the work required for generating proplatelets. CIP4 is a new component in the highly coordinated system of megakaryocytic membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling affecting platelet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-03-484550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3765055PMC
September 2013

Increased uptake by splenic red pulp macrophages contributes to rapid platelet turnover in WASP(-) mice.

Exp Hematol 2013 Sep 30;41(9):789-98. Epub 2013 May 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Memphis Veterans Administration Medical Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Thrombocytopenia caused by rapid platelet consumption contributes to the severe thrombocytopenia of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and to the milder thrombocytopenia seen in murine WAS. We show that rapid clearance of ¹¹¹In-labeled murine WASP(-) platelets correlates with enhanced splenic uptake. Using platelets labeled with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker (pHrodo), we quantify normal platelet uptake by red pulp macrophages (RPMs), and demonstrate its enhancement after in vivo opsonization of platelets. The spleens of WASP(-) mice contain an increased number of RPM, and rapid clearance of WASP(-) platelets in WASP(-) mice in turn generates an increased number of pHrodo(+) splenic RPMs. To separately assess the platelet intrinsic and recipient-dependent functions involved in the clearance and splenic phagocyte uptake of WASP(-) platelets, we performed "crossed" pHrodo(+) platelet injection studies (wild type [WT] to WASP(-), WASP(-) to WT). We show that an extrinsic effect of recipient WASP deficiency on the clearance of WASP(-) platelets correlates with increased platelet uptake by RPMs. An intrinsic effect of platelet WASP deficiency on platelet clearance does not, however, correlate with increased total uptake by WT or WASP(-) RPMs. In contrast to other published findings, we find no evidence of a baseline or antibody-induced increase in phosphatidyl serine exposure on WASP(-) platelets. Our findings suggest that an increased number of RPMs in WASP(-) mice contributes significantly to the increased platelet consumption rate in WASP(-) mice. This might explain the consistent efficacy of splenectomy in murine and clinical WAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2013.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884558PMC
September 2013

A numerical analysis model for the interpretation of in vivo platelet consumption data.

Authors:
Ted S Strom

PLoS One 2013 28;8(1):e55087. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Memphis Veterans Administration Medical Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Unlike anemias, most thrombocytopenias cannot be separated into those due to impaired production and those due to accelerated consumption. While rapid clearance of labeled platelets from the bloodstream can be followed in thrombocytopenic individuals, no model exists for quantitatively inferring from autologous or allogeneic platelet consumption data what changes in random consumption, lifespan dependent consumption, and platelet production rate may have caused the thrombocytopenia. Here we describe a numerical analysis model which resolves these issues. The model applies three parameter values (a random consumption rate constant, a lognormally-distributed platelet lifespan, and the standard deviation of the latter) to a matrix comprising a series of platelet cohorts which are sequentially produced and fractionally consumed in a series of time intervals. The cohort platelet counts achieved after equilibration of production and consumption both enumerate the population age distribution and sum to the population platelet count. Continued platelet consumption after production is halted then serves to model in vivo platelet consumption data, with consumption rate in the first such interval defining the equilibrium platelet production rate. We use a least squares fitting procedure to find parameter values which best fit observed platelet consumption data obtained in WT and thrombocytopenic WASP(-) mice. Equilibrium platelet age distributions are then 'grafted' into the matrix to allow modeling of the consumption of WT platelets in WASP(-) recipients, and vice versa. The optimal parameter values obtained indicate that random WT platelet consumption accounts for a larger fraction of platelet turnover than was previously suspected. Platelet WASP deficiency accelerates random consumption, and a trans effect of recipient WASP deficiency contributes to this. Application of the model to clinical data will allow distinctions to be made between thrombocytopenias due primarily to impaired platelet production and those due to acceleration of random or lifespan-dependent platelet consumption.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055087PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3557263PMC
July 2013

Platelets from WAS patients show an increased susceptibility to ex vivo phagocytosis.

Platelets 2013 19;24(4):288-96. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Memphis VA Medical Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA.

The thrombocytopenia of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is thought to be due to both reduced platelet production and accelerated platelet consumption. We have previously demonstrated that platelets from WASP-deficient mice are consumed more rapidly in vivo than are WT platelets, and that opsonization accelerates their uptake by bone marrow- derived macrophages more than it does that of WT platelets. Here we asked whether platelets from WAS patients show similar features. We show that ex vivo phagocytosis by activated THP-1 cells of DIO-labeled platelets from a series of WAS or XLT patients is increased in comparison to that of normal control platelets. Using a numerical analysis method, we distinguish this effect from a concurrent effect on the amount of detectable fluorescent signal transferred to the macrophage per phagocytosed platelet. We show that the latter quantity is reduced by platelet WASP deficiency, as might be expected if the fluorescence transferred from these smaller platelets is more rapidly quenched. We are unable to detect a differential effect of opsonization with anti-CD61 antibody on the uptake of WASP(-) vs. WT platelets. However, the high probability of phagocytosis per adsorbed WASP(-) platelet could limit the sensitivity of the assay in this case. We also see no effect of sera from WAS patients on the uptake of normal control platelets, suggesting that in vivo opsonization is not the cause of increased uptake of WASP(-) platelets. Finally, we show little, if any, increase in the reticulated platelet fraction in WAS patients, suggesting that impaired production of reticulated platelets contributes to the thrombocytopenia. Our findings suggest that rapid in vivo platelet consumption contributes significantly to the thrombocytopenia of WAS. They also demonstrate the feasibility of routinely performing functional assays of phagocytosis of small numbers of platelets obtained at remote locations, a method which should be applicable to the study of other types of thrombocytopenia such as ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09537104.2012.693991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3529772PMC
October 2013

A numerical analysis model for interpretation of flow cytometric studies of ex vivo phagocytosis.

PLoS One 2011 4;6(11):e26657. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

The study of ex vivo phagocytosis via flow cytometry requires that one distinguish experimentally between uptake and adsorption of fluorescently labeled targets by phagocytes. Removal of the latter quantity from the analysis is the most common means of analyzing such data. Because the probability of phagocytosis is a function of the probability of adsorption, and because partially quenched fluorescence after uptake often overlaps with that of negative controls, this approach is suboptimal at best. Here, we describe a numerical analysis model which overcomes these limitations. We posit that the random adsorption of targets to macrophages, and subsequent phagocytosis, is a function of three parameters: the ratio of targets to macrophages (m), the mean fluorescence intensity imparted to the phagocyte by the internalized target (alpha), and the probability of phagocytosis per adsorbed target (p). The potential values of these parameters define a parameter space and their values at any point in parameter space can be used to predict the fraction of adsorption(+) and [adsorption(-), phagocytosis(+)] cells that might be observed experimentally. By systematically evaluating the points in parameter space for the latter two values and comparing them to experimental data, the model arrives at sets of parameter values that optimally predict such data. Using activated THP-1 cells as macrophages and platelets as targets, we validate the model by demonstrating that it can distinguish between the effects of experimental changes in m, alpha, and p. Finally, we use the model to demonstrate that platelets from a congenitally thrombocytopenic WAS patient show an increased probability of ex vivo phagocytosis. This finding correlates with other evidence that rapid in vivo platelet consumption contributes significantly to the thrombocytopenia of WAS. Our numerical analysis method represents a useful and innovative approach to multivariate analysis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0026657PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208553PMC
March 2012

Antiplatelet antibodies in WASP(-) mice correlate with evidence of increased in vivo platelet consumption.

Exp Hematol 2009 Nov 3;37(11):1353-63. Epub 2009 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tenn., USA.

Objective: To study the role of antiplatelet antibodies in the thrombocytopenia of murine Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

Materials And Methods: A flow cytometric method was developed for detection of serum antiplatelet antibodies via their binding to intact target platelets lacking surface antibodies. Platelets were labeled with 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) in order to track their clearance from the circulation. WASP(-)muMT(-/-) mice were generated by standard breeding methods.

Results: Serum antiplatelet antibodies were detected in approximately 40% of WASP(-) males. The mean level of reticulated platelets is significantly increased in these antibody(+) males. While WASP(-) males show an approximately 50% reduction in platelet counts, 5% to 10% show a more severe thrombocytopenia associated with increased reticulated platelets, suggesting the presence of clearance-inducing antiplatelet antibodies. In support of that inference, 90% of the latter mice show detectable serum antiplatelet antibodies. The antibodies are primarily immunoglobulin G, and are also detected in >30% of CD47(-/-) males. WASP(-)muMT(-/-) males, which demonstrate no serum- or platelet-associated antibodies, show a degree of thrombocytopenia similar to that of WASP(-) males. Their platelet clearance rates remain accelerated--more so in WASP(-)muMT(-/-) than WASP(+)muMT(-/-) recipients.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that platelet WASP deficiency results in an increase in platelet clearance rates by two mechanisms: an antibody-independent mechanism that largely requires WASP deficiency in trans, and an antibody-dependent mechanism that does not. Both an increased incidence of antiplatelet antibodies and an increased susceptibility to their effects contribute to antibody-dependent clearance of WASP(-) platelets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2009.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771582PMC
November 2009

The thrombocytopenia of WAS: a familial form of ITP?

Authors:
Ted S Strom

Immunol Res 2009 ;44(1-3):42-53

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Memphis VA Medical Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

In the first report of the concurrent immunodeficiency, thrombocytopenia, and eczema that we now call the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), Alfred Wiskott asked whether it could be a familial form of Werlhof's disease (now called ITP). This review summarizes what is known about platelet production, consumption, and function in clinical and murine WAS. Both platelet production and consumption are affected by WASP deficiency. Likely molecular mechanisms have been identified for the former process, but remain problematic for the latter. Recent data in a murine model suggest that WASP deficiency could increase both the incidence of antiplatelet antibodies and susceptibility to their enhancement of platelet consumption. Wiskott's original speculation about the relationship between WAS and ITP may need to be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-008-8069-2DOI Listing
September 2009

Rapid platelet turnover in WASP(-) mice correlates with increased ex vivo phagocytosis of opsonized WASP(-) platelets.

Exp Hematol 2008 May 17;36(5):609-23. Epub 2008 Mar 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Memphis Veterans Administration Medical Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA.

Objective: Our objective was to determine a mechanism for the thrombocytopenia of murine Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

Materials And Methods: Consumption rates of WAS protein (WASP)(-) and wild-type (WT) platelets were measured by injection of 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA)-labeled platelets into WT or WASP(-) recipients, and by in vivo biotinylation. Platelet and reticulated platelet counts were performed using quantitative flow cytometry. Bone marrow megakaryocyte number and ploidy was assessed by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis of CMFDA-labeled, opsonized platelets was assessed using bone marrow-derived macrophages. Serum antiplatelet antibodies were assayed via their binding to WT platelets.

Results: CMFDA-labeled WASP(-) platelets are consumed more rapidly than WT platelets in either WT or WASP(-) recipients. In vivo biotinylation studies corroborate these findings and show a normal consumption rate for WASP(-) reticulated platelets. The number of reticulated platelets is reduced in WASP(-) mice, but a significant number of the mice show an increased proportion of reticulated platelets and more severe thrombocytopenia. Sera from some of the latter group contain antiplatelet antibodies. Compared to WT platelets, WASP(-) platelets opsonized with anti-CD61 or 6A6 antibody are taken up more rapidly by bone marrow-derived macrophages. In vivo consumption rates of WASP(-) platelets are more accelerated by opsonization than are those of WT platelets.

Conclusion: Both rapid clearance and impaired production contribute to the thrombocytopenia of murine WAS. Increased susceptibility of opsonized WASP(-) platelets to phagocytosis leads to increased in vivo clearance. This correlates with a higher incidence of individuals with an elevated fraction of reticulated platelets, a more severe thrombocytopenia, and antiplatelet antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2007.12.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2635498PMC
May 2008

WASP- mice exhibit defective immune responses to influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

Exp Hematol 2005 Apr;33(4):443-51

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN 38104, USA.

Objective: To quantify the immune response of WASP- mice to three different pathogens: influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium bovis.

Methods: Primary and secondary T-cell responses to influenza A virus were quantified via tetramer assays. Viral clearance from lung was also measured. Lethality of intranasal inoculation with luminescent S. pneumoniae was assessed by dose escalation and direct luminescence imaging. After intravenous inoculation with M. bovis, residual mycobacteria in lung, liver, and spleen were measured by standard culture methods.

Results: The reduced secondary T-cell response to influenza A virus correlates with a relative but not absolute loss of splenic T and B cells similar to that seen in clinical Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), and slower clearance of virus from lung. The reduced magnitude of the secondary T-cell response correlates with a progressive loss of influenza-specific T cells after primary inoculation. WASP- mice show an increased susceptibility to lethal pneumonia after intranasal inoculation with S. pneumoniae, which is among the most frequent causes of clinical complications in WAS patients. WASP- mice clear M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) more slowly from lung, liver, and spleen. Bone marrow-derived macrophages, however, show normal ex vivo cytokine secretion in response to M. bovis.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that WASP- mice are functionally immunodeficient in regard to three different pathogens, and provide relevant end points for the study of treatment modalities in this model. They also suggest a specific physiologic mechanism, failure to accumulate memory T cells, for at least one of the defective immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2004.12.006DOI Listing
April 2005

Defects in T-cell-mediated immunity to influenza virus in murine Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome are corrected by oncoretroviral vector-mediated gene transfer into repopulating hematopoietic cells.

Blood 2003 Nov 10;102(9):3108-16. Epub 2003 Jul 10.

Division of Experimental Hematology, Department of Hematology/Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by immune dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and eczema. We used a murine model created by knockout of the WAS protein gene (WASP) to evaluate the potential of gene therapy for WAS. Lethally irradiated, male WASP- animals that received transplants of mixtures of wild type (WT) and WASP- bone marrow cells demonstrated enrichment of WT cells in the lymphoid and myeloid lineages with a progressive increase in the proportion of WT T-lymphoid and B-lymphoid cells. WASP- mice had a defective secondary T-cell response to influenza virus which was normalized in animals that received transplants of 35% or more WT cells. The WASP gene was inserted into WASP- bone marrow cells with a bicistronic oncoretroviral vector also encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), followed by transplantation into irradiated male WASP- recipients. There was a selective advantage for gene-corrected cells in multiple lineages. Animals with higher proportions of GFP+ T cells showed normalization of their lymphocyte counts. Gene-corrected, blood T cells exhibited full and partial correction, respectively, of their defective proliferative and cytokine secretory responses to in vitro T-cell-receptor stimulation. The defective secondary T-cell response to influenza virus was also improved in gene-corrected animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-11-3489DOI Listing
November 2003

Enforced expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 affects functional capillary morphogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in a murine tumor model.

Blood 2002 Nov;100(9):3361-8

Departments of Surgery and Hematology/Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 S. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Homeostasis of the extracellular matrix is a delicate balance between degradation and remodeling, the balance being maintained by the interaction of activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and specific tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Up-regulation of MMP activity, favoring proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix, has been linked to tumor growth and metastasis, as well as tumor-associated angiogenesis, whereas inhibition of MMP activity appears to restrict these processes. We have used retroviral-mediated gene delivery to effect sustained autocrine expression of TIMP-3 in murine neuroblastoma and melanoma tumor cells in order to further examine the ability of TIMPs to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. Growth of both histologic types of gene-modified tumor cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice was significantly restricted when compared with controls. Grossly, these tumors were small and had few feeding vessels. Histologic evaluation revealed that although tumors overexpressing TIMP-3 had an increased number of CD31(+) endothelial cells, these endothelial cells had not formed functional tubules, as evidenced by decreased vessel continuity and minimal pericyte recruitment. This effect appears to be mediated, in part, by decreased expression of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin by endothelial cells in the presence of TIMP-3 as seen both in an in vitro assay and in TIMP-3-overexpressing tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of TIMP-3 can inhibit angiogenesis and associated tumor growth, and that the antiangiogenic effects of TIMP-3 appear to be mediated through the inhibition of functional capillary morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.V100.9.3361DOI Listing
November 2002

Correction of the murine Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome phenotype by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Blood 2002 Jun;99(12):4626-8

Division of Experimental Hematology, Department of Hematology/Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) corrects the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) phenotype. However, the toxicity and mortality frequently associated with this approach warrant the exploration of new therapeutic strategies. Transplantation studies of a murine model of WAS deficiency have been limited by the occurrence of a radiation-induced fatal exacerbation of a pre-existing colitis in the peritransplantation period. Here we demonstrate that when crossed to a C57/B6 background, WAS-deficient males show little if any colitis and reliably survive HSCT. We show that HSCT corrects the hematologic and functional deficiencies of WAS knockout mice. These results strengthen the analogy between murine and human WAS and provide a basis for the use of WAS-deficient mice to explore novel approaches for correction of the disease phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2001-12-0319DOI Listing
June 2002
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