Publications by authors named "Tawni I Silver"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The career path choices of veterinary radiologists.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015 Jan-Feb;56(1):109-13. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Concerns of a shortage of board certified specialists willing to work in academia have shadowed the medical and veterinary communities for decades. As a result, a number of studies have been conducted to determine how to foster, attract, and retain specialists in academia. More recently, there has been a growing perception that it is difficult for academic institutions to hire board certified veterinary radiologists. The objective of this study was to describe the career paths (academia vs. private sector) of veterinary radiologists and to determine what factors influenced their career path decisions. A mixed mode cross-sectional survey was used to survey ACVR radiologists and residents-in-training, 48% (255/529) of which responded. There was a near unidirectional movement of radiologists from academia to the private sector: 45.7% (59/129) of the respondents who began their careers in academia had switched to the private sector while only 8% (7/88) had left the private sector for academia. If a shortage of academic radiologists exists, then perhaps the issue should be framed as a problem with retention vs. recruitment. The most influential factors in the decision to leave academia were remuneration (wages and benefits), lack of interest/enjoyment in research, geographical location, and family considerations. It is salient that average salaries increased by twofold after leaving academia for the private sector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12182DOI Listing
April 2016

Short-term obesity results in detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular changes that may not be reversed with weight loss in an obese dog model.

Br J Nutr 2014 Aug 30;112(4):647-56. Epub 2014 May 30.

Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan,52 Campus Drive,Saskatoon,SK,CanadaS7N 5B4.

The time course of metabolic and cardiovascular changes with weight gain and subsequent weight loss has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to determine how weight gain, weight loss and altered body fat distribution affected metabolic and cardiovascular changes in an obese dog model. Testing was performed when the dogs were lean (scores 4-5 on a nine-point scale), after ad libitum feeding for 12 and 32 weeks to promote obesity (>5 score), and after weight loss. Measurements included serum glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein, echocardiography, flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Body fat distribution was assessed by computed tomography. Fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with obesity (P< 0·05). Heart rate increased by 22 (SE 5) bpm after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·003). Systolic left ventricular free wall thickness increased after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·002), but decreased after weight loss compared with that observed in the lean phase (P= 0·03). Ventricular free wall thickness was more strongly correlated with visceral fat (r 0·6, P= 0·001) than with total body fat (r 0·4, P= 0·03) and was not significantly correlated with subcutaneous body fat (r 0·3, P= 0·1). The present study provides evidence that metabolic and cardiovascular alterations occur within only 12 weeks of obesity in an obese dog model and are strongly predicted by visceral fat. These results emphasise the importance of obesity prevention, as weight loss did not result in the return of all metabolic indicators to their normal levels. Moreover, systolic cardiac muscle thickness was reduced after weight loss compared with the pre-obesity levels, suggesting possible acute adverse cardiovascular effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514001214DOI Listing
August 2014

Age-related differences in collagen-induced arthritis: clinical and imaging correlations.

Comp Med 2013 ;63(6):498-502

Department of Pediatrics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Arthritis is among the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Although intraarticular inflammation is the feature common among all patients with chronic arthritis there are, in addition to age at onset, clinical characteristics that further distinguish the disease in pediatric and adult populations. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of microCT (μCT) and ultrasonography in characterizing pathologic age-related differences in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Juvenile (35 d old) and young adult (91 d old) male Wistar rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and incomplete Freund adjuvant to induce polyarthritis. Naïve male Wistar rats served as controls. All paws were scored on a scale of 0 (normal paw) to 4 (disuse of paw). Rats were euthanized at 14 d after the onset of arthritis and the hindpaws imaged by μCT and ultrasonography. Young adult rats had more severe signs of arthritis than did their juvenile counterparts. Imaging demonstrated that young adult CIA rats exhibited more widespread and severe skeletal lesions of the phalanges, metatarsals, and tarsal bones, whereas juvenile CIA rats had more localized and less proliferative and osteolytic damage that was confined predominantly to the phalanges and metatarsals. This report demonstrates the utility of imaging modalities to compare juvenile and young adult rats with CIA and provides evidence that disease characteristics and progression differ between the 2 age groups. Our observations indicate that the CIA model could help discern age-related pathologic processes in inflammatory joint diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866989PMC
July 2014

Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal main axillary and superficial cervical lymph nodes in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2012 Aug;73(8):1200-6

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic appearance of presumptively normal main axillary and large superficial cervical lymph nodes (MALNs and SCLNs, respectively) in adult dogs.

Animals: 51 healthy adult dogs (data from 1 dog were not analyzed).

Procedures: For each dog, weight, distance from the cranial aspect of the first sternebra to the caudal aspect of the left ischiatic tuberosity, and thoracic height and width at the level of the xiphoid process were recorded. Via B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, echogenic characteristics, size in relation to body size and weight, and vascular supply of the MALNs and the SCLNs were evaluated (1 SCLN in 1 dog was not ultrasonographically visible).

Results: Most MALNs were clearly margined, solitary, and ovoid; echopatterns were homogenous or cortical and hypo- to isoechoic, compared with surrounding soft tissues. Size measurements of MALNs correlated with dogs' body length, thoracic width and height, and body weight. Most SCLNs were clearly margined, fusiform, and hypoechoic (compared with surrounding soft tissues) with a cortical or homogenous echopattern. Size measurements of SCLNs correlated with dogs' body length, thoracic width and height, and body weight. In 50 of the 100 MALNs, an intranodal vascular supply was detected; in contrast, an intranodal vascular supply in SCLNs was detected infrequently.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated that, in dogs, anatomically separate lymph nodes have different echogenic and vascular characteristics; body size (skeletal length, height, and width), along with body weight, were correlated with sizes of presumptively normal MALNs and SCLNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.8.1200DOI Listing
August 2012

Validation of an ultrasound-guided technique to establish a liver-to-coelom ratio and a comparative analysis of the ratios among acclimated and recently wild-caught southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana.

Zoo Biol 2013 Jan-Feb;32(1):104-11. Epub 2012 May 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, are a well-represented elasmobranch species in public aquaria and other facilities throughout the world. This study was conducted at a facility that experienced some mortality and replenished the collection with wild-caught stingrays. A common necropsy finding among the stingrays was a small, dark liver. The objectives of this study were to assess the reliability of an ultrasound-guided technique for establishing a liver-to-coelom ratio by calculating the approximate length of the liver with respect to the coelomic cavity length and then to compare ratios between acclimated captive and wild-caught stingrays. The ultrasound validation phase of the study measured the distance from the caudal margin of the liver to the pelvic cartilaginous girdle and compared it to the actual distance measured during the necropsy or surgery. There was no significant difference found between the ultrasound and actual distance measurements (P = 0.945). This technique was then used to establish liver-to-coelom ratios and compare two groups of stingrays, presumably under different metabolic states at different periods. Liver-to-coelom ratios were established during initial examinations as well as 8 months after cohabitation in a touch pool exhibit. There were significant differences in liver-to-coelom ratios between the two stingray groups at introduction (median difference = 30.9%, P = 0.007) and after 8 months (median difference = 20.5%, P = 0.008). There were also significant differences in the liver-to-coelom ratios within each group at introduction and at 8 months (acclimated group median difference = 20.4%, P = 0.018; wild-caught group median difference 31%, P = 0.008).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21014DOI Listing
July 2013

Postprandial impairment of flow-mediated dilation and elevated methylglyoxal after simple but not complex carbohydrate consumption in dogs.

Nutr Res 2012 Apr 30;32(4):278-84. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B4.

Hyperglycemia produces oxidative stress, which may impair endothelial function. Methylglyoxal, a reactive intermediate metabolite of glucose, is known to cause oxidative stress and is produced when excess carbohydrate is consumed in diabetic patients, but postprandial responses in healthy patients are unknown. We hypothesize that methylglyoxal levels will cause impaired endothelial function via increased oxidative stress after consuming a high glycemic index meal in healthy animals. Normal-weight laboratory beagles (n = 6) were used in a crossover study that tested postprandial responses of 4 complex carbohydrate sources (barley, corn, peas, rice) vs a simple carbohydrate (glucose). Blood samples were taken prefeeding and at timed intervals after feeding to measure serum glucose, insulin, nitrotyrosine, and methylglyoxal. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cardiac function (echocardiography), and blood pressure measurements were determined before and 60 minutes after feeding. The mean (±SEM) glycemic indices of the complex carbohydrate sources were 29 ± 5 for peas, 47 ± 10 for corn, 51 ± 7 for barley, and 55 ± 6 for rice. Postprandial FMD was lowest in the glucose group and significantly different from both the corn group and the FMD value for all complex carbohydrates combined. Methylglyoxal was significantly elevated at 60 minutes postprandial after glucose compared with the other carbohydrate sources. No significant effects of carbohydrate source were observed for blood pressure, nitrotyrosine, or echocardiographic variables. The novel finding of this study was that methylglyoxal levels increased after a single feeding of simple carbohydrate and may be linked to the observed postprandial decrease in endothelial function. Thus, consuming low-glycemic-index foods may protect the cardiovascular system by reducing oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2012.03.002DOI Listing
April 2012

Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal canine medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):638-41

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B4.

The medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes are not routinely palpable in the dog, and ultrasound imaging provides an alternate noninvasive technique to assess these lymph nodes, as well as to guide needle aspiration. Herein we describe the ultrasound characteristics of the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in 50 healthy dogs, as well as frequency and ease of node detection. The relationship between the size of the lymph nodes and the following variables was assessed: age, gender, body weight, body condition score, body length, and thoracic height and width. Right and left medial iliac lymph nodes were detected in 50 (100%) dogs, right superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 49 (98%) dogs, and left superficial inguinal lymph node(s) in 47 (96%) dogs. In > 90% of both sets of lymph nodes, the echogenicity was hypoechoic or isoechoic to surrounding tissues, with a corticomedullary or homogenous echotexture, smooth, clearly defined margins, and a fusiform shape. Increasing weight, distance from the sternal manubrium to the ischium, and thoracic height and width were associated with increased lymph node size (P-values < 0.05). Average lymph node sizes and range of sizes provide preliminary reference values for the medial iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes in normal dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2010.01710.xDOI Listing
February 2011

What is your diagnosis? Necrotic lipoma.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008 Dec;233(11):1691-2

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.233.11.1691DOI Listing
December 2008
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