Publications by authors named "Tatsuo Kanda"

399 Publications

COVID-19 After Treatment With Direct-acting Antivirals for HCV Infection and Decompensated Cirrhosis: A Case Report.

In Vivo 2022 Jul-Aug;36(4):1986-1993

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from chronic HCV-infected patients could improve liver function and prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in the long term. Eradication of HCV by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) also leads to dynamic immunological changes. We report a case of recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed immediately after combination treatment with DAAs for HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis.

Case Report: A 55-year-old male was started on a 12-week treatment with combination of HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. HCV RNA became undetectable after six weeks of treatment and was undetectable at the end of the treatment (EOT). Twelve days after the EOT, we diagnosed the patient with COVID-19 pneumonia, admitted him to our hospital and he was discharged two weeks later. One week after his discharge, he visited our hospital again, was diagnosed with recurrent COVID-19 pneumonia readmitted for a second time. Four days after second admission, cardiac arrest occurred, however, he recovered from severe COVID-19 and achieved sustained virological response and his liver function improved.

Conclusion: In the COVID-19 era, while attention should be paid to the occurrence or exacerbation of infection, including COVID-19, interferon-free DAA combination therapy should be performed for HCV-infected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12923DOI Listing
March 2022

Effect of Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Harboring Mutation in Early Clinical Experience.

J Cancer 2022 16;13(8):2656-2661. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ/BV) treatment is a combined immunotherapy consisting of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, which has brought a major paradigm shift in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Gain-of-function mutation of contributes to resistance of ICI monotherapy through the framework of non-T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment. However, whether mutation renders resistance to ATZ/BV similar to ICI monotherapy remains to be elucidated. In this study, a liquid biopsy sample in plasma of 33 patients with HCC treated with ATZ/BV was subjected to droplet digital PCR for detecting hotspot mutations at the exon 3 of locus. A total of eight patients (24.2%) exhibited at least one mutation. The objective response rate (ORR) in patients with wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) was 8.0% and 12.5%, respectively, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 68.0% and 87.5%, respectively. No significant difference in both ORR and DCR has been observed between the two groups. The median progression-free survival in patients with WT and MT was 6.6 and 7.6 months, respectively (not statistically significant). Similarly, no significant difference in overall survival has been observed between patients with WT and MT (13.6 vs. 12.3 months). In conclusion, the treatment effect of ATZ/BV in patients with HCC with MT was comparable to those patients with WT . These results implicate that BV added to ATZ might improve immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment caused by mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.71494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9174847PMC
May 2022

Evaluation of Potential Anti-Hepatitis A Virus 3C Protease Inhibitors Using Molecular Docking.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 27;23(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide and occasionally causes acute liver failure and can lead to death in the absence of liver transplantation. Although HAV vaccination is available, the prevalence of HAV vaccination is not adequate in some countries. Additionally, the improvements in public health reduced our immunity to HAV infection. These situations motivated us to develop potentially new anti-HAV therapeutic options. We carried out the in silico screening of anti-HAV compounds targeting the 3C protease enzyme using the Schrodinger Modeling software from the antiviral library of 25,000 compounds to evaluate anti-HAV 3C protease inhibitors. Additionally, in vitro studies were introduced to examine the inhibitory effects of HAV subgenomic replicon replication and HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA replication in hepatoma cell lines using luciferase assays and real-time RT-PCR. In silico studies enabled us to identify five lead candidates with optimal binding interactions in the active site of the target HAV 3C protease using the Schrodinger Glide program. In vitro studies substantiated our hypothesis from in silico findings. One of our lead compounds, Z10325150, showed 47% inhibitory effects on HAV genotype IB subgenomic replicon replication and 36% inhibitory effects on HAV genotype IIIA HA11-1299 replication in human hepatoma cell lines, with no cytotoxic effects at concentrations of 100 μg/mL. The effects of the combination therapy of Z10325150 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, favipiravir on HAV genotype IB HM175 subgenomic replicon replication and HAV genotype IIIA HA11-1299 replication showed 64% and 48% inhibitory effects of HAV subgenomic replicon and HAV replication, respectively. We identified the HAV 3C protease inhibitor Z10325150 through in silico screening and confirmed the HAV replication inhibitory activity in human hepatocytes. Z10325150 may offer the potential for a useful HAV inhibitor in severe hepatitis A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116044DOI Listing
May 2022

Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 22;14(10). Epub 2022 May 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Cytokines are secreted soluble glycoproteins that regulate cellular growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins negatively regulate cytokine signaling and form a classical negative feedback loop in the signaling pathways. There are eight members of the SOCS family. The SOCS proteins are all comprised of a loosely conserved N-terminal domain, a central Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, and a highly conserved SOCS box at the C-terminus. The role of SOCS proteins has been implicated in the regulation of cytokines and growth factors in liver diseases. The SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins are involved in immune response and inhibit protective interferon signaling in viral hepatitis. A decreased expression of SOCS3 is associated with advanced stage and poor prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DNA methylations of SOCS1 and SOCS3 are found in HCC. Precise regulation of liver regeneration is influenced by stimulatory and inhibitory factors after partial hepatectomy (PH), in particular, SOCS2 and SOCS3 are induced at an early time point after PH. Evidence supporting the important role of SOCS signaling during liver regeneration also supports a role of SOCS signaling in HCC. Immuno-oncology drugs are now the first-line therapy for advanced HCC. The SOCS can be potential targets for HCC in terms of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and immune response. In this literature review, we summarize recent findings of the SOCS family proteins related to HCC and liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14102549DOI Listing
May 2022

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for blood flow detection in hepatocellular carcinoma during lenvatinib therapy.

J Med Ultrason (2001) 2022 Mar 30. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Purpose: Blood flow reduction after initiation of lenvatinib therapy may not always indicate tumor necrosis. This study aimed to compare the blood flow detectability of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during lenvatinib therapy.

Methods: A total of 12 cases underwent CEUS and contrast-enhanced CT/MRI within 2 weeks during lenvatinib therapy. Vascularity on CEUS and CT/MRI was compared.

Results: At the time of CEUS examination, the median period from the start of lenvatinib was 227 ± 210 (31-570) days. CEUS showed hyperenhancement in eight cases (66.7%), hypoenhancement in two cases (16.7%), and no enhancement in one case (8.3%), while CT/MRI showed hyperenhancement in one case (8.3%), ring enhancement in three cases (25.0%), and hypoenhancement in eight cases (66.7%) (p = 0.007). Transarterial chemoembolization (n = 3), radiofrequency ablation (n = 2), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (n = 2) were performed after blood flow detection by CEUS.

Conclusions: The viability of the HCC should be confirmed using CEUS when contrast-enhanced CT/MRI reveals lesion hypoenhancement during lenvatinib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10396-022-01204-8DOI Listing
March 2022

Favipiravir Inhibits Hepatitis A Virus Infection in Human Hepatocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 27;23(5). Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis and can occasionally induce acute liver failure. However, specific potent anti-HAV drug is not available on the market currently. Thus, we investigated several novel therapeutic drugs through a drug repositioning approach, targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. In the present study, we examined the anti-HAV activity of 18 drugs by measuring the HAV subgenomic replicon and HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA replication in human hepatoma cell lines, using a reporter assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Mutagenesis of the HAV 5' untranslated region was also examined by next-generation sequencing. These specific parameters were explored because lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat RNA virus infections. Favipiravir inhibited HAV replication in both Huh7 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, although ribavirin inhibited HAV replication in only Huh7 cells. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated that favipiravir could introduce nucleotide mutations into the HAV genome more than ribavirin. In conclusion, favipiravir could introduce nucleotide mutations into the HAV genome and work as an antiviral against HAV infection. Provided that further in vivo experiments confirm its efficacy, favipiravir would be useful for the treatment of severe HAV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8910232PMC
February 2022

Evolution of Survival Impact of Molecular Target Agents in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2022 Jan 6;11(1):48-60. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aims: The prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to improve as multiple molecular target agents (MTAs) are now available. However, the impact of the availability of sequential MTAs has not been fully verified yet.

Approach And Results: We retrospectively collected the data on the whole clinical course of 877 patients who received any MTAs as first-line systemic therapy for advanced HCC between June 2009 and March 2019. The study population was divided into 3 groups according to the date of first-line MTA administration (period 1: 2009-2012, = 267; period 2: 2013-2016, = 352; period 3: 2017-2019, = 258). Then, we compared the number of MTAs used, overall survival (OS), and MTA treatment duration among the 3 groups. Analysis was also performed separately for advanced-stage and nonadvanced-stage HCC. The proportion of patients who received multiple MTAs was remarkably increased over time (1.1%, 10.2%, and 42.6% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, < 0.001). The median OS times were prolonged to 10.4, 11.3, and 15.2 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively ( = 0.016). Similarly, the MTA treatment durations were extended (2.7, 3.2, and 6.6 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; < 0.001). We confirmed that the correlation between OS and MTA treatment duration was strengthened (period 1: 0.395, period 2: 0.505, and period 3: 0.667). All these trends were pronounced in the patients with advanced-stage HCC but limited in the patients with nonadvanced-stage HCC.

Conclusions: The availability of multiple MTAs had steadily improved the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC patients, particularly advanced-stage HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8820147PMC
January 2022

Left Gastric Vein Width Is an Important Risk Factor for Exacerbation of Esophageal Varices Post Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varices in Cirrhotic Patients.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jan 28;58(2). Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

: Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) could be currently one of the best therapies for patients with gastric varices. This study examined the exacerbation rates for esophageal varices following BRTO for gastric varices in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. : We enrolled 91 cirrhotic patients who underwent BRTO for gastric varices. In total, 50 patients were examined for exacerbation rates of esophageal varices following BRTO. Esophageal varices and their associated exacerbation were evaluated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were allocated into two groups according to the main inflow tract for gastric varices: (1) 37 patients in the left gastric vein (LGV) group with an LGV width of more than 3.55 mm, and (2) 13 patients in the non-LGV group who had short gastric vein or posterior gastric vein. Moreover, treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. : LGV width ( < 0.01) was the major risk factor for the deterioration of esophageal varices post BRTO. In addition, LGV was the most common inflow tract, and the LGV group contained 74% (37/50) of patients. The exacerbation rates of esophageal varices at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years post BRTO were 40%, 62%, 65%, and 68%, respectively. The comparison of the exacerbation rates for esophageal varices following BRTO according to inflow tract showed that the exacerbation rates were significantly higher in the LGV group than those of the non-LGV group ( = 0.03). In more than half of the subjects, LGV was the main inflow tract for gastric varices, and this group experienced more frequent exacerbations of esophageal varices following BRTO compared to patients with different inflow tract sources. : Careful attention should be paid to the LGV width when BRTO is performed for gastric varices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8875323PMC
January 2022

Impacts of SNPs on adverse events and trough concentration of imatinib in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2022 Apr 22;43:100441. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Division of Digestive and General Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan; Department of Surgery, Sanjo General Hospital, Sanjo, 955-0055, Japan.

Although imatinib has dramatically improved the outcomes of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), marked inter-individual differences in its efficacy and toxicity have been observed. Extensive pharmacogenetic studies in Caucasian and Asian populations have demonstrated that several genetic polymorphisms are involved in these differences; however, no studies have focused on Japanese patients with GIST. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters on the incidence of adverse events and trough plasma concentrations (Cs) of imatinib in Japanese patients with GIST. Of 35 candidate SNPs genotyped from 65 patients, ABCG2 421C>A was significantly associated with increased incidence rates of grade 2 or higher rash. When relationships between the genotypes and Cs were examined in a subgroup of 38 patients from whom plasma was available, 5 SNPs were associated with significant trends toward increased or decreased dose-adjusted Cs. Of them, SLCO1B3 334T>G and SLCO1A2 -1032G>A made significant contributions to the individual variability of C by multivariate regression analysis. Genetic variations in ABCG2, SLCO1B3, and SLCO1A2 may play important roles in the safety and pharmacokinetics of imatinib in Japanese patients with GIST, although a replication study is necessary for validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2021.100441DOI Listing
April 2022

Efficacy of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir for Real-World HCV Infected Patients in the Northern Part of Tokyo, Japan.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 26;10(23). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatis virus C (HCV) infection causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of the HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4A inhibitor glecaprevir/NS5A inhibitor pibrentasvir on real-world HCV patients in the northern part of Tokyo, Japan. Although 106 patients were consecutively included, a total of 102 HCV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis or compensated cirrhosis, who received 8- or 12-week combination treatment with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir and were followed up to week 12 after the end of treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Only three patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events; however, they achieved a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Finally, SVR rates were 99.0% (101/102). Only one patient without liver cirrhosis was a treatment relapser who received hepatic resection for HCC approximately two years after commencement of the 8-week combination treatment with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. After the exclusion of patients with HCV genotype 1b and P32 deletion in the HCV NS5A region, a 12-week combination of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir led to SVR12 in all nine direct-acting antiviral-experienced patients. Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir had a high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile for real-world HCV patients in a single hospital in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658140PMC
November 2021

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor as a Therapeutic Choice for Double Cancer: A Case Series.

Anticancer Res 2021 Dec;41(12):6225-6230

Division of Hematology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occasionally presents with simultaneous or metachronous primary malignancies of other organs. Despite the limited scope of cytocidal anticancer drugs or molecular targeted agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can still be used for various malignancies. Here, we present cases of double cancers including HCC treated with ICIs.

Case Report: Case 1: A 70-year-old man with lung cancer and 80-mm HCC underwent nivolumab therapy. The sizes of both cancers remained constant for nine months. Case 2: A 58-year-old man with pharyngeal cancer and HCC. Nivolumab was administered, but was withdrawn after one session because of progressive disease. Case 3: A 71-year-old man with a 5 cm HCC invading the inferior vena cava, and early esophageal cancer. HCC showed a significant volume reduction and esophageal cancer demonstrated slight improvement by atezolizumab and bevacizumab therapy.

Conclusion: A combination therapy including ICI is a promising treatment option for HCC with concurrent malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15442DOI Listing
December 2021

The Use of Electronic Medical Records-Based Big-Data Informatics to Describe ALT Elevations Higher than 1000 IU/L in Patients with or without Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Viruses 2021 11 4;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Yamanashi Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8506, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the serious health problems in the world as HBV causes severe liver diseases. Moreover, HBV reactivation has occasionally been observed in patients with resolved HBV infection and patients using immunosuppression and anticancer drugs. Large-scale hospital data focused on HBV infection and severe liver function were analyzed at our hospital, located in an urban area adjacent to Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. A total of 99,932 individuals whose blood samples were taken at 7,170,240 opportunities were analyzed. The HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive group had a more frequent prevalence of patients with higher transaminase elevations than the HBsAg-negative group. However, among the HBsAg-negative group, patients who were positive for anti-HBV surface antibody and/or anti-HBV core antibody, had more severe liver conditions and fatal outcomes. More careful attention should be paid to alanine transaminase (ALT) elevations higher than 1000 IU/L in patients who had current and previous HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13112216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8624674PMC
November 2021

Akt inhibitor augments anti-proliferative efficacy of a dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor by FOXO3a activation in p53 mutated hepatocarcinoma cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 11 10;12(11):1073. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University, Missouri, MO, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancy-related deaths. p53 mutation in HCC associates with worse clinicopathologic features including therapeutic limitation. A combination of targeted therapy may have some advantages. Akt/mTOR signaling contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death. Akt inhibitor (AZD5363) and mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor (AZD8055) are in a clinical trial for HCC and other cancers. In this study, we examined whether these inhibitors successfully induce antiproliferative activity in p53 mutant HCC cells, and the underlying mechanisms. We observed that a combination of AZD5363 and AZD8055 treatment synergizes antiproliferative activity on p53 mutated or wild-type HCC cell lines and induces apoptotic cell death. Mechanistic insights indicate that a combination of AZD5363 and AZD8055 activated FOXO3a to induce Bim-associated apoptosis in p53 mutated HCC cells, whereas cells retaining functional p53 enhanced Bax. siRNA-mediated knock-down of Bim or Bax prevented apoptosis in inhibitor-treated cells. We further observed a combination of treatment inhibits phosphorylation of FOXO3a and protects FOXO3a from MDM2 mediated degradation by preventing the phosphorylation of Akt and SGK1. FOXO3a accumulates in the nucleus under these conditions and induces Bim transcription in p53 mutant HCC cells. Combination treatment in the HCC cells expressing wild-type p53 causes interference of FOXO3a function for direct interaction with functional p53 and unable to induce Bim-associated cell death. On the other hand, Bim-associated cell death occurs in p53 mutant cells due to uninterrupted FOXO3a function. Overall, our findings suggested that a combined regimen of dual mTORC1/2 and Akt inhibitors may be an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC patients harboring p53 mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04371-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580964PMC
November 2021

EZH1/2 inhibition augments the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 11 1;11(1):21396. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Both EZH2 and its homolog EZH1 function as histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferases and repress the transcription of target genes. Dysregulation of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) plays an important role in the development and progression of cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the relationship between the expression of EZH1/2 and the level of H3K27me3 in HCC. Additionally, the role of EZH1/2 in cell growth, tumorigenicity, and resistance to sorafenib were also analyzed. Both the lentiviral knockdown and the pharmacological inhibition of EZH1/2 (UNC1999) diminished the level of H3K27me3 and suppressed cell growth in liver cancer cells, compared with EZH1 or EZH2 single knockdown. Although a significant association was observed between EZH2 expression and H3K27me3 levels in HCC samples, overexpression of EZH1 appeared to contribute to enhanced H3K27me3 levels in some EZH2H3K27me3 cases. Akt suppression following sorafenib treatment resulted in an increase of the H3K27me3 levels through a decrease in EZH2 phosphorylation at serine 21. The combined use of sorafenib and UNC1999 exhibited synergistic antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment canceled the sorafenib-induced enhancement in H3K27me3 levels, indicating that activation of EZH2 function is one of the mechanisms of sorafenib-resistance in HCC. In conclusion, sorafenib plus EZH1/2 inhibitors may comprise a novel therapeutic approach in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00889-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8560765PMC
November 2021

Posttreatment after Lenvatinib in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2021 Sep 20;10(5):473-484. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: There is no standard posttreatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom lenvatinib therapy has failed. This study aimed to investigate rates of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib and to explore candidates for second-line agents in the patients with failed lenvatinib therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who received lenvatinib as the first-line agent in 7 institutions.

Results: Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) of 178 patients who received lenvatinib as the first-line agent were 13.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.5-15.2) and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.6-7.8), respectively. Sixty-nine of 151 patients (45.7%) who discontinued lenvatinib moved on to posttreatment. The migration rates from lenvatinib to the second-line agent and from the second-line agent to the third-line agent were 41.7 and 44.4%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, response to lenvatinib (complete or partial response according to modified RECIST) and discontinuation of lenvatinib due to radiological progression, as well as male were associated with a significantly higher probability of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib. On the other hand, alpha-fetoprotein levels of 400 ng/mL or higher was correlated with a significantly lower probability of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib. Of 63 patients who received second-line systemic therapy, 53 (84.2%) were administered sorafenib. PFS, objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) for sorafenib treatment were 1.8 months (95% CI, 0.6-3.0), 1.8%, and 20.8%, respectively. According to the Cox regression hazard model, Child-Pugh class B significantly contributed to shorter PFS. PFS, ORR, and DCR of 22 patients who received regorafenib after lenvatinib in any lines were 3.2 months (range, 1.5-4.9 months), 13.6%, and 36.3%, respectively. Similarly, PFS, ORR, and DCR of 17 patients who received regorafenib after lenvatinib in the third-line (after sorafenib) were 3.8 months (range, 1.1-6.5 months), 17.6%, and 41.2%, respectively.

Conclusion: Sorafenib may not be a candidate for use as a posttreatment agent after lenvatinib, according to the results of the present study. Regorafenib has the potential to become an appropriate posttreatment agent after lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527907PMC
September 2021

Follow-Up of Patients Who Achieved Sustained Virologic Response after Interferon-Free Treatment against Hepatitis C Virus: Focus on Older Patients.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 27;57(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our aim was to elucidate the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to compare the outcomes of patients aged 75 years or older (older group) with those of patients younger than 75 years (younger group) after SVR. : Among 441 patients treated with interferon-free DAA combinations, a total of 409 SVR patients were analyzed. We compared the two age groups in terms of HCC incidence and mortality rates. : Older and younger groups consisted of 68 and 341 patients, respectively. Occurrence of HCC after SVR did not differ between the two groups of patients with a history of HCC. Occurrence of HCC after SVR was observed more in younger patients without a history of HCC ( < 0.01). Although older patients without a history of HCC had a higher mortality rate ( < 0.01), their causes of death were not associated with liver diseases. Among younger patients without a history of HCC, none died. : After SVR, liver disease may not be a prognostic factor in older HCV patients without a history of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399286PMC
July 2021

Knockdown of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Negatively Regulates Hepatitis A Virus Replication.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 10;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Zinc chloride is known to be effective in combatting hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and zinc ions seem to be especially involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined this involvement in human hepatoma cell lines using a human TLR signaling target RT-PCR array. We also observed that zinc chloride inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MAP2K3) expression, which could downregulate HAV replication in human hepatocytes. It is possible that zinc chloride may inhibit HAV replication in association with its inhibition of MAP2K3. In that regard, this study set out to determine whether MAP2K3 could be considered a modulating factor in the development of the HAV pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and its triggering of interferon-β production. Because MAP2K3 seems to play a role in antiviral immunity against HAV infection, it is a promising target for drug development. The inhibition of MAP2K3 may also prevent HAV patients from developing a severe hepatitis A infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303476PMC
July 2021

Ultrasonographic grayscale findings related to fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: comparison with transient elastography and Fib-4 index.

J Med Ultrason (2001) 2021 Jul 16;48(3):323-333. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Purpose: Fibrosis is a predictor of mortality in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In our institution, abdominal ultrasonography has been performed based on a unified method consisting of 25 images. We investigated ultrasonographic grayscale findings related to fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 cases of pathologically proven fatty liver between January 2015 and September 2020. A total of 26 ultrasonographic findings were subjectively evaluated. These findings, transient elastography (TE) with M probe, and FIB-4 index were compared with fibrosis stage.

Results: The frequency of roughness of the dorsal side of the surface (p < 0.001), heterogenicity of the parenchyma (p = 0.003), narrowing of the hepatic vein (p = 0.004), and splenomegaly (p < 0.001) were strongly correlated with the fibrosis stage. Logistic regression analysis for stage ≥ 3 showed narrowing of the hepatic vein (odds ratio [OR] 5.860, p = 0.031) and splenomegaly (OR 6.290, p = 0.028). Logistic regression analysis for stage 4 showed roughness of the ventral side of the surface (OR 42.0, p = 0.019). The AUROC for stage 3 and stage 4 with the number of positive ultrasonographic findings was 0.856, and 0.940, respectively. The AUROC for F3 and F4 with TE was 0.831 and 0.861, respectively. The AUROC for stage 3 and stage 4 with FIB-4 index was 0.815 and 0.806, respectively.

Conclusions: Narrowing of the hepatic vein, roughness of the dorsal side of the surface, heterogenicity of the parenchyma, and splenomegaly and their combination could predict fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10396-021-01107-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Occurrence of hepatitis in an elderly woman during the treatment of pembrolizumab for right advanced renal pelvis, ureteral cancer, and bladder cancer.

JGH Open 2021 Jun 6;5(6):722-724. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine Nihon University School of Medicine Tokyo Japan.

Recently, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with or without chemotherapeutic agents has been increasing in the treatment for advanced cancer. Here, we report the occurrence of liver failure after the use of pembrolizumab in an 82-year-old woman with metastatic liver disease derived from right advanced renal pelvis, ureteral cancer, and bladder cancer. She was successfully treated with 0.6 mg/kg daily prednisolone. In patients treated with ICIs, ICI-induced hepatitis is occasionally observed. Even if patients are older, it appears important to diagnose and treat ICI-induced hepatitis earlier by multidisciplinary therapies including steroid treatment. This is a first report of pembrolizumab-induced liver failure in elder patient with age over 80 years. Even if patients are older, it appears important to diagnose and treat ICI-induced hepatitis earlier by multidisciplinary therapies including steroid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171158PMC
June 2021

No additive effects of peginterferon on the short-term improvement of liver histology by entecavir monotherapy in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Authors:
Tatsuo Kanda

Hepatol Int 2021 Jun 26;15(3):579-581. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10191-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Serum Angiopoietin 2 acts as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(9):2694-2701. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is typically accompanied by abundant arterial blood flow. Although angiogenic growth factors such as Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) play a central role in tumor angiogenesis in HCC, the role of serum Ang2 as a biomarker in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of Ang2 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HCC using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median Ang2 levels in controls (n=20), chronic liver disease patients (n=98), and HCC patients (n=275) were 1.58, 2.33, and 3.53 ng/mL, respectively. The optimal cut-off value of Ang2 was determined as 3.5 ng/mL by receiver operating curve analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ang2 for HCC detection were 50.9, 83.7, and 59.5%, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated only a weak correlation between Ang2 serum levels and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) serum levels. The diagnostic value of Ang2 was comparable to those of other existing markers. In addition, 24 out of 73 patients with normal AFP and DCP levels (32.9%) demonstrated abnormally high Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL). Although no significant difference in overall survival was found between Ang2 and Ang2 patients with curative ablation therapy, recurrence-free survival (RFS) in Ang2 patients was observed to be significantly shorter than those in Ang2 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high serum Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL) and the presence of multiple tumors were poor prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings indicate that serum Ang2 is a potential novel biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040723PMC
March 2021

Large-volume cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy improves venous flow in patients with liver cirrhosis.

J Med Ultrason (2001) 2021 Jul 9;48(3):315-322. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ascites Treatment Center, Kanamecho Hospital, 1-11-13 Kanamecho, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-0043, Japan.

Purpose: Hemodynamic change after total paracentesis was investigated because it might lead to various complications. Although cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is safer and more effective than total paracentesis in theory, hemodynamic change after CART has been never reported. And previous studies did not mention hemodynamics of the venous system.

Methods: We investigated the hemodynamic change, including that of the venous system, before and after CART using color Doppler ultrasonography and fast Fourier transform analysis. Twenty-eight patients with tensive cirrhotic ascites underwent ultrasonography the day before and after total volume CART. The diameter and velocity of the main, right, and left portal vein; inferior vena cava (IVC); and right renal vein were measured using ultrasonography.

Results: A total of 11.8 ± 4.4 L of ascites (range 3.6-20.9 L) was filtered and concentrated to 0.85 ± 0.40 L (range 0.36-1.50 L). The diameter of the IVC increased from median 13.5 ± 5.4 mm (range 4-25 mm) to 18.5 ± 4.1 mm (range 7-29 mm) (p = 0.007). The diameter of the right segmental renal vein significantly increased after KM-CART [from 5.0 ± 1.0 (4-8) mm to 7.0 ± 2.0 (3-10) mm] (p = 0.011). Hemodynamic change of the portal venous system was not significant. The time to the next CART in patients with an IVC diameter ≥ 20 mm and < 20 mm was 86 days and 20.5 days (p = 0.035), respectively.

Conclusion: Tensive ascites results in venous congestion in patients with cirrhotic ascites. CART improved venous flow, but it did not change the hemodynamics of the portal venous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10396-021-01094-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Magnetic resonance elastography-based prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after curative resection.

Surgery 2021 07 19;170(1):167-172. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Departments of Digestive Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Liver stiffness measurement using magnetic resonance elastography can assess the severity of liver fibrosis, which is significantly associated with recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether preoperative liver stiffness measurement by magnetic resonance elastograhy can predict recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: Patients who underwent preoperative liver stiffness measurement and curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Potential associations between liver stiffness measurement, along with other clinical and pathologic variables, and intrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence were analyzed.

Results: In total, 156 patients were included in this study. During a median follow-up period of 25.1 months (range, 6.0-60.5 months), 72 (46.1%) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had an intrahepatic recurrence. The median disease-free period after resection was 17.9 months (range, 1.0-60.5 months). In the multivariate analysis, liver stiffness measurement (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.43; P <.001) and vascular invasion (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.25; P = .013) were identified as independent predictors of recurrence. When the optimal cutoff point was set at 4.53 kPa using the minimal P value approach, the disease-free period after curative resection in 71 patients with a liver stiffness measurement value ≥4.53 kPa (11.3 months [range, 2.0-60.5 months]) was significantly shorter than that of 85 patients with a liver stiffness measurement value <4.53 kPa (22.5 months [range, 1.1-60.5 months]; P <.001).

Conclusion: Liver stiffness measurement using magnetic resonance elastography is a useful preoperative predictor of intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.02.027DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical-Radiomic Analysis for Pretreatment Prediction of Objective Response to First Transarterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2021 Feb 7;10(1):38-51. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The preoperative selection of patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are likely to have an objective response to first transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) remains challenging.

Objective: To develop and validate a clinical-radiomic model (CR model) for preoperatively predicting treatment response to first TACE in patients with intermediate-stage HCC.

Methods: A total of 595 patients with intermediate-stage HCC were included in this retrospective study. A tumoral and peritumoral (10 mm) radiomic signature (TPR-signature) was constructed based on 3,404 radiomic features from 4 regions of interest. A predictive CR model based on TPR-signature and clinical factors was developed using multivariate logistic regression. Calibration curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used to evaluate the model's performance.

Results: The final CR model consisted of 5 independent predictors, including TPR-signature ( < 0.001), AFP ( = 0.004), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer System Stage B (BCLC B) subclassification ( = 0.01), tumor location ( = 0.039), and arterial hyperenhancement ( = 0.050). The internal and external validation results demonstrated the high-performance level of this model, with internal and external AUCs of 0.94 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, the predicted objective response via the CR model was associated with improved survival in the external validation cohort (hazard ratio: 2.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-3.69; < 0.001). The predicted treatment response also allowed for significant discrimination between the Kaplan-Meier curves of each BCLC B subclassification.

Conclusions: The CR model had an excellent performance in predicting the first TACE response in patients with intermediate-stage HCC and could provide a robust predictive tool to assist with the selection of patients for TACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923935PMC
February 2021

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 04 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 03 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Stem Cell and Molecular Medicine, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Importance of HBsAg recognition by HLA molecules as revealed by responsiveness to different hepatitis B vaccines.

Sci Rep 2021 03 2;11(1):3703. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Genome Medical Science Project, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, 272-8516, Japan.

Hepatitis B (HB) vaccines (Heptavax-II and Bimmugen) designed based on HBV genotypes A and C are mainly used for vaccination against HB in Japan. To determine whether there are differences in the genetic background associated with vaccine responsiveness, genome-wide association studies were performed on 555 Heptavax-II and 1193 Bimmugen recipients. Further HLA imputation and detailed analysis of the association with HLA genes showed that two haplotypes, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, were significantly associated in comparison with high-responders (HBsAb > 100 mIU/mL) for the two HB vaccines. In particular, HLA-DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 haplotype is of great interest in the sense that it could only be detected by direct analysis of the high-responders in vaccination with Heptavax-II or Bimmugen. Compared with healthy controls, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 was significantly less frequent in high-responders when vaccinated with Heptavax-II, indicating that high antibody titers were less likely to be obtained with Heptavax-II. As Bimmugen and Heptavax-II tended to have high and low vaccine responses to DRB1*13:02, 15 residues were found in the Heptavax-II-derived antigenic peptide predicted to have the most unstable HLA-peptide binding. Further functional analysis of selected hepatitis B patients with HLA haplotypes identified in this study is expected to lead to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82986-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925550PMC
March 2021

Male-Dominant Hepatitis A Outbreak Observed among Non-HIV-Infected Persons in the Northern Part of Tokyo, Japan.

Viruses 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Recently, we experienced an outbreak of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection between 2018 and 2020. Herein, we describe this male-dominant HAV infection outbreak observed among non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in the northern part of Tokyo, Japan. Clinical information was collected from patient interviews and from medical record descriptions. In the present study, 21 patients were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 90.4 and 33.3% of patients were males, and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. The total bilirubin levels and platelet counts tended to be lower in the MSM group than in the non-MSM group. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels tended to be higher in acute liver failure (ALF) patients than in non-ALF patients. Prolonged cholestasis was observed in one patient (4.8%). We also found that 18 HAV isolates belonged to HAV subgenotype IA/subgroup 13 (S13), which clustered with the HAV isolate (KX151459) that was derived from an outbreak of HAV infection among MSM in Taiwan in 2015. Our results suggest that the application of antivirals against HAV, as well as HAV vaccines, would be useful for the treatment and prevention of severe HAV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910831PMC
January 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Departmetn of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Japanese Man with HCV Genotype 4 Infection and Cirrhosis Who Was Successfully Treated by the Combination of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir.

Intern Med 2021 Jul 1;60(13):2061-2066. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Japan.

A 74-year-old man with a history of transfusion at 35 years old in Egypt was referred to our hospital. He was infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4), which is a rare HCV GT in Japan, and was also diagnosed with hepatic compensated cirrhosis. We safely treated the patient for 12 weeks with the combination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir, and a sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved. This is the first report of HCV GT4 infection in a treatment-naïve Japanese patient with cirrhosis in whom SVR was achieved with the combination treatment of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6728-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313908PMC
July 2021
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