Publications by authors named "Tatiana Lopez"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lactobacillus stress protein GroEL prevents colonic inflammation.

J Gastroenterol 2021 May 29;56(5):442-455. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

INSERM, UMR 1231, Laboratoire d'Excellence LipSTIC and « Equipe labellisée par la Ligue Nationale Contre Le Cancer », 7 boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, 21079, Dijon, France.

Background: We previously showed that supernatants of Lactobacillus biofilms induced an anti-inflammatory response by affecting the secretion of macrophage-derived cytokines, which was abrogated upon immunodepletion of the stress protein GroEL.

Methods: We purified GroEL from L. reuteri and analysed its anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in human macrophages isolated from buffy coats, ex vivo in explants from human biopsies and in vivo in a mouse model of DSS induced intestinal inflammation. As a control, we used GroEL purified (LPS-free) from E. coli.

Results: We found that L. reuteri GroEL (but not E. coli GroEL) inhibited pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages markers, and favored M2-like markers. Consequently, L. reuteri GroEL inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IFNγ) while favouring an anti-inflammatory secretome. In colon tissues from human biopsies, L. reuteri GroEL was also able to decrease markers of inflammation and apoptosis (caspase 3) induced by LPS. In mice, we found that rectal administration of L. reuteri GroEL (but not E. coli GroEL) inhibited all signs of haemorrhagic colitis induced by DSS including intestinal mucosa degradation, rectal bleeding and weight loss. It also decreased intestinal production of inflammatory cytokines (such as IFNγ) while increasing anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-13. These effects were suppressed when animals were immunodepleted in macrophages. From a mechanistic point of view, the effect of L. reuteri GroEL seemed to involve TLR4, since it was lost in TRL4 mice, and the activation of a non-canonical TLR4 pathway.

Conclusions: L. reuteri GroEL, by affecting macrophage inflammatory features, deserves to be explored as an alternative to probiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-021-01774-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Lipoproteins LDL versus HDL as nanocarriers to target either cancer cells or macrophages.

JCI Insight 2020 12 17;5(24). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

INSERM, U1231, Label LipSTIC, and Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Dijon, France.

In this work, we have explored natural unmodified low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) as selective delivery vectors in colorectal cancer therapy. We show in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo (NanoSPECT/CT) in the CT-26 mice colorectal cancer model that LDLs are mainly taken up by cancer cells, while HDLs are preferentially taken up by macrophages. We loaded LDLs with cisplatin and HDLs with the heat shock protein-70 inhibitor AC1LINNC, turning them into a pair of "Trojan horses" delivering drugs selectively to their target cells as demonstrated in vitro in human colorectal cancer cells and macrophages, and in vivo. Coupling of the drugs to lipoproteins and stability was assessed by mass spectometry and raman spectrometry analysis. Cisplatin vectorized in LDLs led to better tumor growth suppression with strongly reduced adverse effects such as renal or liver toxicity. AC1LINNC vectorized into HDLs induced a strong oxidative burst in macrophages and innate anticancer immune response. Cumulative antitumor effect was observed for both drug-loaded lipoproteins. Altogether, our data show that lipoproteins from patient blood can be used as natural nanocarriers allowing cell-specific targeting, paving the way toward more efficient, safer, and personalized use of chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic drugs in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.140280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819744PMC
December 2020

Macrophage-induced reactive oxygen species promote myometrial contraction and labor-associated mechanisms†.

Biol Reprod 2020 05;102(6):1326-1339

Institut National de la Santéc et de la Recherche Médicale, Lipides Nutrition Cancer, Dijon, France.

At labor, the myometrium is infiltrated by a massive influx of macrophages that secrete high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines inducing the expression of specific labor-associated markers. However, the interactions between myocytes and macrophages and the role of macrophages in the myometrium at labor remain to be elucidated. In this work, we studied the role of myometrium-infiltrated macrophages and their interaction with myocytes in lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor. A co-culture model of human primary myometrial cells and macrophages was developed and validated. Collagen lattices were used to evaluate myocyte contraction. Differentiation steps were assessed by (i) phalloidin and vinculin staining for cytoskeleton reorganization, (ii) gap junction protein alpha 1 expression and scrape loading/dye transfer with Lucifer Yellow for gap junction intercellular communication, and (iii) calcium imaging for cell excitability. We demonstrated that macrophages favored lipopolysaccharide-induced contraction and early differentiation of myometrial cells. Transwell assays showed that previous activation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharide was essential for this differentiation and that macrophage/myocyte interactions involved macrophage release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effects of macrophage-released ROS in myometrial cell transactivation were mimicked by H2O2, suggesting that superoxide anion is a major intermediate messenger in macrophage/myocyte crosstalk during labor. These novel findings provide the foundation for innovative approaches to managing preterm labor, specifically the use of antioxidants to inhibit the initial stages of labor before the contractile phenotype has been acquired. In addition, the co-culture model developed by our team could be used in future research to decipher pathophysiological signaling pathways or screen/develop new tocolytics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa032DOI Listing
May 2020

Characterization of LuWRKY36, a flax transcription factor promoting secoisolariciresinol biosynthesis in response to Fusarium oxysporum elicitors in Linum usitatissimum L. hairy roots.

Planta 2019 Jul 29;250(1):347-366. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures, EA 1207, INRA USC 1328, Université d'Orléans, Pôle Universitaire d'Eure et Loir, 21 Rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000, Chartres, France.

Main Conclusion: The involvement of a WRKY transcription factor in the regulation of lignan biosynthesis in flax using a hairy root system is described. Secoisolariciresinol is the main flax lignan synthesized by action of LuPLR1 (pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase 1). LuPLR1 gene promoter deletion experiments have revealed a promoter region containing W boxes potentially responsible for the response to Fusarium oxysporum. W boxes are bound by WRKY transcription factors that play a role in the response to stress. A candidate WRKY transcription factor, LuWRKY36, was isolated from both abscisic acid and Fusarium elicitor-treated flax cell cDNA libraries. This transcription factors contains two WRKY DNA-binding domains and is a homolog of AtWRKY33. Different approaches confirmed LuWRKY36 binding to a W box located in the LuPLR1 promoter occurring through a unique direct interaction mediated by its N-terminal WRKY domain. Our results propose that the positive regulator action of LuWRKY36 on the LuPLR1 gene regulation and lignan biosynthesis in response to biotic stress is positively mediated by abscisic acid and inhibited by ethylene. Additionally, we demonstrate a differential Fusarium elicitor response in susceptible and resistant flax cultivars, seen as a faster and stronger LuPLR1 gene expression response accompanied with higher secoisolariciresinol accumulation in HR of the resistant cultivar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-019-03172-9DOI Listing
July 2019

The control exerted by ABA on lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is modulated by a Ca signal transduction involving the calmodulin-like LuCML15b.

J Plant Physiol 2019 May 23;236:74-87. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), INRA, USC1328, Université d'Orléans, Pôle Universitaire d'Eure et Loir, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, F-28000 Chartres, France; Bioactifs et Cosmétiques, GDR 3711 COSMACTIFS, CNRS Université d'Orléans, rue de Chartres, F-45100 Orléans, France. Electronic address:

The LuPLR1 gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the biosynthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol, a cancer chemopreventive lignan, highly accumulated in the seedcoat of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the regulation of LuPLR1 gene expression and lignan accumulation in both seeds and cell suspensions, which require two cis-acting elements (ABRE and MYB2) for this regulation. Ca is a universal secondary messenger involved in a wide range of physiological processes including ABA signaling. Therefore, Ca may be involved as a mediator of LuPLR1 gene expression and lignan biosynthesis regulation exerted by ABA. To test the potential implication of Ca signaling, a pharmacological approach was conducted using both flax cell suspensions and maturing seed systems coupled with a ß-glucuronidase reporter gene experiment, RT-qPCR analysis, lignan quantification as well as Ca fluorescence imaging. Exogenous ABA application results in an increase in the intracellular Ca cytosolic concentration, originating mainly from the extracellular medium. Promoter-reporter deletion experiments suggest that the ABRE and MYB2 cis-acting elements of the LuPLR1 gene promoter functioned as Ca-sensitive sequences involved in the ABA-mediated regulation. The use of specific inhibitors pointed the crucial roles of the Ca sensors calmodulin-like proteins and Ca-dependent protein kinases in this regulation. This regulation appeared conserved in the two different studied systems, i.e. cell suspensions and maturing seeds. A calmodulin-like, LuCML15b, identified from gene network analysis is proposed as a key player involved in this signal transduction since RNAi experiments provided direct evidences of this role. Taken together, these results provide new information on the regulation of plant defense and human health-promoting compounds, which could be used to optimize their production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2019.03.005DOI Listing
May 2019

zHSF1 modulates zper2 expression in zebrafish embryos.

Chronobiol Int 2018 07 6;35(7):1008-1015. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

a UFR SVTE - UFR Sciences de la Vie, de la Terre et de l'Environnement, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté , Dijon , France.

HSF1 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in circadian resetting by temperature. We have used zebrafish embryos to decipher the roles of zHsf1, heat and light on zper2 transcription in vivo. Our results show that heat shock (HS) stimulated zper2 expression in the dark but has no cumulative effect combined with light. After light exposition, zper2 expression was 2.7 fold increased threefold in the hsf1-morphants in comparison to control embryos. Our results show that zHsf1 plays a positive role in HS-driven expression of zper2 in the dark but seems to act as an attenuator in the presence light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2018.1441855DOI Listing
July 2018

Functional characterization of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase-2 gene reveals its roles in yatein biosynthesis and flax defense response.

Planta 2017 Sep 27;246(3):405-420. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), INRA USC1328, Université d'Orléans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000, Chartres, France.

Main Conclusion: This study provides new insights into the biosynthesis regulation and in planta function of the lignan yatein in flax leaves. Pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases (PLR) catalyze the conversion of pinoresinol into secoisolariciresinol (SECO) in lignan biosynthesis. Several lignans are accumulated in high concentrations, such as SECO accumulated as secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in seeds and yatein in aerial parts, in the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) from which two PLR enzymes of opposite enantioselectivity have been isolated. While LuPLR1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of (+)-SECO leading to (+)-SDG in seeds, the role(s) of the second PLR (LuPLR2) is not completely elucidated. This study provides new insights into the in planta regulation and function of the lignan yatein in flax leaves: its biosynthesis relies on a different PLR with opposite stereospecificity but also on a distinct expression regulation. RNAi technology provided evidence for the in vivo involvement of the LuPLR2 gene in the biosynthesis of (-)-yatein accumulated in flax leaves. LuPLR2 expression in different tissues and in response to stress was studied by RT-qPCR and promoter-reporter transgenesis showing that the spatio-temporal expression of the LuPLR2 gene in leaves perfectly matches the (-)-yatein accumulation and that LuPLR2 expression and yatein production are increased by methyl jasmonate and wounding. A promoter deletion approach yielded putative regulatory elements. This expression pattern in relation to a possible role for this lignan in flax defense is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2701-0DOI Listing
September 2017

The impact of tumor nitric oxide production on VEGFA expression and tumor growth in a zebrafish rat glioma xenograft model.

PLoS One 2015 13;10(3):e0120435. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

INSERM, UMR 866, 'Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer', Dijon, France; University of Burgundy, UFR SVTE, Dijon, France.

To investigate the effect of nitric oxide on tumor development, we established a rat tumor xenograft model in zebrafish embryos. The injected tumor cells formed masses in which nitric oxide production could be detected by the use of the cell-permeant DAF-FM-DA (diaminofluorophore 4-amino-5-methylamino-2'-7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) and DAR-4M-AM (diaminorhodamine-4M). This method revealed that nitric oxide production could be co-localized with the tumor xenograft in 46% of the embryos. In 85% of these embryos, tumors were vascularized and blood vessels were observed on day 4 post injection. Furthermore, we demonstrated by qRT-PCR that the transplanted glioma cells highly expressed Nos2, Vegfa and Cyclin D1 mRNA. In the xenografted embryos we also found increased zebrafish vegfa expression. Glioma and zebrafish derived Vegfa and tumor Cyclin D1 expression could be down regulated by the nitric oxide scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide or CPTIO. We conclude that even if there is a heterogeneous nitric oxide production by the xenografted glioma cells that impacts Vegfa and Cyclin D1 expression levels, our results suggest that reduction of nitric oxide levels by nitric oxide scavenging could be an efficient approach to treat glioma.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120435PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359111PMC
February 2016

Structure-function analysis of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters using chimeric dimers.

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 20;289(35):24511-20. Epub 2014 Jul 20.

From the Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270 University of Bourgogne, 6 Bd. Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France,

ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.575506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4148876PMC
August 2014

Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Apr 25;446(3):798-804. Epub 2014 Feb 25.

Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000, France. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.02.074DOI Listing
April 2014

LXR antagonists induce ABCD2 expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Feb;1841(2):259-66

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids resulting from a beta-oxidation defect. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also key components of the pathogenesis. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCDI gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal half ABC transporter predicted to participate in the entry of VLCFA-CoA into the peroxisome, the unique site of their beta-oxidation. Two homologous peroxisomal ABC transporters, ABCD2 and ABCD3 have been proven to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when overexpressed. Pharmacological induction of these target genes could therefore represent an alternative therapy for X-ALD patients. Since LXR activation was shown to repress ABCD2 expression, we investigated the effects of LXR antagonists in different cell lines. Cells were treated with GSK(17) (a LXR antagonist recently discovered from the GlaxoSmithKline compound collection), 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol (22S-HC, another LXR antagonist) and 22R-HC (an endogenous LXR agonist). We observed up-regulation of ABCD2,ABCD3 and CTNNB1 (the gene encoding for beta-catenin, which was recently demonstrated to induce ABCD2 expression) in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and in X-ALD skin fibroblasts treated with LXR antagonists. Interestingly, induction in X-ALD fibroblasts was concomitant with a decrease in oxidative stress. Rats treated with 22S-HC showed hepatic induction of the 3 genes of interest. In human, we show by multiple tissue expression array that expression of ABCD2 appears to be inversely correlated with NR1H3 (LXRalpha) expression. Altogether, antagonists of LXR that are currently developed in the context of dyslipidemia may find another indication with X-ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.11.003DOI Listing
February 2014

Role of protein farnesylation events in the ABA-mediated regulation of the Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase 1 (LuPLR1) gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2013 Nov 15;72:96-111. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), UPRES EA 1207, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres (ASUC), Université d'Orléans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, F28000 Chartres, France.

A Linum usitatissimum LuERA1 gene encoding a putative ortholog of the ERA1 (Enhanced Response to ABA 1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (encoding the beta subunit of a farnesyltransferase) was analyzed in silico and for its expression in flax. The gene and the protein sequences are highly similar to other sequences already characterized in plants and all the features of a farnesyltransferase were detected. Molecular modeling of LuERA1 protein confirmed its farnesyltransferase nature. LuERA1 is expressed in the vegetative organs and also in the outer seedcoat of the flaxseed, where it could modulate the previously observed regulation operated by ABA on lignan synthesis. This effect could be mediated by the regulation of the transcription of a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, the LuPLR1 gene, encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase. The positive effect of manumycin A, a specific inhibitor of farnesyltransferase, on lignan biosynthesis in flax cell suspension systems supports the hypothesis of the involvement of such an enzyme in the negative regulation of ABA action. In Arabidopsis, ERA1 is able to negatively regulate the ABA effects and the mutant era1 has an enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When expressed in an Arabidopsis cell suspension (heterologous system) LuERA1 is able to reverse the effect of the era1 mutation. RNAi experiments in flax targeting the farnesyltransferase β-subunit encoded by the LuERA1 gene led to an increase LuPLR1 expression level associated with an increased content of lignan in transgenic calli. Altogether these results strongly suggest a role of the product of this LuERA1 gene in the ABA-mediated upregulation of lignan biosynthesis in flax cells through the activation of LuPLR1 promoter. This ABA signaling pathway involving ERA1 probably acts through the ABRE box found in the promoter sequence of LuPLR1, a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, as demonstrated by LuPLR1 gene promoter-reporter experiments in flax cells using wild type and mutated promoter sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.06.001DOI Listing
November 2013

Liver x receptor regulates arachidonic acid distribution and eicosanoid release in human macrophages: a key role for lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Jun 11;33(6):1171-9. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Centre de Recherche INSERM UMR866, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

Objective: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in macrophages and regulate lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Among putative LXR target genes, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) involved in the Lands cycle controls the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids and, therefore, the availability of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA), used for eicosanoid synthesis. The aim of our study was to determine whether LXRs could regulate the Lands cycle in human macrophages, to assess the consequences in terms of lipid composition and inflammatory response, and to work out the relative contribution of LPCAT3 to the observed changes.

Approach And Results: Transcriptomic analysis revealed that LPCAT3 was upregulated by LXR agonists in human macrophages. Accordingly, LXR stimulation significantly increased lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity catalyzed by LPCAT3. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that LXR activation increased the AA content in the polar lipid fraction, specifically in phosphatidylcholines. The LXR-mediated effects on AA distribution were abolished by LPCAT3 silencing, and a redistribution of AA toward the neutral lipid fraction was observed in this context. Finally, we observed that preconditioning of human macrophages by LXR agonist treatment increased the release of arachidonate-derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, with a significant attenuation by LPCAT3 silencing.

Conclusions: Altogether, our data demonstrate that the LXR-mediated induction of LPCAT3 primes human macrophages for subsequent eicosanoid secretion by increasing the pool of AA, which can be mobilized from phospholipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300812DOI Listing
June 2013

Identification and characterization of cis-acting elements involved in the regulation of ABA- and/or GA-mediated LuPLR1 gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cell cultures.

J Plant Physiol 2013 Mar 27;170(5):516-22. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), EA 1207, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres (ASUC), Université d'Orléans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, F28000, Chartres, France.

Pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase 1, encoded by the LuPLR1 gene in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), is responsible for the biosynthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol, a cancer chemopreventive phytoestrogenic lignan accumulated in high amount in the hull of flaxseed. Our recent studies have demonstrated a key role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of LuPLR1 gene expression and thus of the (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis during the flax seedcoat development. It is well accepted that gibberellins (GA) and ABA play antagonistic roles in the regulation of numerous developmental processes; therefore it is of interest to clarify their respective effects on lignan biosynthesis. Herein, using flax cell suspension cultures, we demonstrate that LuPLR1 gene expression and (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis are up-regulated by ABA and down-regulated by GA. The LuPLR1 gene promoter analysis and mutation experiments allow us to identify and characterize two important cis-acting sequences (ABRE and MYB2) required for these regulations. These results imply that a cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling orchestrated by transcription factors is involved in the regulation of lignan biosynthesis. This is particularly evidenced in the case of the ABRE cis-regulatory sequence of LuPLR1 gene promoter that appears to be a common target sequence of GA and ABA signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2012.11.003DOI Listing
March 2013

Biological activities of the LXRα and β agonist, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, and of its isomer, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, on oligodendrocytes: effects on cell growth and viability, oxidative and inflammatory status.

Biochimie 2013 Mar 7;95(3):518-30. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Université de Bourgogne, Equipe Biochimie du peroxysome, inflammation et métabolisme lipidique EA 7270/INSERM, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, France.

The biochemical and biological properties of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and of its isomer, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, are not well known. So, we determined the ability of 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol to react with LXRα and LXRβ, and we characterized the activities of these oxysterols on oligodendrocytes which are myelin synthesizing cells. The effects of 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol were studied on 158N murine oligodendrocytes to assess their activities on cell growth and viability, oxidative and inflammatory status. To this end different parameters were used: cell counting with trypan blue; identification of dead cells and cell cycle analysis with propidium iodide; evaluation of mitochondrial depolarization, lysosomal membrane integrity, actin depolimerization, nuclear morphology, and superoxide anion production after staining with JC-1, acridine orange, rhodamine-phalloidin, Hoechst 33342, and dihydroethidium, respectively; evaluation of ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy, and cytokine quantification with a cytometric bead array. Only 4β-hydroxycholesterol is a LXRα and β agonist. No cytotoxic effects were found with 4α-hydroxycholesterol except a slight inhibition of cell growth at elevated concentrations. At high concentrations, 4β-hydroxycholesterol was not only able to inhibit cell growth, but also to induce cell death associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, dysfunctions of lysosomal membrane integrity, and superoxide anion overproduction. These side effects were lower than those observed with 7-ketocholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol used as positive controls. On oligodendrocyte murine primary cultures, only lysosomal membrane integrity was slightly affected under treatment with 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol. So, 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol have different biological activities. Their ability to induce cytotoxic effects on oligodendrocytes can be considered as weak comparatively to 7-ketocholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2012.11.013DOI Listing
March 2013

Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coats for gene expression regulation studies.

BMC Res Notes 2012 Jan 9;5:15. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures UPRES EA 1207, Université d'Orléans, Equipe Lignanes des Linacées, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille F-28000 Chartres, France.

Background: While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds.

Findings: In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments.

Conclusions: Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3285032PMC
January 2012

Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

Planta 2012 Jan 12;235(1):85-98. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), UPRES EA 1207, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres (ASUC), Université d'Orléans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000, Chartres, France.

Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-011-1492-yDOI Listing
January 2012

Podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in Juniperus bermudiana and 12 other Juniperus species: optimization of extraction, method validation, and quantification.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Aug 15;59(15):8101-7. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), UPRES EA 1207, Antenne Scientifique Universitaire de Chartres (ASUC), Université d'Orléans, Chartres, France.

The lignans podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin are secondary metabolites with potent pharmaceutical applications in cancer therapy. However, the supply of podophyllotoxin from its current natural source, Podophyllum hexandrum, is becoming increasingly problematic, and alternative sources are therefore urgently needed. So far, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin have been found in some Juniperus species, although at low levels in most cases. Moreover, extraction protocols deserve optimization. This study aimed at developing and validating an efficient extraction protocol of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from Juniperus species and applying it to 13 Juniperus species, among which some had never been previously analyzed. Juniperus bermudiana was used for the development and validation of an extraction protocol for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin allowing extraction yields of up to 22.6 mg/g DW of podophyllotoxin and 4.4 mg/g DW deoxypodophyllotoxin, the highest values found in leaf extract of Juniperus. The optimized extraction protocol and HPLC separation from DAD or MS detections were established and validated to investigate podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin contents in aerial parts of 12 other Juniperus species. This allowed either higher yields to be obtained in some species reported to contain these two compounds or the occurrence of these compounds in some other species to be reported for the first time. This efficient protocol allows effective extraction of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from aerial parts of Juniperus species, which could therefore constitute interesting alternative sources of these valuable metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf201410pDOI Listing
August 2011

[Association between Fok I vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and plasmatic concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta1 and interferon gamma in type 1 diabetes mellitus].

Med Clin (Barc) 2008 Feb;130(3):81-4

Laboratorio de Epidemiología Nutricional y Genética, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background And Objective: In order to assess whether Fok I vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphism is involved in the genetic susceptibility of type 1 diabetes, a case-control study was conducted and VDR genotypes were related to serum concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D and cytokines transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interferon gamma (INF-gamma).

Patients And Method: 151 incident cases of type 1 diabetes and 182 non related healthy controls from Santiago were studied for VDR polymorphisms in peripheral blood DNA. Exon 2 (Fok I) segments were amplified by polimerase chain reaction and analyzed by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine each corresponding genotype. Differences for allele, genotype and serological markers as 25(OH) vitamin D, TGF-beta1 and INF-gamma levels distribution between patients and controls were analyzed.

Results: Fok I polymorphism distribution analysis showed no differences between patients and controls. Among diabetics, higher levels of TGF-beta1 (median, 282.6 pg/ml; range, 131.8-3,031.4) were observed compared with healthy children (median, 232.2 pg/ml; range, 135.7-506.5) (p < 0.0038). Similar results were observed for INF-gamma concentrations (median, 121.1 pg/ml, and range, 5.3-228.8, in cases, and median, 89.6 pg/ml, and range, 10.9-117.2 in controls) (p < 0.0004). The diabetic carriers of the ff genotype showed low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D compared with the carriers of the F allele: mean (standard deviation), 23.1 (5.9) versus 27.9 (10.3) ng/ml (p < 0.03). A similar result was observed for TGF-beta1 concentrations in diabetic carriers of ff genotype and patients carriers of the F allele (298.5 versus 276.6; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Fok I polymorphism of VDR could have a marginal role in the immunologic disturbance in type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1157/13115350DOI Listing
February 2008

Negative feedback loop in T cell activation through IkappaB kinase-induced phosphorylation and degradation of Bcl10.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Jan 9;104(3):908-13. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Unité de Signalisation Moléculaire et Activation Cellulaire, Unité de Recherche Associée 2582, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur, 25 Rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB after stimulation through antigen receptors is important for lymphocyte differentiation, activation, proliferation, and protection against apoptosis. Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular events leading to NF-kappaB activation, but how this activation is eventually down-regulated is less well understood. Recent studies have indicated that Bcl10 functions downstream of lymphocyte antigen receptors to promote the activation of the IkappaB kinase complex leading to the phosphorylation and degradation of the IkappaB inhibitors of NF-kappaB. Bcl10 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, possibly in association with its nuclear localization. Here, we provide evidence that the IkappaB kinase complex phosphorylates Bcl10 after T cell antigen receptor stimulation and causes its proteolysis via the beta-TrCP ubiquitin ligase/proteasome pathway. These findings document a negative regulatory activity of the IKK complex and suggest that Bcl10 degradation is part of the regulatory mechanisms that precisely control the response to antigens. Mutants of Bcl10 in the IKK phosphorylation site are resistant to degradation, accumulate in the nucleus, and lead to an increase in IL-2 production after T cell antigen receptor stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0606982104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1783413PMC
January 2007

A novel cell model to study the function of the adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Mar 6;341(1):150-7. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, Dijon, France.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to mutations in the ABCD1 (ALD) gene. ALDRP, the closest homolog of ALDP, has been shown to have partial functional redundancy with ALDP and, when overexpressed, can compensate for the loss-of-function of ALDP. In order to characterize the function of ALDRP and to understand the phenomenon of gene redundancy, we have developed a novel system that allows the controlled expression of the ALDRP-EGFP fusion protein (normal or non-functional mutated ALDRP) using the Tet-On system in H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells. The generated stable cell lines express negligible levels of endogenous ALDRP and doxycycline dosage-dependent levels of normal or mutated ALDRP. Importantly, the ALDRP-EGFP protein is targeted correctly to peroxisome and is functional. The obtained cell lines will be an indispensable tool in our further studies aimed at the resolution of the function of ALDRP to characterize its potential substrates in a natural context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.12.152DOI Listing
March 2006