Publications by authors named "Ted A Gooley"

81 Publications

High-Throughput Drug Screening and Multi-Omic Analysis to Guide Individualized Treatment for Multiple Myeloma.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 6;5. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically heterogeneous malignancy characterized by variable treatment responses. Although numerous drugs have been approved in recent years, the ability to predict treatment response and tailor individual therapy is limited by the absence of robust predictive biomarkers. The goal of this clinical trial was to use ex vivo, high-throughput screening (HTS) of 170 compounds to predict response among patients with relapsed or refractory MM and inform the next treatment decisions. Additionally, we integrated HTS with multi-omic analysis to uncover novel associations between in vitro drug sensitivity and gene expression and mutation profiles.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-five patients with relapsed or refractory MM underwent a screening bone marrow or soft tissue biopsy. Sixteen patients were found to have sufficient plasma cells for HTS. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on plasma cell-free DNA from all patients who underwent HTS. RNA and whole-exome sequencing of bone marrow plasma cells were performed on eight and seven patients, respectively.

Results: Results of HTS testing were made available to treating physicians within a median of 5 days from the biopsy. An actionable treatment result was identified in all 16 patients examined. Among the 13 patients who received assay-guided therapy, 92% achieved stable disease or better. The expression of 105 genes and mutations in 12 genes correlated with in vitro cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: In patients with relapsed or refractory MM, we demonstrate the feasibility of ex vivo drug sensitivity testing on isolated plasma cells from patient bone marrow biopsies or extramedullary plasmacytomas to inform the next line of therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232547PMC
April 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: III. The 2020 Treatment of Chronic GVHD Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Clinical Division of Hematology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Positive results from recent clinical trials have significantly expanded current therapeutic options for patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, new insights into the associations between clinical characteristics of chronic GVHD, pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease, and the clinical and biological effects of novel therapeutic agents are required to allow for a more individualized approach to treatment. The current report is focused on setting research priorities and direction in the treatment of chronic GVHD. Detailed correlative scientific studies should be conducted in the context of clinical trials to evaluate associations between clinical outcomes and the biological effect of systemic therapeutics. For patients who require systemic therapy but not urgent initiation of glucocorticoids, clinical trials for initial systemic treatment of chronic GVHD should investigate novel agents as monotherapy without concurrently starting glucocorticoids, to avoid confounding biological, pathological, and clinical assessments. Clinical trials for treatment-refractory disease should specifically target patients with incomplete or suboptimal responses to most recent therapy who are early in their disease course. Close collaboration between academic medical centers, medical societies, and industry is needed to support an individualized, biology-based strategic approach to chronic GVHD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.004DOI Listing
June 2021

Relevance of Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a highly morbid form of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several plasma proteins have been identified as biomarkers for BOS after lung transplantation. The relevance of these biomarkers in BOS patients after allogeneic HCT has not been examined. We hypothesized that biomarkers associated with BOS after lung transplantation are also associated with BOS after allogeneic HCT. We tested plasma samples from 33 adult HCT patients who participated in a phase II multicenter study of fluticasone, azithromycin, and montelukast (FAM) treatment for new-onset BOS (NCT01307462), and matched control samples of HCT patients who had non-BOS chronic GVHD (n = 31) and those who never experienced chronic GVHD (n = 29) (NCT00637689 and NCT01902576). Candidate biomarkers included matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), MMP-3, and chitinase-3-like-1 glycoprotein (YKL-40). MMP-9 concentrations were higher in the patients with BOS compared with those with non-BOS chronic GVHD (P = .04) or no chronic GVHD (P < .001). MMP-3 concentrations were higher in patients with BOS (P < .001) or non-BOS chronic GVHD (P < .001) compared with those with no chronic GVHD. YKL-40 concentrations did not differ statistically among the 3 groups. MMP-9 concentrations before starting FAM therapy were higher in patients who experienced treatment failure within 6 months compared with those with treatment success (P = .006), whereas MMP-3 or YKL-40 concentrations did not differ statistically between these 2 groups. Patients with an MMP-9 concentration ≥200,000 pg/mL before starting FAM therapy had worse overall survival compared with those with lower MMP-9 concentrations. Our data suggest that plasma MMP-9 concentration could serve as a relevant biomarker at diagnosis of BOS after allogeneic HCT for prognostication of survival and for prediction of treatment response. Further validation is needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Phase II Trial of Costimulation Blockade With Abatacept for Prevention of Acute GVHD.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 15;39(17):1865-1877. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

University of Utah, Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT.

Purpose: Severe (grade 3-4) acute graft-versus-host disease (AGVHD) is a major cause of death after unrelated-donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), resulting in particularly high mortality after HLA-mismatched transplantation. There are no approved agents for AGVHD prevention, underscoring the critical unmet need for novel therapeutics. ABA2 was a phase II trial to rigorously assess safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of adding T-cell costimulation blockade with abatacept to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/methotrexate (MTX)-based GVHD prophylaxis, to test whether abatacept could decrease AGVHD.

Methods: ABA2 enrolled adults and children with hematologic malignancies under two strata: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled stratum (8/8-HLA-matched URD), comparing CNI/MTX plus abatacept with CNI/MTX plus placebo, and a single-arm stratum (7/8-HLA-mismatched URD) comparing CNI/MTX plus abatacept versus CNI/MTX CIBMTR controls. The primary end point was day +100 grade 3-4 AGVHD, with day +180 severe-AGVHD-free-survival (SGFS) a key secondary end point. Sample sizes were calculated using a higher type-1 error (0.2) as recommended for phase II trials, and were based on predicting that abatacept would reduce grade 3-4 AGVHD from 20% to 10% (8/8s) and 30% to 10% (7/8s). ABA2 enrolled 142 recipients (8/8s, median follow-up = 716 days) and 43 recipients (7/8s, median follow-up = 708 days).

Results: In 8/8s, grade 3-4 AGVHD was 6.8% (abatacept) versus 14.8% (placebo) ( = .13, hazard ratio = 0.45). SGFS was 93.2% (CNI/MTX plus abatacept) versus 82% (CNI/MTX plus placebo, = .05). In the smaller 7/8 cohort, grade 3-4 AGVHD was 2.3% (CNI/MTX plus abatacept, intention-to-treat population), which compared favorably with a nonrandomized matched cohort of CNI/MTX (30.2%, < .001), and the SGFS was better (97.7% 58.7%, < .001). Immunologic analysis revealed control of T-cell activation in abatacept-treated patients.

Conclusion: Adding abatacept to URD HCT was safe, reduced AGVHD, and improved SGFS. These results suggest that abatacept may substantially improve AGVHD-related transplant outcomes, with a particularly beneficial impact on HLA-mismatched HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260909PMC
June 2021

HLA-A alleles influencing NK cell function impact AML relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4955-4964

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

HLA-B allotypes exhibiting the Bw4 epitope trigger variable inhibitory signaling of KIR3DL1 receptor types, where strong inhibitory HLA-B and KIR3DL1 allele combinations are associated with increased risk for relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several HLA-A allotypes also exhibit the Bw4 epitope. Studies with natural killer (NK) cell clones have demonstrated NK inhibition via KIR3DL1 by HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, but did not delineate strengths of inhibition or hierarchies of NK education. Using primary NK cells from healthy donors, we demonstrate that HLA-A*23, HLA-A*24, and HLA-A*32 proteins are expressed at different densities and exhibit different capacities to educate and inhibit KIR3DL1-expressing NK cells in vitro. Among the HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, HLA-A*24 and HLA-A*32 demonstrate the strongest inhibitory capacity. To determine if HLA-A allotypes with strong inhibitory capacity have similar negative impact in allogeneic HCT as HLA-B Bw4+ allotypes, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1729 patients with AML who received an allogeneic HCT from a 9/10 or 10/10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donor. Examination of the donor-recipient pairs whose Bw4 epitope was exclusively contributed from HLA-A*24 and A*32 allotypes revealed that patients with HLA-A*24 who received an allograft from a KIR3DL1+ donor experienced a higher risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.32; P = .004) when compared with patients without a Bw4 epitope. These findings indicate that despite weak affinity interactions with KIR3DL1, common HLA-A allotypes with the Bw4 epitope can interact with KIR3DL1+ donor NK cells with clinically meaningful impact and provide additional insight to donor NK alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556125PMC
October 2020

Survival, Nonrelapse Mortality, and Relapse-Related Mortality After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Comparing 2003-2007 Versus 2013-2017 Cohorts.

Ann Intern Med 2020 02 21;172(4):229-239. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (G.S., T.A.G.).

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is indicated for refractory hematologic cancer and some nonmalignant disorders. Survival is limited by recurrent cancer and organ toxicity.

Objective: To determine whether survival has improved over the past decade and note impediments to better outcomes.

Design: The authors compared cohorts that had transplants during 2003 to 2007 versus 2013 to 2017. Survival outcome measures were analyzed, along with transplant-related complications.

Setting: A center performing allogeneic transplant procedures.

Participants: All recipients of a first allogeneic transplant during 2003 to 2007 and 2013 to 2017.

Intervention: Patients received a conditioning regimen, infusion of donor hematopoietic cells, then immunosuppressive drugs and antimicrobial approaches to infection control.

Measurements: Day-200 nonrelapse mortality (NRM), recurrence or progression of cancer, relapse-related mortality, and overall mortality, adjusted for comorbidity scores, source of donor cells, donor type, patient age, disease severity, conditioning regimen, patient and donor sex, and cytomegalovirus serostatus.

Results: During the 2003-to-2007 and 2013-to-2017 periods, 1148 and 1131 patients, respectively, received their first transplant. Over the decade, decreases were seen in the adjusted hazards of day-200 NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89]), relapse of cancer (HR, 0.76 [CI, 0.61 to 0.94]), relapse-related mortality (HR, 0.69 [CI, 0.54 to 0.87]), and overall mortality (HR, 0.66 [CI, 0.56 to 0.78]). The degree of reduction in overall mortality was similar for patients who received myeloablative versus reduced-intensity conditioning, as well as for patients whose allograft came from a matched sibling versus an unrelated donor. Reductions were also seen in the frequency of jaundice, renal insufficiency, mechanical ventilation, high-level cytomegalovirus viremia, gram-negative bacteremia, invasive mold infection, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prednisone exposure.

Limitation: Cohort studies cannot determine causality, and current disease severity criteria were not available for patients in the 2003-to-2007 cohort.

Conclusion: Improvement in survival and reduction in complications were substantial after allogeneic transplant. Relapse of cancer remains the largest obstacle to better survival outcomes.

Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M19-2936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847247PMC
February 2020

Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension by noninvasive methods in hematopoietic cell transplant patients with myelofibrosis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 12;55(8):1681-1683. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0769-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody followed by a reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with relapsed/refractory leukemia or myelodysplasia.

Haematologica 2020 06 3;105(6):1731-1737. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle

Outcomes of patients with persistent high-risk leukemia or myelodysplasia prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation are dismal. We therefore conducted a phase I trial evaluating the use of CD45-targeted radiotherapy preceding hematopoietic cell transplantation with the goal of improving outcomes for this high-risk scenario. Fifteen patients, median age 62 (range 37-76) years, were treated: ten with advanced acute myeloid leukemia, five with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. All patients had evidence of disease prior to treatment including nine with marrow blast counts ranging from 7-84% and six with minimal residual disease. Patients received escalating doses of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody followed by fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation prior to human leukocyte antigen-matched, related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although a maximum dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the liver, no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Therefore, the maximum-tolerated dose could not be estimated. Treatment led to complete remission in 13 patients (87%). All patients engrafted by day 28. Six patients relapsed, median of 59 (range 6-351) days, after transplantation. The 1-year estimate of relapse was 41%. Eight patients (53%) are surviving with median follow up of 1.8 (range 0.9-5.9) years. Estimated overall survival at one and two years was 66% and 46%, respectively, with progression-free survival estimated to be 46% at each time point. In conclusion, the combination of Y-DOTA-BC8 with an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was feasible and tolerable. This approach appears promising in this high-risk leukemia/myelodysplasia patient population with active disease. (Trial registered at ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271581PMC
June 2020

Phase I Study of a CD45-Targeted Antibody-Radionuclide Conjugate for High-Risk Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 12 3;25(23):6932-6938. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

Purpose: External-beam radiation is the single most effective therapy for localized lymphoma. However, toxicity limits its use for multifocal disease. We evaluated CD45 as a therapeutic target for an antibody-radionuclide conjugate (ARC) for the treatment of lymphoma based on its ubiquitous expression, infrequent antigen loss or blockade, and the ability to target minimal disease based on panhematopoietic expression.

Patients And Methods: We performed a phase I trial of escalating doses of single-agent CD45-targeted ARC based on per-patient dosimetry using the BC8 antibody labeled with iodine-131 (I) followed by autologous stem cell support in adults with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), T-cell NHL (T-NHL), or Hodgkin lymphoma. The primary objective was to estimate the maximum tolerated radiation absorbed dose.

Results: Sixteen patients were enrolled: 7 patients had B-NHL, 6 had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3 had T-NHL. Median number of prior therapies was three (range: 2-12). Absorbed doses up to 32 Gy to liver were delivered. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. Nonhematologic toxicity was infrequent and manageable. Objective responses were seen across histologies. Fourteen patients had measurable disease at enrollment, 57% of whom achieved complete remission (CR), including all 3 with T-NHL. Three patients with B-NHL treated among the highest dose levels (26-32 Gy) remain in CR without subsequent therapy 35-41 months later.

Conclusions: CD45-targeted ARC therapy is well-tolerated at doses up to at least 32 Gy to the liver. Objective responses and long-term remissions were observed in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. These data validate continued evaluation of anti-CD45 ARCs in lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891166PMC
December 2019

Total Body Irradiation-Based versus Chemotherapy-Based Myeloablative Conditioning for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 13;25(12):e356-e362. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.005DOI Listing
December 2019

T cell receptor gene therapy targeting WT1 prevents acute myeloid leukemia relapse post-transplant.

Nat Med 2019 07 24;25(7):1064-1072. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) entering HCT with poor-risk features. When HCT does produce prolonged relapse-free survival, it commonly reflects graft-versus-leukemia effects mediated by donor T cells reactive with antigens on leukemic cells. As graft T cells have not been selected for leukemia specificity and frequently recognize proteins expressed by many normal host tissues, graft-versus-leukemia effects are often accompanied by morbidity and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. Thus, AML relapse risk might be more effectively reduced with T cells expressing receptors (TCRs) that target selected AML antigens. We therefore isolated a high-affinity Wilms' Tumor Antigen 1-specific TCR (TCR) from HLA-A2 normal donor repertoires, inserted TCR into Epstein-Bar virus-specific donor CD8 T cells (T) to minimize graft-versus-host disease risk and enhance transferred T cell survival, and infused these cells prophylactically post-HCT into 12 patients ( NCT01640301 ). Relapse-free survival was 100% at a median of 44 months following infusion, while a concurrent comparative group of 88 patients with similar risk AML had 54% relapse-free survival (P = 0.002). T maintained TCR expression, persisted long-term and were polyfunctional. This strategy appears promising for preventing AML recurrence in individuals at increased risk of post-HCT relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0472-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982533PMC
July 2019

Pre-hematopoietic cell transplant Ruxolitinib in patients with primary and secondary myelofibrosis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 8;55(1):70-76. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Ruxolitinib (Rux), a Jak1/2 inhibitor, results in reduced spleen size and improvement in constitutional symptoms in the majority of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Therefore Rux, when given prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with MF was hypothesized to improve engraftment, decrease incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease, and lower non-relapse mortality (NRM). We conducted a phase II prospective trial to assess the effects of pre-HCT Rux on post-HCT outcomes in patients with MF. The primary endpoint was 2-year overall survival. To date, 28 patients (median age 56 years) have been transplanted. The median time on Rux pre-HCT was 7 months. Twenty-three patients received myeloablative and five reduced intensity conditioning. Donors included 14 HLA-matched siblings, 11 matched unrelated, 1 allele mismatched unrelated, and 3 umbilical cord blood. There have been no episodes of cytokine release syndrome and all patients achieved sustained engraftment. Two patients died from NRM and two patients relapsed. With a median follow-up of 13 months, overall survival is 93% (95% CI: 0.73, 0.98) at 1 year and 86% (95% CI: 0.61, 0.96) at 2 years post-HCT. This study demonstrates that pre-HCT Rux is well tolerated and suggests that pre-HCT Rux may improve post-HCT outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0523-3DOI Listing
January 2020

Factors associated with durable EFS in adult B-cell ALL patients achieving MRD-negative CR after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy.

Blood 2019 04 6;133(15):1652-1663. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Autologous T cells engineered to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have produced impressive minimal residual disease-negative (MRD-negative) complete remission (CR) rates in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, the factors associated with durable remissions after CAR T-cell therapy have not been fully elucidated. We studied patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL enrolled in a phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by CD19 CAR T-cell therapy at our institution. Forty-five (85%) of 53 patients who received CD19 CAR T-cell therapy and were evaluable for response achieved MRD-negative CR by high-resolution flow cytometry. With a median follow-up of 30.9 months, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better in the patients who achieved MRD-negative CR compared with those who did not (median EFS, 7.6 vs 0.8 months; < .0001; median OS, 20.0 vs 5.0 months; = .014). In patients who achieved MRD-negative CR by flow cytometry, absence of the index malignant clone by deep sequencing was associated with better EFS ( = .034). Stepwise multivariable modeling in patients achieving MRD-negative CR showed that lower prelymphodepletion lactate dehydrogenase concentration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38 per 100 U/L increment increase), higher prelymphodepletion platelet count (HR, 0.74 per 50 000/μL increment increase), incorporation of fludarabine into the lymphodepletion regimen (HR, 0.25), and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after CAR T-cell therapy (HR, 0.39) were associated with better EFS. These data allow identification of patients at higher risk of relapse after CAR T-cell immunotherapy who might benefit from consolidation strategies such as allogeneic HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01865617.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-11-883710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460418PMC
April 2019

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria in the Age of Eculizumab.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 07 1;25(7):1331-1339. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired clonal hematopoietic cell disease characterized by the destruction of hematopoietic cells through activation of the complement system with manifestations that can be life-threatening including hemolysis, thrombosis, and marrow failure. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the sole cure for PNH, but eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor of C5, has been used to prevent complement-mediated hemolysis in patients with PNH since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 2007. We examined outcomes of HCT in patients with PNH to evaluate the effects of disease subtype, conditioning intensity, and eculizumab use either pre-HCT or post-HCT. Fifty-five patients with a diagnosis of PNH underwent at least 1 HCT, with 4 patients requiring a second HCT for graft failure. The median age at the time of first HCT was 30.0 years (range, 4.2 to 66.9 years). Seventeen patients (30.9%) had classical PNH, and the remaining 38 patients had PNH associated with another marrow disorder (aplastic anemia in 26 of the 38). Indications for HCT included pancytopenia in 47.3% of the patients, myeloid malignancy (myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative neoplasm, or acute myelogenous leukemia) in 21.8%, recurrent hemolysis in 20.0%, and thrombosis in 10.9%. Of the 55 first HCTs, 26 were performed with myeloablative conditioning, 27 were performed with reduced-intensity conditioning, and 2 sets of identical twins underwent HCT without any conditioning. Donor types included HLA-matched related in 38.2%, HLA-matched unrelated in 34.5%, single HLA-allele mismatched unrelated in 16.4%, umbilical cord blood in 5.5%, syngeneic in 3.6%, and HLA-haploidentical in 1.8%. The median duration of follow-up in surviving patients was 6.1 years (range, 2.1 to 46.1 years) after first HCT. The median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 17 days and 19 days, respectively; all but 2 patients (96.3%) had sustained engraftment. Overall survival was 70% at 5 years. Neither the choice of conditioning intensity nor PNH subtype affected survival. Nineteen patients died during follow-up, including 12 patients before day +365. Six patients received treatment with eculizumab before HCT, and 2 were treated after HCT. All patients treated with eculizumab were alive at a median follow-up of 2.3 years (range, .2 to 6.9 years). Both patients treated with eculizumab after HCT had minimal to no acute GVHD (aGVHD), with grade I skin aGVHD in 1 patient and no aGVHD in the other patient, and no chronic GVHD at 2.1 and 4.1 years post-HCT, respectively. With the approval of eculizumab, the indications for HCT include persistent hemolysis, persistent thrombosis, and associated marrow failure. Administration of eculizumab before and after HCT warrants further study, particularly considering our observation of minimal to no GVHD in 2 patients who received eculizumab after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.01.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615950PMC
July 2019

Bendamustine with rituximab, etoposide and carboplatin (T(R)EC) in relapsed or refractory aggressive lymphoma: a prospective multicentre phase 1/2 clinical trial.

Br J Haematol 2018 11 14;183(4):601-607. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

We sought to develop a safe and effective outpatient salvage regimen by replacing ifosfamide within the (R)ICE (rituximab, ifosfomide, carboplatin, etoposide) regimen with bendamustine (T(R)EC) via a multicentre phase I/II study for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Therapy consisted of 60-120 mg/m per day bendamustine on days 1 and 2 in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and rituximab (only for CD20 lymphoma) used in the (R)ICE regimen for up to 2 cycles. The objectives were to define a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of bendamustine, determine safety and toxicity, assess efficacy, and evaluate impact on stem cell collection. Forty-eight patients were treated of which 71% had refractory disease. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase II dose of bendamustine was 120 mg/m per day on days 1 and 2. Response rates were 85% (70% complete response, CR) in HL, and 65% (40% CR) in DLBCL. Stem cell collection was successful in 30 of 32 patients. The most common non-haematological toxicities ≥grade 3 were febrile neutropenia (8%) and dehydration (8%). The T(R)EC regimen safely yields high response rates, successfully mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells and compares favourably to RICE, offering an effective outpatient treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314205PMC
November 2018

Pre-transplant expressions of microRNAs, comorbidities, and post-transplant mortality.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 2;54(7):973-979. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

We analyzed micro-RNAs (miRs) as possible diagnostic biomarkers for relevant comorbidities prior to and prognostic biomarkers for mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A randomly selected group of patients (n = 36) were divided into low-risk (HCT-comorbidity index [HCT-CI] score of 0 and survived HCT) and high-risk (HCT-CI scores ≥ 4 and deceased after HCT) groups. There were 654 miRs tested and 19 met the pre-specified significance level of p < 0.1. In subsequent models, only eight miRs maintained statistical significance in regression models after adjusting for baseline demographic factors; miRs-374b and -454 were underexpressed, whereas miRs-142-3p, -191, -424, -590-3p, -29c, and -15b were overexpressed among high-risk patients relative to low-risk patients. Areas under the curve for these eight miRs ranged between 0.74 and 0.81, suggesting strong predictive capacity. Consideration of miRs may improve risk assessment of mortality and should be further explored in larger future prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0352-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445788PMC
July 2019

Graft-Derived Reconstitution of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 02 9;24(2):242-251. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant Vα7.2 T cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes ligands from distinct bacterial and fungal species. In neonates, MAIT cells proliferate coincident with gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial colonization. In contrast, under noninflammatory conditions adult MAIT cells remain quiescent because of acquired regulation of TCR signaling. Effects of inflammation and the altered GI microbiota after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on MAIT cell reconstitution have not been described. We conducted an observational study of MAIT cell reconstitution in myeloablative (n = 41) and nonmyeloablative (n = 66) allogeneic HCT recipients and found that despite a rapid and early increase to a plateau at day 30 after HCT, MAIT cell numbers failed to normalize for at least 1 year. Cord blood transplant recipients and those who received post-HCT cyclophosphamide for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis had profoundly impaired MAIT cell reconstitution. Sharing of TCRβ gene sequences between MAIT cells isolated from HCT grafts and blood of recipients after HCT showed early MAIT cell reconstitution was due at least in part to proliferation of MAIT cells transferred in the HCT graft. Inflammatory cytokines were required for TCR-dependent MAIT cell proliferation, suggesting that bacterial Vα7.2 TCR ligands might promote MAIT cell reconstitution after HCT. Robust MAIT cell reconstitution was associated with an increased GI abundance of Blautia spp. MAIT cells suppressed proliferation of conventional T cells consistent with a possible regulatory role. Our data identify modifiable factors impacting MAIT cell reconstitution that could influence the risk of GVHD after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806215PMC
February 2018

Graft-versus-Host Disease of the Gut: A Histologic Activity Grading System and Validation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Sep 19;23(9):1573-1579. Epub 2017 May 19.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

The pathologic interpretation of gut biopsies in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients to assess graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is well accepted and supplements clinical and endoscopic findings. However, the histologic activity grading of GVHD is controversial, with attempts to predict prognosis or response to treatment largely unsuccessful. GVHD is being diagnosed earlier in its course, raising the possibility that the pathologic grading system can be profitably modified. We developed a histologic activity grading system designed to replace the commonly used modified Lerner grading systems. Our system stratifies the low-level Lerner grade I category into 4 activity grade categories, based on the average frequency of apoptotic cells. The results are expressed as ordinal categories: GVHD of minimal, mild, moderate, severe histologic activity, or severe histologic activity with destruction (activity grades 1 to 5). In a retrospective study, we studied 87 consecutive cases with 201 post-transplantation specimens (median, 48 days; range, 18 to 1479 days) of stomach, duodenum, and colorectum, which had been activity graded at the time of the original diagnosis. Most of the biopsies diagnosed as GVHD were low grade-minimal (11%) or mild (71%) histologic activity. We hypothesized that the higher activity grades would be associated with more therapeutic intervention. The odds of increased therapy in the combined all-site specimens were increased as activity grade increased (odds ratio, 2.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.9 to 4.5]; P = < .0001). Thus, our grading system was validated. To investigate whether the activity grade was associated with therapy within the formerly undivided Lerner grade I category, the analysis was restricted to these 174 all-site specimens. The validation result was similar (odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2]; P = .009). This result interestingly suggests that there is useful information hidden in the Lerner grade I category, which could potentially guide immediately actionable treatment decisions. This histologic activity grade system has been in use at our institution for over 2 years with good acceptance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.05.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289287PMC
September 2017

KIR3DL1/HLA-B Subtypes Govern Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2017 07 18;35(20):2268-2278. Epub 2017 May 18.

Jeanette E. Boudreau, Fabio Giglio, Jean-Benoît Le Luduec, Brian C. Shaffer, and Katharine C. Hsu, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Brian C. Shaffer and Katharine C. Hsu, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Ted A. Gooley, Philip A. Stevenson, Mari Malkki, and Effie W. Petersdorf, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Raja Rajalingam, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco; Elaine F. Reed, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Lihua Hou and Carolyn Katovich Hurley, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC; Harriet Noreen, University of Minnesota; Cynthia Vierra-Green, Michael Haagenson, and Stephen Spellman, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, MN; and Neng Yu, American Red Cross Blood Services, Dedham, MA.

Purpose Disease relapse remains a major challenge to successful outcomes in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Donor natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity in HCT can control leukemic relapse, but capturing alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT has been elusive. HLA expression on leukemia cells-upregulated in the post-HCT environment-signals for NK cell inhibition via inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and interrupts their antitumor activity. We hypothesized that varied strengths of inhibition among subtypes of the ubiquitous KIR3DL1 and its cognate ligand, HLA-B, would titrate NK reactivity against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods By using an algorithm that was based on polymorphism-driven expression levels and specificities, we predicted and tested inhibitory and cytotoxic NK potential on the basis of KIR3DL1/HLA-B subtype combinations in vitro and evaluated their impact in 1,328 patients with AML who underwent HCT from 9/10 or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors. Results Segregated by KIR3DL1 subtype, NK cells demonstrated reproducible patterns of strong, weak, or noninhibition by target cells with defined HLA-B subtypes, which translated into discrete cytotoxic hierarchies against AML. In patients, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations that were predictive of weak inhibition or noninhibition were associated with significantly lower relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; P = .004) and overall mortality (HR, 0.84; P = .030) compared with strong inhibition combinations. The greatest effects were evident in the high-risk group of patients with all KIR ligands (relapse: HR, 0.54; P < .001; and mortality: HR, 0.74; P < .008). Beneficial effects of weak and noninhibiting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations were separate from and additive to the benefit of donor activating KIR2DS1. Conclusion Consideration of KIR3DL1-mediated inhibition in donor selection for HLA-matched HCT may achieve superior graft versus leukemia effects, lower risk for relapse, and an increase in survival among patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.70.7059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501362PMC
July 2017

Notch-Expanded Murine Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Mitigate Death from Lethal Radiation and Convey Immune Tolerance in Mismatched Recipients.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2017 02 13;6(2):566-575. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The hematopoietic syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (h-ARS) is characterized by severe bone marrow aplasia, resulting in a significant risk for bleeding, infections, and death. To date, clinical management of h-ARS is limited to supportive care dictated by the level of radiation exposure, with a high incidence of mortality in those exposed to high radiation doses. The ideal therapeutic agent would be an immediately available, easily distributable single-agent therapy capable of rapid in vivo hematopoietic reconstitution until recovery of autologous hematopoiesis occurs. Using a murine model of h-ARS, we herein demonstrate that infusion of ex vivo expanded murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into major histocompatibility complex mismatched recipient mice exposed to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation (IR) led to rapid myeloid recovery and improved survival. Survival benefit was significant in a dose-dependent manner even when infusion of the expanded cell therapy was delayed 3 days after lethal IR exposure. Most surviving mice (80%) demonstrated long-term in vivo persistence of donor T cells at low levels, and none had evidence of graft versus host disease. Furthermore, survival of donor-derived skin grafts was significantly prolonged in recipients rescued from h-ARS by infusion of the mismatched expanded cell product. These findings provide evidence that ex vivo expanded mismatched HSPCs can provide rapid, high-level hematopoietic reconstitution, mitigate IR-induced mortality, and convey donor-specific immune tolerance in a murine h-ARS model. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:566-575.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2016-0112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5442821PMC
February 2017

Results of a phase I-II study of fenretinide and rituximab for patients with indolent B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2017 02 5;176(4):583-590. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Fenretinide, a synthetic retinoid, induces apoptotic cell death in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and acts synergistically with rituximab in preclinical models. We report results from a phase I-II study of fenretinide with rituximab for B-NHLs. Eligible diagnoses included indolent B-NHL or mantle cell lymphoma. The phase I design de-escalated from fenretinide at 900 mg/m PO BID for days 1-5 of a 7-day cycle. The phase II portion added 375 mg/m IV rituximab weekly on weeks 5-9 then every 3 months. Fenretinide was continued until progression or intolerance. Thirty-two patients were treated: 7 in phase I, and 25 in phase II of the trial. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The phase II component utilized fenretinide 900 mg/m twice daily with rituximab. The most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were rash (n = 3) and neutropenia (n = 3). Responses were seen in 6 (24%) patients on the phase II study, with a median duration of response of 47 months (95% confidence interval, 2-56). The combination of fenretinide and rituximab was well tolerated, yielded a modest overall response rate, but with prolonged remission durations. Further study should focus on identifying the responsive subset of B-NHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5303179PMC
February 2017

Mortality outcomes after busulfan-containing conditioning treatment and haemopoietic cell transplantation in patients with Gilbert's syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

Lancet Haematol 2016 Nov;3(11):e516-e525

Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Clinical Statistics, and Transplantation Biology Sections, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Gilbert's syndrome is a common inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism, characterised by mild, unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. However, the effect of Gilbert's syndrome on the disposition of some drugs can lead to unexpected toxicity. We tested the hypothesis that patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and haemopoietic cell transplantation would have different mortality outcomes depending on whether or not they had laboratory evidence of Gilbert's syndrome.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we used clinical and laboratory data of patients who had haemopoietic cell transplantation from Jan 1, 1991, to Dec 31, 2011. Patients were included if they had received high-dose conditioning regimens of cyclophosphamide plus total body irradiation (CY/TBI), busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (BU/CY), busulfan plus melphalan plus thioTEPA (BUMELTT), or melphalan before transplant. Patients were excluded if their original consent forms to report transplant outcomes were not signed, if consent was withdrawn, or if they were a prisoner. Patients with Gilbert's syndrome were defined as having laboratory values before the start of conditioning therapy for unconjugated serum bilirubin concentrations of at least 17·1 μmol/L (≥1 mg/dL), normal conjugated serum bilirubin, and no evidence of hepatitis, cholestasis, or haemolysis. We assessed the association of Gilbert's syndrome with overall mortality and non-relapse mortality using adjusted Cox regression models at day 200 after transplantation.

Findings: Our study cohort was 3379 patients-1855 (55%) allograft and 1524 (45%) autograft recipients. 211 (6%) patients had Gilbert's syndrome and 3168 (94%) did not have this condition. Most patients were adults (median age 45·8 years [IQR 33·2-55·5]) with haematological malignancies. For overall mortality 664 (20%) patients had died by day 200 after transplant (47 [22%] of 211 who had Gilbert's syndrome vs 617 [19%] of 3168 who did not have Gilbert's syndrome), and for non-relapse mortality 499 (92%) patients had died before relapse was recorded (38 [18%] who had Gilbert's syndrome vs 461 [15%] who did not have Gilbert's syndrome). The effect of Gilbert's syndrome on the risk of overall mortality and non-relapse mortality by transplant day 200 varied between the conditioning regimens and donor groups. In patients conditioned with a myeloablative regimen that contained busulfan (n=1131), those with Gilbert's syndrome (n=60) were at a significantly increased risk of death and non-relapse mortality by day 200 compared with those without Gilbert's syndrome (n=1071; hazard ratio [HR] 2·30, 95% CI 1·47-3·61, p=0·00030; and 2·77, 1·71-4·49, p<0·0001). In patients who received CY/TBI or melphalan conditioning regimens, those with Gilbert's syndrome had similar outcomes to those without Gilbert's syndrome (overall mortality at day 200 HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·60-1·34, p=0·60; non-relapse mortality at day 200: 0·90, 0·56-1·45, p=0·65). Analyses of causes of death and busulfan disposition provided no mechanistic explanation for the differences in mortality.

Interpretation: Overall mortality and non-relapse mortality at day 200 after transplant were significantly worse in patients with Gilbert's syndrome who received busulfan-containing myeloablative conditioning regimens, compared with non-Gilbert's syndrome patients. Patients with Gilbert's syndrome should receive busulfan-containing myeloablative conditioning regimens with caution.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30149-1DOI Listing
November 2016

Frequent PIK3CA Mutations in Colorectal and Endometrial Tumors With 2 or More Somatic Mutations in Mismatch Repair Genes.

Gastroenterology 2016 09 11;151(3):440-447.e1. Epub 2016 Jun 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Some colorectal and endometrial tumors with microsatellite instability not attributable to MLH1 hypermethylation or germline mutations contain 2 or more somatic mutations in genes encoding mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We sought to define the molecular phenotype of this newly recognized tumor subtype.

Methods: From 2 prospective studies of the efficacy of screening for Lynch syndrome, we identified patients with colorectal and endometrial tumors who had 2 or more somatic (but not germline) mutations in genes encoding MMR proteins (double somatic). We determined the frequencies of tumor mutations in PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, and PTEN by targeted next-generation sequencing and used logistic-regression models to compare them with those from patients with Lynch syndrome, MLH1-hypermethylated, or microsatellite-stable tumors. We validated our findings using independent data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Results: Among colorectal cancer cases, we found that 14 of 21 (67%) patients with double somatic tumors also had PIK3CA mutations, compared with 4 of 18 (22%) tumors from patients with Lynch syndrome, 2 of 10 (20%) tumors with MLH1 hypermethylation, and 12 of 78 (15%) tumors with microsatellite stability (P < .0001 for patients with double somatic tumors vs other subgroups). Mutations in PIK3CA were detected in all 13 patients with double somatic endometrial cancers (P = .04 compared with other subgroups). We did not detect BRAF mutations in patients with double somatic colorectal tumors or Lynch syndrome. We found highly similar results in a validation cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (113 patients with colorectal tumors, 178 endometrial tumors); 100% of double somatic cases had a somatic mutation in PIK3CA (P < .0001 compared with other subgroups).

Conclusions: Most patients with colorectal or endometrial tumors with 2 or more somatic (but not germline) mutations in MMR proteins also have mutations in PIK3CA; mutations in PIK3CA are detected at substantially higher frequencies in these double somatic tumors than in other microsatellite-instability subgroups. PIK3CA mutation status might be used to identify a specific group of colorectal tumors, and to select treatment or determine prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016834PMC
September 2016

Human Metapneumovirus Infections Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Factors Associated With Disease Progression.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 07 3;63(2):178-85. Epub 2016 May 3.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.

Background: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a newly identified pulmonary pathogen that can cause fatal lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Little is known about progression rates from upper respiratory tract infection (URI) to LRD and risk factors associated with progression.

Methods: A total of 118 HCT recipients receiving transplantation between 2004 and 2014 who had HMPV detected in nasopharyngeal, bronchoalveolar lavage, or lung biopsy samples by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: More than 90% of the cases were identified between December and May. Among the 118 HCT patients, 88 and 30 had URI alone and LRD, respectively. Among 30 patients with LRD, 17 patients progressed from URI to LRD after a median of 7 days (range, 2-63 days). The probability of progression to LRD within 40 days after URI was 16%. In Cox regression analysis, steroid use ≥1 mg/kg prior to URI diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 5.10; P = .004), low lymphocyte count (HR, 3.43; P = .011), and early onset of HMPV infection after HCT (before day 30 after HCT; HR, 3.54; P = .013) were associated with higher progression to LRD. The median viral load in nasal wash samples was 1.1 × 10(6) copies/mL (range, 3.3 × 10(2)-1.7 × 10(9)) with no correlation between the viral load and progression.

Conclusions: Progression from URI to LRD occurred in up to 60% of HCT recipients with risk factors such as systemic corticosteroid use or low lymphocyte counts. Further studies are needed to define the role of viral load in the pathogenesis of progressive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928387PMC
July 2016

Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy without TBI before transplantation facilitates persistent haploidentical donor engraftment.

Blood 2016 Jan 17;127(3):352-9. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; and.

Many patients with hematologic malignancies cannot tolerate hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), whereas others may not have a compatible human leukocyte antigen-matched donor. To overcome these limitations, we optimized a conditioning regimen employing anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) replacing total body irradiation (TBI) before haploidentical HCT in a murine model. Mice received 200 to 400 μCi (90)Y-anti-CD45 antibody (30F11), with or without fludarabine (5 days starting day -8), with cyclophosphamide (CY; days -2 and +2) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and 1.5 × 10(7) haploidentical donor bone marrow cells (day 0). Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with 300 μCi (90)Y-anti-CD45 RIT and CY, without TBI or fludarabine, led to mixed chimeras with 81.3 ± 10.6% mean donor origin CD8(+) cells detected 1 month after BMT, and remained stable (85.5 ± 11% mean donor origin CD8(+) cells) 6 months after haploidentical BMT. High chimerism levels were induced across multiple hematopoietic lineages 28 days after haploidentical BMT with 69.3 ± 14.1%, 75.6 ± 20.2%, and 88.5 ± 11.8% CD3(+) T cells, B220(+) B cells, and CD11b(+) myeloid cells, respectively. Fifty percent of SJL leukemia-bearing mice treated with 400 μCi (90)Y-DOTA-30F11, CY, and haploidentical BMT were cured and lived >200 days. Mice treated with 200 μCi (90)Y-DOTA-30F11 had a median overall survival of 73 days, while untreated leukemic mice had a median overall survival of 34 days (P < .001, Mantel-Cox test). RIT-mediated haploidentical BMT without TBI may increase treatment options for aggressive hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-12-617019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4722286PMC
January 2016

Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell-depleted stem cell grafts.

J Clin Invest 2015 Jul 8;125(7):2677-89. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Background: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). In mice, naive T cells (TN) cause more severe GVHD than memory T cells (TM). We hypothesized that selective depletion of TN from human allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts would reduce GVHD and provide sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and TM to permit hematopoietic engraftment and the transfer of pathogen-specific T cells from donor to recipient, respectively.

Methods: In a single-arm clinical trial, we transplanted 35 patients with high-risk leukemia with TN-depleted PBSC grafts following conditioning with total body irradiation, thiotepa, and fludarabine. GVHD prophylactic management was with tacrolimus immunosuppression alone. Subjects received CD34-selected PBSCs and a defined dose of TM purged of CD45RA+ TN. Primary and secondary objectives included engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and immune reconstitution.

Results: All recipients of TN-depleted PBSCs engrafted. The incidence of acute GVHD was not reduced; however, GVHD in these patients was universally corticosteroid responsive. Chronic GVHD was remarkably infrequent (9%; median follow-up 932 days) compared with historical rates of approximately 50% with T cell-replete grafts. TM in the graft resulted in rapid T cell recovery and transfer of protective virus-specific immunity. Excessive rates of infection or relapse did not occur and overall survival was 78% at 2 years.

Conclusion: Depletion of TN from stem cell allografts reduces the incidence of chronic GVHD, while preserving the transfer of functional T cell memory.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 00914940).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI81229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4563691PMC
July 2015

Adjuvant Metronomic CMF in a Contemporary Breast Cancer Cohort: What's Old Is New.

Clin Breast Cancer 2015 Oct 24;15(5):e277-85. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Public Health Services Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Background: Commonly used adjuvant systemic therapies harbor high rates of severe short-term and long-term side effects but are often justified to patients because of curative intent in early-stage breast cancer. One of the oldest and least toxic adjuvant regimens, CMF (oral cyclophosphamide given with intravenous methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil), has been largely abandoned because of the perception that it underperforms for survival outcomes compared with modern regimens containing anthracycline and/or taxanes.

Materials And Methods: To address this misperception, we performed a review of all consecutive breast cancer patients at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance over the past decade who received 6 months of adjuvant CMF as their sole chemotherapy regimen and determined rates for relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and major organ toxicity. From January 2003 to August 2013, 248 patients (median age of 52 years at the start of chemotherapy) met criteria for inclusion in this series and had a median follow-up of 67 months.

Results: RFS and OS at 5 years was 94.5% (91.3%-97.9%) and 98% (96%-100%), respectively. The only major organ toxicity that occurred in > 5% of patients was Grade 3 neutropenia (18.1%, 24 patients). One patient died during therapy from pneumocystis pneumonia attributed to previously undiagnosed AIDS.

Conclusion: In a modern cohort of patients thoroughly characterized for Grade and hormone receptor status, CMF was a well-tolerated and effective adjuvant regimen for early-stage breast cancer and should be considered for appropriately selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2015.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568144PMC
October 2015
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