Publications by authors named "Tatsuo Kanda"

378 Publications

Large-volume cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy improves venous flow in patients with liver cirrhosis.

J Med Ultrason (2001) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ascites Treatment Center, Kanamecho Hospital, 1-11-13 Kanamecho, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-0043, Japan.

Purpose: Hemodynamic change after total paracentesis was investigated because it might lead to various complications. Although cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) is safer and more effective than total paracentesis in theory, hemodynamic change after CART has been never reported. And previous studies did not mention hemodynamics of the venous system.

Methods: We investigated the hemodynamic change, including that of the venous system, before and after CART using color Doppler ultrasonography and fast Fourier transform analysis. Twenty-eight patients with tensive cirrhotic ascites underwent ultrasonography the day before and after total volume CART. The diameter and velocity of the main, right, and left portal vein; inferior vena cava (IVC); and right renal vein were measured using ultrasonography.

Results: A total of 11.8 ± 4.4 L of ascites (range 3.6-20.9 L) was filtered and concentrated to 0.85 ± 0.40 L (range 0.36-1.50 L). The diameter of the IVC increased from median 13.5 ± 5.4 mm (range 4-25 mm) to 18.5 ± 4.1 mm (range 7-29 mm) (p = 0.007). The diameter of the right segmental renal vein significantly increased after KM-CART [from 5.0 ± 1.0 (4-8) mm to 7.0 ± 2.0 (3-10) mm] (p = 0.011). Hemodynamic change of the portal venous system was not significant. The time to the next CART in patients with an IVC diameter ≥ 20 mm and < 20 mm was 86 days and 20.5 days (p = 0.035), respectively.

Conclusion: Tensive ascites results in venous congestion in patients with cirrhotic ascites. CART improved venous flow, but it did not change the hemodynamics of the portal venous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10396-021-01094-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Magnetic resonance elastography-based prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after curative resection.

Surgery 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Departments of Digestive Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Liver stiffness measurement using magnetic resonance elastography can assess the severity of liver fibrosis, which is significantly associated with recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether preoperative liver stiffness measurement by magnetic resonance elastograhy can predict recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: Patients who underwent preoperative liver stiffness measurement and curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Potential associations between liver stiffness measurement, along with other clinical and pathologic variables, and intrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence were analyzed.

Results: In total, 156 patients were included in this study. During a median follow-up period of 25.1 months (range, 6.0-60.5 months), 72 (46.1%) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had an intrahepatic recurrence. The median disease-free period after resection was 17.9 months (range, 1.0-60.5 months). In the multivariate analysis, liver stiffness measurement (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.43; P <.001) and vascular invasion (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.25; P = .013) were identified as independent predictors of recurrence. When the optimal cutoff point was set at 4.53 kPa using the minimal P value approach, the disease-free period after curative resection in 71 patients with a liver stiffness measurement value ≥4.53 kPa (11.3 months [range, 2.0-60.5 months]) was significantly shorter than that of 85 patients with a liver stiffness measurement value <4.53 kPa (22.5 months [range, 1.1-60.5 months]; P <.001).

Conclusion: Liver stiffness measurement using magnetic resonance elastography is a useful preoperative predictor of intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.02.027DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical-Radiomic Analysis for Pretreatment Prediction of Objective Response to First Transarterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2021 Feb 7;10(1):38-51. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The preoperative selection of patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are likely to have an objective response to first transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) remains challenging.

Objective: To develop and validate a clinical-radiomic model (CR model) for preoperatively predicting treatment response to first TACE in patients with intermediate-stage HCC.

Methods: A total of 595 patients with intermediate-stage HCC were included in this retrospective study. A tumoral and peritumoral (10 mm) radiomic signature (TPR-signature) was constructed based on 3,404 radiomic features from 4 regions of interest. A predictive CR model based on TPR-signature and clinical factors was developed using multivariate logistic regression. Calibration curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used to evaluate the model's performance.

Results: The final CR model consisted of 5 independent predictors, including TPR-signature ( < 0.001), AFP ( = 0.004), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer System Stage B (BCLC B) subclassification ( = 0.01), tumor location ( = 0.039), and arterial hyperenhancement ( = 0.050). The internal and external validation results demonstrated the high-performance level of this model, with internal and external AUCs of 0.94 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, the predicted objective response via the CR model was associated with improved survival in the external validation cohort (hazard ratio: 2.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-3.69; < 0.001). The predicted treatment response also allowed for significant discrimination between the Kaplan-Meier curves of each BCLC B subclassification.

Conclusions: The CR model had an excellent performance in predicting the first TACE response in patients with intermediate-stage HCC and could provide a robust predictive tool to assist with the selection of patients for TACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923935PMC
February 2021

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Importance of HBsAg recognition by HLA molecules as revealed by responsiveness to different hepatitis B vaccines.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 2;11(1):3703. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Genome Medical Science Project, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, 272-8516, Japan.

Hepatitis B (HB) vaccines (Heptavax-II and Bimmugen) designed based on HBV genotypes A and C are mainly used for vaccination against HB in Japan. To determine whether there are differences in the genetic background associated with vaccine responsiveness, genome-wide association studies were performed on 555 Heptavax-II and 1193 Bimmugen recipients. Further HLA imputation and detailed analysis of the association with HLA genes showed that two haplotypes, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, were significantly associated in comparison with high-responders (HBsAb > 100 mIU/mL) for the two HB vaccines. In particular, HLA-DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 haplotype is of great interest in the sense that it could only be detected by direct analysis of the high-responders in vaccination with Heptavax-II or Bimmugen. Compared with healthy controls, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 was significantly less frequent in high-responders when vaccinated with Heptavax-II, indicating that high antibody titers were less likely to be obtained with Heptavax-II. As Bimmugen and Heptavax-II tended to have high and low vaccine responses to DRB1*13:02, 15 residues were found in the Heptavax-II-derived antigenic peptide predicted to have the most unstable HLA-peptide binding. Further functional analysis of selected hepatitis B patients with HLA haplotypes identified in this study is expected to lead to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82986-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925550PMC
March 2021

Male-Dominant Hepatitis A Outbreak Observed among Non-HIV-Infected Persons in the Northern Part of Tokyo, Japan.

Viruses 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Recently, we experienced an outbreak of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection between 2018 and 2020. Herein, we describe this male-dominant HAV infection outbreak observed among non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in the northern part of Tokyo, Japan. Clinical information was collected from patient interviews and from medical record descriptions. In the present study, 21 patients were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 90.4 and 33.3% of patients were males, and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. The total bilirubin levels and platelet counts tended to be lower in the MSM group than in the non-MSM group. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels tended to be higher in acute liver failure (ALF) patients than in non-ALF patients. Prolonged cholestasis was observed in one patient (4.8%). We also found that 18 HAV isolates belonged to HAV subgenotype IA/subgroup 13 (S13), which clustered with the HAV isolate (KX151459) that was derived from an outbreak of HAV infection among MSM in Taiwan in 2015. Our results suggest that the application of antivirals against HAV, as well as HAV vaccines, would be useful for the treatment and prevention of severe HAV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910831PMC
January 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Japanese Man with HCV Genotype 4 Infection and Cirrhosis Who was Successfully Treated by the Combination of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir.

Intern Med 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Japan.

A 74-year-old man with a history of transfusion at 35 years old in Egypt was referred to our hospital. He was infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4), which is a rare HCV GT in Japan, and was also diagnosed with hepatic compensated cirrhosis. We safely treated the patient for 12 weeks with the combination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir, and a sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved. This is the first report of HCV GT4 infection in a treatment-naïve Japanese patient with cirrhosis in whom SVR was achieved with the combination treatment of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6728-20DOI Listing
February 2021

Recurrence hernia in the broad ligament of the uterus: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Nov 16;6(1):288. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Surgery, Saiseikai Sanjo Hospital, Sanjo, Japan.

Background: Bowel herniation through a defect in the broad ligament of the uterus is a rare disease and few cases of recurrence have been reported. We report herein a recurrence case of a patient with broad ligament hernia (BLH), along with a review of the literature.

Case Presentation: A 53-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain was transported to our hospital. She had a history of laparotomy for small-bowel obstruction associated with hernia in the broad ligament of the uterus 10 years ago at a local hospital. Abdominal pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed that the mesentery of the dilated bowels converged at a thick band in the pelvis, suggesting closed loop obstruction of the small bowel. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy and was diagnosed with bowel herniation through an opening in the broad ligament of the uterus on the right side, which was ipsilateral with the previous surgery. The hernia orifice was widened by incision and incarcerated bowel segments were released and preserved because ischemia was reversible. The membranous defect of BLH was closed by suture with braded silk strings.

Conclusions: Although BLH is a rare disease, patients face a significant risk of disease recurrence. Nonabsorbable suture may be advisable for closure of the hernia orifice in BLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-01030-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669980PMC
November 2020

Association of Genetic Polymorphisms With Hepatitis C Virus-related Liver Cirrhosis in Japan.

In Vivo 2020 Nov-Dec;34(6):3309-3313

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important health problem in the direct-acting antivirals-era. HCV causes life-threatening diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our aim was to examine whether certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the prevalence of HCV infections progressing to cirrhosis in the Japanese population by a genome-wide association study-based approach.

Materials And Methods: We used DNA extracted from blood specimens of Japanese subjects with the establishment of the BioBank Japan project.

Results: We observed statistically significant differences in the frequency of 4 SNPs (rs1989972, rs2293766, rs1877033 and rs4805439) between anti-HCV-positive cirrhotic patients and controls.

Conclusion: Four SNPs are associated with susceptibility to cirrhosis among HCV-infected Japanese subjects, while further studies with cohorts other than those sourced from BioBank Japan, must be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811607PMC
June 2020

Additive Effects of Zinc Chloride on the Suppression of Hepatitis A Virus Replication by Interferon in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells.

In Vivo 2020 Nov-Dec;34(6):3301-3308

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aim: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is still one of the serious health problems worldwide, despite the existence of effective vaccines for HAV. Zinc compounds have antiviral activities against various DNA and RNA viruses. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc compounds on the antiviral activity of interferon against HAV.

Materials And Methods: The effects of zinc compounds with or without interferon on HAV genotype IIIA HA11-1299 replication were examined in human hepatoma Huh7 cells. Cell viability was examined by the MTS assay. Inflammasome associated gene expression was examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Both zinc sulfate and zinc chloride had an inhibitory effect on HAV replication. Zinc sulfate tended to enhance while zinc chloride significantly enhanced the anti-HAV effect induced by interferon-alpha-2a. Zinc chloride significantly up-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAPK12) and down-regulated 6 related genes [baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (BIRC3), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), PYD and CARD domain containing (PYCARD), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)].

Conclusion: Zinc chloride inhibits HAV replication and has additive effects on the anti-HAV activities of interferon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811611PMC
September 2020

Analyses of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization prior to Designing Clinical Trials.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 22;9(5):596-612. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high frequency of recurrence and progression to advanced stage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), particularly in patients with high tumor burden. Promising new results from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and ICI-based therapies are expected to replace TACE, especially in HCC patients with high tumor burden.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of TACE with a view to design clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified intermediate-stage HCC patients undergoing TACE from our database and subdivided patients into low- and high-burden groups based on three subclassification models using the diameter of the maximum tumor and the number of tumors. Clinical outcomes were compared between low- and high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Results: Of 1,161 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 316 were diagnosed with intermediate-stage disease and underwent TACE. The median overall survival from high-burden intermediate-stage disease was not significantly different by clinical course, reaching high tumor burden in all subclassification models. The prognosis of high-burden patients after initial TACE was poor compared with low-burden patients for two models (except for the up-to-seven criteria). In all three models, high-burden patients showed a poor durable response rate (DRR) both ≥3 months and ≥6 months and poor prognosis after TACE. Moreover, patients with confirmed durable response ≥3 months and ≥6 months showed better survival outcomes for high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the basis for selecting a population that would not benefit from TACE and setting DRR ≥3 months or ≥6 months as alternative endpoints when designing clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548915PMC
September 2020

Potential of Lenvatinib for an Expanded Indication from the REFLECT Trial in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Aug 5;9(4):382-396. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and verify the possibility of lenvatinib for the expanded indication from the REFLECT trial in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in real-world practice, primarily focusing on the population that was excluded in the REFLECT trial.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who were administered lenvatinib in 7 institutions in Japan.

Results: Of 152 advanced HCC patients, 95 and 57 patients received lenvatinib in first-line and second- or later-line systemic therapies, respectively. The median progression-free survival in Child-Pugh class A patients was nearly equal between first- and second- or later-line therapies (5.2 months; 95% CI 3.7-6.9 for first line, 4.8 months; 95% CI 3.8-5.9 for second or later line, = 0.933). According to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the objective response rate of 27 patients (18%) who showed a high burden of intrahepatic lesions (i.e., main portal vein and/or bile duct invasion or 50% or higher liver occupation) at baseline radiological assessment was 41% and similar with that of other population. The present study included 20 patients (13%) with Child-Pugh class B. These patients observed high frequency rates of liver function-related adverse events due to lenvatinib. The 8-week dose intensity of lenvatinib had a strong correlation with liver function according to both the Child-Pugh and albumin - bilirubin scores.

Conclusion: Lenvatinib had potential benefits for patients with advanced HCC with second- or later-line therapies and a high burden of intrahepatic lesions. Dose modification should be paid increased attention among patients with poor liver function, such as Child-Pugh class B patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506220PMC
August 2020

Co-Occurrence of Hepatitis A Infection and Chronic Liver Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 2;21(17). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection occasionally leads to a critical condition in patients with or without chronic liver diseases. Acute-on-chronic liver disease includes acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and non-ACLF. In this review, we searched the literature concerning the association between HAV infection and chronic liver diseases in PubMed. Chronic liver diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, coinfection with other viruses, and host genetic factors may be associated with severe hepatitis A. It is important to understand these conditions and mechanisms. There may be no etiological correlation between liver failure and HAV infection, but there is an association between the level of chronic liver damage and the severity of acute-on-chronic liver disease. While the application of an HAV vaccination is important for preventing HAV infection, the development of antivirals against HAV may be important for preventing the development of ACLF with HAV infection as an acute insult. The latter is all the more urgent given that the lives of patients with HAV infection and a chronic liver disease of another etiology may be at immediate risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504211PMC
September 2020

Quantitative Ultrasound Image Analysis Helps in the Differentiation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) From Borderline Lesions and Predicting the Histologic Grade of HCC and Microvascular Invasion.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Apr 25;40(4):689-698. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: Quantitative image analysis is one of the methods to overcome the lack of objectivity of ultrasound (US). The aim of this study was to clarify the correlation between the features from a US image analysis and the histologic grade and microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and differentiation of HCC smaller than 2 cm from borderline lesions.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed grayscale US images with histopathologic evidence of HCC or a precancerous lesion using ImageJ version 1.47 software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD).

Results: A total of 148 nodules were included (borderline lesion, n = 31; early HCC [eHCC], n = 3; well-differentiated HCC [wHCC], n = 16; moderately differentiated HCC [mHCC], n = 79; and poorly differentiated HCC [pHCC], n = 19). A multivariate analysis selected lower minimum gray values (odds ratio [OR], 0.431; P = .003) and a higher standard deviation (OR, 1.880; P = .019) as predictors of HCC smaller than 2 cm. Median (range) minimum gray values of borderline lesions, eHCC, wHCC, mHCC, and pHCC were 29 (0-103), 7 (0-47), 6 (0-60), 10 (0-53), and 2 (0-38), respectively, and gradually decreased from borderline lesions to pHCC (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis showed a higher aspect ratio (OR, 2.170; P = .001) and lower minimum gray value (OR, 0.475; P = .043) as predictors of MVI. An anechoic area diagnosed by a subjective evaluation was correlated with the minimum gray value (P < .0001). The proportion of the anechoic area gradually increased from eHCC to pHCC (P = .031).

Conclusions: In a US image analysis, HCC smaller than 2 cm had features of greater heterogeneity and a lower minimum gray value than borderline lesions. Moderately differentiated HCC was smoother than borderline lesions, and the anechoic area correlated with histologic grading. Microvascular invasion was correlated with a slender shape and a lower minimum gray value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15439DOI Listing
April 2021

S1-induced vasospastic angina-diagnostic utility of Holter ECG: a report of a case.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Aug 24;6(1):217. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Cardiology, Nagaoka Chuo General Hospital, Nagaoka, Japan.

Background: Vasospastic angina is a rare but potentially life-threatening adverse event (AE) of S1, an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent. However, this AE is not well known owing to its low incidence. We report herein a case of a patient who suffered from vasospastic angina associated with S1 chemotherapy for unresectable gastric adenocarcinoma, along with a review of the literature.

Case Presentation: A 68-year-old woman was endoscopically diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma of the diffuse type. Abdominal pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed small nodules in the omentum and ascites in the pouch of Douglas. The patient was clinically diagnosed with unresectable gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal metastasis, and primary chemotherapy with S1 plus cisplatin was selected. Around midnight of day 1, the patient complained of sudden oppressive chest pain. The pain disappeared spontaneously after 3-5 min, but similar events happened every midnight thereafter. No significant change was found on bedside electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded immediately after the pain attacks. The patient was suspected to have unstable angina and underwent Holter ECG on day 4 of treatment. Holter ECG revealed ST segment elevations and short-run ventricular tachycardia during a pain attack. S1 chemotherapy was discontinued, and no attack was observed thereafter. Coronary CT angiography showed no significant stenosis of coronary arteries.

Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of vasospastic angina as a serious AE in the chemotherapy with S1. Holter ECG is useful for the early diagnosis of this rare and clinically important AE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-00975-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445223PMC
August 2020

Involvement of the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

Anticancer Res 2020 Aug;40(8):4445-4455

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aim: To examine interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells and their therapeutic application for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Materials And Methods: We examined the effects of IFNα on cytotoxicity, migration, as well as on the levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway-associated genes expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We also examined the additive effects of IFNα and poly(I-C) on tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-induced cytotoxicity. We performed transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of clinical samples and compared the profile between pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) and PDACs.

Results: IFNα suppressed cell viability and cell migration, and affected TLR signaling pathways, in pancreatic cancer cells. TLR3 is one of the potential genes involved in IFN-treated pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, similar to IFN, extracellular addition of poly(I-C) enhanced TKI-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that IFN signaling is one of the potential pathways involved in the progression of PanIN to PDAC.

Conclusion: IFN signaling may be involved in the development of PDAC. Treatments that target the IFN and TLR3 signaling pathways may be therapeutic options against PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14449DOI Listing
August 2020

High platelet count as a poor prognostic factor for liver cancer patients without cirrhosis.

Biosci Trends 2020 Nov 25;14(5):368-375. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

A low platelet count, one of parameters of portal hypertension, is clinically a predictor of postoperative mortality, while platelets induce tumor development during growth factor secretion. In this study, we retrospectively investigated whether high platelet count negatively affects the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients undergoing initial and curative resection for HCC were included. Surgical outcomes were compared between the high platelet (platelet count ≥ 20 × 10/μL) and control (< 20 × 10/μL) groups in patients without cirrhosis and between the low platelet (< 10 × 10/μL) and control (≥ 10 × 10/μL) groups in patients with cirrhosis. Among patients without cirrhosis, tumor was larger (P < 0.001) and tumor thrombus was more frequent (P < 0.001) in the high-platelet group than in the control group. After a median follow-up period of 3.1 years (range 0.2-16.2), median overall survival was 6.3 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3-7.8) and 7.6 years (6.6-10.9) in the high-platelet (n = 273) and control (n = 562) groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Among patients with cirrhosis, liver function was worse (P < 0.001) and varices were more frequent (P < 0.001) in the low-platelet group. The median overall survival of patients in the low-platelet group (n = 172) was significantly shorter than that of patients in the control group (n = 275) (4.5 years [95% CI, 3.7-6.0] vs. 5.9 years [4.5-7.5], P = 0.038). Taken together, thrombocytopenia indicates poor prognosis in HCC patients with cirrhosis, while thrombocytosis is a poor prognostic predictor for those without cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.03230DOI Listing
November 2020

Pilot study of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and pegylated interferon-alpha 2a add-on therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B.

J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct 14;55(10):977-989. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department for the Promotion of Regional Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

Background: A prospective pilot study of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and pegylated interferon alpha 2a (P-IFN) add-on therapy was conducted to evaluate its efficacy in reducing viral antigen levels in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B (UMIN 000020179).

Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving maintenance TDF therapy and exhibiting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level > 800 IU/ml were divided into two arms. P-IFN was added for 48 weeks in the add-on arm (n = 32), while TDF monotherapy was maintained in the control arm (n = 51). Both groups were followed for 96 weeks after baseline measurements.

Results: Almost all patients in the control arm displayed a slow and constant reduction in HBsAg during follow-up. In contrast, roughly half of the add-on arm exhibited a sharp decline in HBsAg during P-IFN administration, which disappeared after halting P-IFN. At 96 weeks after baseline, 41% (13/32) of patients in the add-on arm had shown a rapid decrease in HBsAg, versus 2% (1/51) in the control arm (p < 0.001). Add-on therapy and increased cytotoxic T-cell response were significant factors associated with a rapid decrease in HBsAg according to multivariate analysis. In addition, higher HB core-related antigen (HBcrAg) level at baseline (p = 0.001) and add-on therapy (p = 0.036) were significant factors associated with a rapid reduction in HBcrAg.

Conclusions: TDF and P-IFN add-on therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B facilitated rapid decreases in HBsAg and HBcrAg. Further studies are needed to improve early HBsAg clearance rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-020-01707-6DOI Listing
October 2020

Noninvasive Assessment of Liver Fibrosis: Current and Future Clinical and Molecular Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 11;21(14). Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Liver fibrosis is one of the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. The staging of liver fibrosis can be evaluated only via a liver biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. Noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis can be divided into morphological tests such as elastography and serum biochemical tests. Transient elastography is reported to have excellent performance in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and has been accepted as a useful tool for the prediction of HCC development and other clinical outcomes. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography is a new technique and provides a real-time stiffness image. Serum fibrosis markers have been studied based on the mechanism of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis. In the healthy liver, homeostasis of the extracellular matrix is maintained directly by enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMPs and TIMPs could be useful serum biomarkers for liver fibrosis and promising candidates for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to establish liver fibrosis-specific markers based on further clinical and molecular research. In this review, we summarize noninvasive fibrosis tests and molecular mechanism of liver fibrosis in current daily clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402287PMC
July 2020

Analysis of HBV Genomes Integrated into the Genomes of Human Hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells by HBV Sequence Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing.

Genes (Basel) 2020 06 18;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The integration of HBV genomic DNA into the host genome occurs randomly, early after infection, and is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV-infected patients. Therefore, it is important to analyze HBV genome integration. We analyzed HBV genome integration in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells by HBV sequence capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. We confirmed the results by using Sanger sequencing methods. We observed that HBV genotype A is integrated into the genome of PLC/PRF/5 cells. HBV sequence capture-based NGS is useful for the analysis of HBV genome integrants and their locations in the human genome. Among the HBV genome integrants, we performed functional analysis and demonstrated the automatic expression of some HBV proteins encoded by HBV integrants from chromosomes 3 and 11 in Huh7 cells transfected with these DNA sequences. HBV sequence capture-based NGS may be a useful tool for the assessment of HBV genome integration into the human genome in clinical samples and suggests new strategies for hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11060661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348787PMC
June 2020

Cell Culture Systems and Drug Targets for Hepatitis A Virus Infection.

Viruses 2020 05 12;12(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is one of the major causes of acute hepatitis, and this infection occasionally causes acute liver failure. HAV infection is associated with HAV-contaminated food and water as well as sexual transmission among men who have sex with men. Although an HAV vaccine has been developed, outbreaks of hepatitis A and life-threatening severe HAV infections are still observed worldwide. Therefore, an improved HAV vaccine and anti-HAV drugs for severe hepatitis A should be developed. Here, we reviewed cell culture systems for HAV infection, and other issues. This review may help with improving the HAV vaccine and developing anti-HAV drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291253PMC
May 2020

Different Mechanisms of Action of Regorafenib and Lenvatinib on Toll-Like Receptor-Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma Cell Lines.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 9;21(9). Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Multiple kinase inhibitors are available for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is largely unknown whether regorafenib or lenvatinib modulates innate immunity including Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathways in HCC. We performed real-time RT-PCR to investigate 84 TLR-associated gene expression levels and compared these gene expression levels in each hepatoma cells treated with or without regorafenib or lenvatinib. In response to regorafenib, nine and 10 genes were upregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and only C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 was upregulated in both cell lines. A total of 14 and 12 genes were downregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and two genes (Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit, and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 N) were downregulated in both cell lines. In response to lenvatinib, four and 16 genes were upregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and two genes (interleukin 1 alpha and TLR4) were upregulated in both cells. Six and one genes were downregulated in Huh7 and HepG2, respectively, and no genes were downregulated in both cell lines. In summary, regorafenib and lenvatinib affect TLR signaling pathways in human hepatoma cell lines. Modulation of TLR signaling pathway may improve the treatment of HCC patients with refractory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246870PMC
May 2020

Long-term administration of Tolvaptan to patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Int J Med Sci 2020 15;17(7):874-880. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

: Tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin-2 antagonist, sometimes improves hepatic edema including ascites in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In this study, we examined the effectiveness and survival advantage in patients with the long-term administration of tolvaptan. : A total of 115 patients with refractory ascites who were treated with tolvaptan were retrospectively analyzed based on their clinical records. Patients with a decrease in body weight of ≥1.5 kg from the baseline on day 7 were determined as responders. Re-exacerbation was defined as a return to the baseline BW, dose escalation of conventional diuretics, or abdominal drainage. : Of the 115 patients, 84 were included in this analysis. Response to tolvaptan treatment was observed in 55 out of the 84 patients (65.5%), with a mean weight reduction of 2.52 kg. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that body mass index (≥24) and urinary specific gravity (≥1.018) were significant predictors of the response to tolvaptan. However, cumulative re-exacerbation rates in responders at 6 and 12 months were 42.4 and 60.1%, respectively. Child-Pugh (classification C), HCC complication, and serum sodium levels (≥133 mEq/L) were determined as independent prognostic factors impacting overall survival (OS). Although there were no significant differences in OS between tolvaptan responders and non-responders, the responders without re-exacerbation within 3 months showed significantly longer OS than those with re-exacerbation within 3 months. : A persistent therapeutic response, but not early response to tolvaptan, was associated with favorable survival of decompensated cirrhotic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.41454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163362PMC
February 2021

Molecular Mechanisms: Connections between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 23;21(4). Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Genome Analysis Center, Yamanashi Central Hospital, Yamanashi 400-8506, Japan.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), causes hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patatin-like phospholipase-3 (PNPLA3) I148M sequence variant is one of the strongest genetic determinants of NAFLD/NASH. PNPLA3 is an independent risk factor for HCC among patients with NASH. The obesity epidemic is closely associated with the rising prevalence and severity of NAFLD/NASH. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome exacerbates the course of NAFLD/NASH. These factors are able to induce apoptosis and activate immune and inflammatory pathways, resulting in the development of hepatic fibrosis and NASH, leading to progression toward HCC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), destruction of the intestinal mucosa barrier function and a high-fat diet all seem to exacerbate the development of hepatic fibrosis and NASH, leading to HCC in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Thus, the intestinal microbiota may play a role in the development of NAFLD/NASH. In this review, we describe recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of hepatic fibrosis and HCC in patients with NAFLD/NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073210PMC
February 2020

Serum fibroblast growth factor 19 serves as a potential novel biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2019 Nov 12;19(1):1088. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Abnormal autocrine fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) production has been observed in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the potential of serum FGF19 as a novel tumor marker of HCC based on a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Methods: The serum FGF19 levels of 304 patients with HCC was measured by ELISA. The serum levels of existing markers, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were determined by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Both diagnostic value of FGF19 and its changes after curative ablation therapy was further examined.

Results: The median FGF19 levels in controls, chronic liver disease patients, and primary HCC patients, were 78.8 pg/mL, 100.1 pg/mL, and 214.5 pg/mL, respectively. The subsequent receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) successfully determined an optimal cut-off value of 200.0 pg/mL. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of FGF19 for HCC detection was comparable to those of AFP and DCP. Of importance, FGF19 showed higher sensitivity for the detection of small HCC (solitary cancer with diameter < 20 mm) than those of existing markers. In addition, 43 out of 79 cases (54.4%) with normal AFP and DCP (so-called "double negative HCC") exhibited serum FGF19 level ≥ 200 pg/mL. In 45 HCC patients treated with curative ablation therapy, serum FGF19 levels changed from 257.4 pg/mL to 112.0 pg/mL after the treatment.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal that FGF19 can be a potential novel biomarker for HCC. Although FGF19 is not necessarily a substitute for existing markers, it may help improve the prognosis in HCC patients owing to its resourceful use in various aspects of HCC management and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6322-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849282PMC
November 2019

Superinfection of hepatitis A virus in hepatocytes infected with hepatitis B virus.

Int J Med Sci 2019 20;16(10):1366-1370. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan; (T.K.).

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis including acute liver failure. Hepatitis B infection (HBV) occurs worldwide, with the highest rates in Asian and African countries, and there are several reports that HAV infection may have a more severe clinical course in patients with chronic HBV infection. We previously demonstrated that Japanese miso extracts have inhibitory effects on HAV replication. In the present study, we examined the replication of HAV and HBV in a hepatocyte superinfection model and the inhibitory effects of Japanese miso extracts on both viruses. According to the results, HAV infection inhibited HBV replication in superinfected hepatocytes, and Japanese rice-koji miso extracts had inhibitory effects on HAV replication. Our findings provide useful information for clinicians in managing HAV infection in patients with chronic HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.32795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818197PMC
April 2020

APASL HCV guidelines of virus-eradicated patients by DAA on how to monitor HCC occurrence and HBV reactivation.

Hepatol Int 2019 Nov 20;13(6):649-661. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu-shi, Yamanashi, 400-8506, Japan.

In the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, sustained virological response (SVR) is very high, but close attention must be paid to the possible occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with co-infection who achieved SVR in short term. HCC occurrence was more often observed in patients with previous HCC history. We found occurrence of HCC in 178 (29.6%) of 602 patients with previous HCC history (15.4 months mean follow-up post-DAA initiation) but, in contrast, in only 604 (1.3%) of 45,870 patients without previous HCC history (18.2 months mean follow-up). Thus, in these guidelines, we recommend the following: in patients with previous HCC history, surveillance at 4-month intervals for HCC by ultrasonography (US) and tumor markers should be performed. In patients without previous HCC history, surveillance at 6- to 12-month intervals for HCC including US is recommended until the long-term DAA treatment effects, especially for the resolution of liver fibrosis, are confirmed. This guideline also includes recommendations on how to follow-up patients who have been infected with both HCV and HBV. When HCV was eradicated in these HBsAg-positive patients or patients with previous HBV infection (anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive), it was shown that HBV reactivation or HBV DNA reappearance was observed in 67 (41.4%) of 162 or 12 (0.9%) of 1317, respectively. For these co-infected patients, careful attention should be paid to HBV reactivation for 24 weeks post-treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-019-09988-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861433PMC
November 2019

Are direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus infection not associated with the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma?

Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 2019 Aug;8(4):423-425

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/hbsn.2019.03.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700000PMC
August 2019