Publications by authors named "Taylor Lane"

12 Publications

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Precision mentoring (PM): a proposed framework for increasing research capacity in health-related disciplines.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1964933

Southwest Health Equity Research Collaborative (SHERC) in the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER), Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

Problem: Research productivity is expected of academic faculty, and mentoring can facilitate it. This paper presents a framework for using mentoring to develop researchers in health disciplines.

Approach: We utilized recent literature reviews, and experience developing researchers at an emerging research institution within the Research Centers for Minority Institutions (RCMI) program, to propose a precision mentoring (PM) framework for research development.

Outcomes: Although we cannot precisely determine improvement was due to the PM framework, over the 4 years of our program, the quality and quantity of pilot project proposals (PPP) has increased, the number of external proposals submitted and funded by PPP investigators has increased, and the number of faculty participating in our program has increased. Surveys distributed to our 2021-22 PPP applicants who did not receive funding (n = 5/6 or 86.7%) revealed that new investigators most frequently sought mentoring related to career guidance (e.g., institutional culture, pre-tenure survival strategies), grant proposal basics (e.g., working with funding agencies, reviewing aims, balancing priorities, and enhancing scientific rigor), and identifying funding opportunities.

Next Steps: We recommend shifting the mentoring paradigm such that: (a) mentees are pre-screened and re-screened for their current skill set and desired areas of growth; (b) mentoring occurs in teams vs. by individuals; (c) mentors are trained and rewarded, and (d) attention is paid to enhancing institutional culture.
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December 2021

Development of a Comprehensive Toxicity Pathway Model for 17α-Ethinylestradiol in Early Life Stage Fathead Minnows ().

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 23;55(8):5024-5036. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada.

There is increasing pressure to develop alternative ecotoxicological risk assessment approaches that do not rely on expensive, time-consuming, and ethically questionable live animal testing. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive early life stage toxicity pathway model for the exposure of fish to estrogenic chemicals that is rooted in mechanistic toxicology. Embryo-larval fathead minnows (FHM; ) were exposed to graded concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol (water control, 0.01% DMSO, 4, 20, and 100 ng/L) for 32 days. Fish were assessed for transcriptomic and proteomic responses at 4 days post-hatch (dph), and for histological and apical end points at 28 dph. Molecular analyses revealed core responses that were indicative of observed apical outcomes, including biological processes resulting in overproduction of vitellogenin and impairment of visual development. Histological observations indicated accumulation of proteinaceous fluid in liver and kidney tissues, energy depletion, and delayed or suppressed gonad development. Additionally, fish in the 100 ng/L treatment group were smaller than controls. Integration of omics data improved the interpretation of perturbations in early life stage FHM, providing evidence of conservation of toxicity pathways across levels of biological organization. Overall, the mechanism-based embryo-larval FHM model showed promise as a replacement for standard adult live animal tests.
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April 2021

Seasonal Variability in Weight Gain Among American Indian, Black, White, and Hispanic Children: A 3.5-Year Study.

Am J Prev Med 2021 05 23;60(5):658-665. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Health Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona. Electronic address:

Introduction: Several studies have reported that children gain more weight during the summer season. Despite high obesity rates, little research has included American Indian/Alaskan Native children, and few studies have been longitudinal. This observational study examines seasonal weight variability over 3.5 years among ethnically diverse children, including 2,184 American Indian/Alaskan Native children.

Methods: Children's height and weight were measured before and after the summer from 2012-2015 and analyzed in 2019-2020, including children with ≥2 consecutive measurements (N=7,890, mean age=8.4 [SD=2.8] years). Mixed-effects models tested whether the percentage of the 95th BMI percentile and BMI differed by season (summer versus the rest of the year) and ethnicity.

Results: American Indian/Alaskan Native (23.7%), Hispanic (19.8%), and Black (17.8%) children had significantly higher baseline obesity rates than White children (7.1%). The percentage of the 95th BMI percentile significantly increased during the summer compared with the percentage during the rest of the year, with the strongest effects for children who were obese (b=2.69, 95% CI=1.35, 4.03, p<0.001) or overweight (b=1.47, 95% CI=0.56, 2.35, p<0.01). In BMI units, summer BMI increase was 0.50 kg/m higher (obese model) and 0.27 kg/m higher (overweight) than that of the rest of the year. Seasonal effects were significantly less pronounced for American Indian/Alaskan Native children than for White children.

Conclusions: Children gained significantly more weight during the summer season, with the strongest effects for children who were obese. American Indian/Alaskan Native children had less seasonal variability than White children, but higher overall obesity rates. These data underscore summer as a critical time for obesity prevention among children who are overweight/obese but suggest that seasonal patterns may vary for American Indian/Alaskan Native children.
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May 2021

Mentoring New and Early-Stage Investigators and Underrepresented Minority Faculty for Research Success in Health-Related Fields: An Integrative Literature Review (2010-2020).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 7;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Center for Health Equity Research, Northern Arizona University, 1395 S Knoles Drive, Suite 140, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.

Mentoring to develop research skills is an important strategy for facilitating faculty success. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative literature review to examine the barriers and facilitators to mentoring in health-related research, particularly for three categories: new investigators (NI), early-stage investigators (ESI) and underrepresented minority faculty (UMF). PsychINFO, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for papers published in English from 2010 to 2020, and 46 papers were reviewed. Most papers recommended having multiple mentors and many recommended assessing baseline research skills. Barriers and facilitators were both individual and institutional. mentioned most frequently were a lack of time and finding work-life balance. UMF mentioned barriers related to bias, discrimination and isolation. included lack of mentors, lack of access to resources, and heavy teaching and service loads. UMF experienced institutional barriers such as devaluation of experience or expertise. were subdivided and included writing and synthesis as technical skills, networking and collaborating as interpersonal skills, and accountability, leadership, time management, and resilience/grit as personal skills. included access to mentoring, professional development opportunities, and workload assigned to research. Advocacy for diversity and cultural humility were included as unique interpersonal and institutional facilitators for UMF. Several overlapping and unique barriers and facilitators to mentoring for research success for NI, ESI and UMF in the health-related disciplines are presented.
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January 2021

Is subjective well-being independently associated with mortality? A 14-year prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 25 139 US men and women.

BMJ Open 2020 01 14;10(1):e031776. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Psychological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.

Objectives: To examine whether the inverse association of subjective well-being with mortality is independent of self-rated health and socioeconomic status in healthy adults.

Design: A population-based prospective cohort study based on an in-person interview. Cox regression was used to examine mortality hazards for happiness alone and for a standardised summary well-being measure that included happiness, life satisfaction and negative emotions. Using prespecified analyses, we first adjusted for age and then additionally adjusted for self-rated health and then race/ethnicity, marital status, smoking and socioeconomic status.

Setting: Probability sample of adult US residents interviewed in their homes in 2001.

Participants: 25 139 adults free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline.

Primary Outcome Measure: All-cause mortality 14 years after the baseline interview as assessed by probabilistic matching using the National Death Index.

Results: Age-adjusted unhappiness was associated with mortality (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.45, p=0.001) but the association attenuated after adjusting for self-rated health (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16, p=0.85). A similar pattern was seen for the summary well-being measure in fully adjusted models (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.00, p=0.30). In contrast, self-rated health was strongly associated with mortality. In the fully adjusted model with the summary well-being measure the hazards for good, very good and excellent self-rated health were 0.71 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.80, p<0.001), 0.63 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.71, p<0.001) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.51, p<0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: In this representative sample of US adults, the association between well-being and mortality was strongly attenuated by self-rated health and to a lesser extent socioeconomic status.
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January 2020

Predation risk induces age- and sex-specific morphological plastic responses in the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.

Sci Rep 2019 10 25;9(1):15378. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2, Canada.

Although comprehending the significance of phenotypic plasticity for evolution is of major interest in biology, the pre-requirement for that, the understanding of variance in plasticity, is still in its infancy. Most researchers assess plastic traits at single developmental stages and pool results between sexes. Here, we study variation among sexes and developmental stages in inducible morphological defences, a well-known instance of plasticity. We raised fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, under different levels of background predation risk (conspecific alarm cues or distilled water) in a split-clutch design and studied morphology in both juveniles and adults. In accordance with the theory that plasticity varies across ontogeny and sexes, geometric morphometry analyses revealed significant shape differences between treatments that varied across developmental stages and sexes. Alarm cue-exposed juveniles and adult males developed deeper heads, deeper bodies, longer dorsal fin bases, shorter caudal peduncles and shorter caudal fins. Adult alarm cue-exposed males additionally developed a larger relative eye size. These responses represent putative adaptive plasticity as they are linked to reduced predation risk. Perhaps most surprisingly, we found no evidence for inducible morphological defences in females. Understanding whether similar variation occurs in other taxa and their environments is crucial for modelling evolution.
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October 2019

In ovo exposure of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to selenomethionine via maternal transfer and embryo microinjection: A comparative study.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Nov 16;216:105299. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3, Canada; School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8, Canada. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of concern that is known to contaminate aquatic ecosystems as a consequence of releases from anthropogenic activities. Selenium is of particular toxicological concern for egg-laying vertebrates as they bioaccumulate Se through the diet and deposit excess Se to embryo-offspring via maternal transfer, a process which has been shown to result in significant teratogenic effects. The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the in ovo effects of Se exposure on early development of a laboratory model fish species native to North American freshwater systems, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), through two different exposure routes, maternal transfer and microinjection. For maternal transfer studies, fathead minnow breeding groups (3 females: 2 males) were exposed to diets containing Se-background levels (1.21 μg Se/g food, dry mass [dm]) or environmentally relevant concentrations of selenomethionine (SeMet; 3.88, 8.75 and 26.5 μg Se/g food dm) and bred for 28 days. Embryos were collected at different time points throughout the study to measure Se concentrations and to assess teratogenicity in embryos. While exposure to dietary Se did not negatively affect fecundity among treatment groups, the lowest treatment group (3.88 μg Se/g food dm) produced on average the most embryos per day, per female. The maternal transfer of excess Se occurred rapidly upon onset of exposure, reaching steady-state after approximately 14 days, and embryo Se concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest concentrations of maternally transferred Se significantly increased the total proportion of deformed embryo-larval fathead minnows but did not impact hatchability or survival. In a second study, fathead minnow embryos were injected with SeMet at concentrations of 0.00 (vehicle control), 9.73, 13.5 and 18.9 μg Se/g embryo dm. Microinjection of SeMet did not affect hatchability but significantly increased the proportion of deformed embryo-larval fish in a dose-dependent manner. There was a greater proportion of deformed fathead minnows at embryo Se concentrations of 18.9 μg Se/g embryo dm when exposed via microinjection versus maternal transfer at concentrations of 28.4 μg Se/g embryo dm. However, the findings suggest that both exposure routes induced analogous developmental toxicities in early life stage fish at Se concentrations between 9.73 and 13.5 μg Se/g embryo dm. Overall, this study demonstrated that microinjection has utility for studying the effects of Se in embryo-larval fish and is a promising method for the study of early life stage Se exposure in egg-laying vertebrates.
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November 2019

Relationship of athletic and academic identity to concussion reporting intentions.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2019 07 11;42:186-192. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, 208 E. Pine Knoll Drive, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Understanding concussed athletes' motivations for reporting concussion symptoms is important for health care professionals who are charged with the care, management, and prevention of future injury.

Objectives: To examine if athletic and academic identity predict concussion symptom reporting intentions above and beyond traditional socio-cognitive predictors.

Design: Cross-sectional study using self-report measures during the 2016 collegiate football season.

Method: In a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I American football athletes (N = 205) we examined the relationship of athletic and academic identity with three indices of symptom reporting behavior: reporting during a game, reporting 24 h after a game, and reporting on behalf of a teammate. We used descriptive statistical analyses, correlations, and linear regression to examine hypotheses.

Results: Controlling for traditional predictors, athletic identity was associated with a lower likelihood to report symptoms during a game (β = -0.22, t = -3.28, p < .001) or within 24 h (β = -0.28, t = -4.12, p < .001). Academic identity was positively associated with reporting intentions during a game (β = 0.12, t = 1.68, p < .05), 24 h later (β = 0.13, t = 1.85, p < .05), and on behalf of a teammate (β = 0.22, t = -3.36, p < .001).

Conclusions: Athletic and academic identities offer additional insight into athletes' motivation for concussion symptom reporting intentions, above and beyond traditional socio-cognitive predictors. Discussion focuses on the benefit of incorporating these important self-identities into educational health interventions to improve their impact.
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July 2019

Only 1 in 10 Patients Told to Lose Weight Seek Help From a Health Professional: A Nationally Representative Sample.

Am J Health Promot 2019 09 28;33(7):1049-1052. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

3 Department of Physical Therapy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

Purpose: Receiving weight loss advice from a health-care provider has been associated with more weight loss efforts and greater odds of achieving weight loss. However, whether patients seek help from their provider or other health professional with weight loss after receiving advice from them to lose weight is largely unknown.

Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2011 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Sample: A total of 3862 overweight/obese adults.

Measures: Questionnaires asked whether participants received advice to lose weight, and whether they sought health professional's assistance with weight management. The NHANES 2011 to 2012 was the most recent year both questions were asked.

Analysis: Accounting for NHANES sampling and design, frequency distributions characterized demographics and proportions. Logistic regressions estimated odds of seeking weight loss help by demographics.

Results: Of 3682 overweight/obese adults, 1908 were told they were overweight or recommended to lose weight. Of 1908 people, 68% reported weight loss efforts, but only health 10.9% sought a health professional's help (dietician/nutritionist 4.7%, personal trainer 3.0%, doctor 2.8%). Females, people with health insurance and high health-care utilization had 1.5 to 3.5 times greater odds of seeking help; age, ethnicity, and income were not significantly associated with seeking help with weight management.

Conclusion: In a nationally representative sample, only 10.9% of overweight/obese adults told to lose weight by a provider sought help from a health professional with weight loss. This underscores the opportunity for greater health professional involvement with weight management beyond giving recommendations.
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September 2019

Improving Concussion-Reporting Behavior in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players: Evidence for the Applicability of the Socioecological Model for Athletic Trainers.

J Athl Train 2019 Jan 5;54(1):21-29. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.

Context: Few researchers have examined the views of important stakeholders in football student-athletes' spheres of influence and whether their views map well in a systems approach to understanding concussion-reporting behavior (CRB).

Objective: To examine the extent to which stakeholders' beliefs about what influences football players' CRBs reflect system-level influences that go beyond individual-level factors.

Design: Qualitative study.

Setting: Four National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university athletic programs.

Patients Or Other Participants: A total of 26 individuals (athletic directors = 5, athletic trainers [ATs] = 10, football coaches = 11).

Data Collection And Analysis: Semistructured interviews with stakeholders were transcribed and analyzed using the socioecological model according to the Miles and Huberman coding methods.

Results: Stakeholders largely identified individual-level factors (attitudes), followed by exosystem-level factors (university policies and support for ATs), with fewer microsystem- and mesosystem-level factors (coach influence and communication between coaches and ATs, respectively) and almost no macrosystem-level factors (media influence, cultural norms about aggression and toughness in football).

Conclusions: Promising evidence indicates growing stakeholder awareness of the importance of exosystem-level factors (eg, medical personnel and CRB policies) in influencing CRB rates. However, frontline stakeholders and policy makers may benefit from practices that bridge these influences (eg, coach involvement and communication), allowing for a more integrated approach to influence student-athletes' willingness to improve their CRBs.
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January 2019

Online Recruitment Methods for Web-Based and Mobile Health Studies: A Review of the Literature.

J Med Internet Res 2015 Jul 22;17(7):e183. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

University of Arizona, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tucson, AZ, United States.

Background: Internet and mobile health (mHealth) apps hold promise for expanding the reach of evidence-based health interventions. Research in this area is rapidly expanding. However, these studies may experience problems with recruitment and retention. Web-based and mHealth studies are in need of a wide-reaching and low-cost method of recruitment that will also effectively retain participants for the duration of the study. Online recruitment may be a low-cost and wide-reaching tool in comparison to traditional recruitment methods, although empirical evidence is limited.

Objective: This study aims to review the literature on online recruitment for, and retention in, mHealth studies.

Methods: We conducted a review of the literature of studies examining online recruitment methods as a viable means of obtaining mHealth research participants. The data sources used were PubMed, CINAHL, EbscoHost, PyscINFO, and MEDLINE. Studies reporting at least one method of online recruitment were included. A narrative approach enabled the authors to discuss the variability in recruitment results, as well as in recruitment duration and study design.

Results: From 550 initial publications, 12 studies were included in this review. The studies reported multiple uses and outcomes for online recruitment methods. Web-based recruitment was the only type of recruitment used in 67% (8/12) of the studies. Online recruitment was used for studies with a variety of health domains: smoking cessation (58%; 7/12) and mental health (17%; 2/12) being the most common. Recruitment duration lasted under a year in 67% (8/12) of the studies, with an average of 5 months spent on recruiting. In those studies that spent over a year (33%; 4/12), an average of 17 months was spent on recruiting. A little less than half (42%; 5/12) of the studies found Facebook ads or newsfeed posts to be an effective method of recruitment, a quarter (25%; 3/12) of the studies found Google ads to be the most effective way to reach participants, and one study showed better outcomes with traditional (eg in-person) methods of recruitment. Only one study recorded retention rates in their results, and half (50%; 6/12) of the studies recorded survey completion rates.

Conclusions: Although online methods of recruitment may be promising in experimental research, more empirical evidence is needed to make specific recommendations. Several barriers to using online recruitment were identified, including participant retention. These unique challenges of virtual interventions can affect the generalizability and validity of findings from Web-based and mHealth studies. There is a need for additional research to evaluate the effectiveness of online recruitment methods and participant retention in experimental mHealth studies.
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July 2015