Publications by authors named "Tatiana Koudriakova"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Imaging to Study Drug Distribution in the Intestine Following Oral Dosing.

Anal Chem 2021 02 20;93(4):2144-2151. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging Institute, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Local delivery to the lower gut to treat diseases of the colon has become a topic of special attention. Tissue exposure of locally acting agents is not represented by plasma concentrations. Therefore, reliable methods to measure tissue uptake at the primary site of action (e.g., epithelial layer or lamina propria) are vital. This work investigates the suitability of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) in quantitatively visualizing intestinal transmural drug distribution. Tofacitinib (Tofa), a drug approved for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, including ulcerative colitis, was selected as a tool compound for feasibility studies. One- and 7-h postdose sections of the ileum, proximal- and distal-colon from rats that received an oral solution of Tofa were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI. A dilution series of individual concentrations sprayed over an entire tissue section allowed for tissue type-specific quantitation. At 1 h (systemic ), the signal was highest in the ileum, whereas at 7 h, the signal was highest in the colon, when the unabsorbed fraction of the compound reached the colon. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) intensity plots and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains showed a visually observable gradual decrease in Tofa concentration from the lumen toward the muscular layer of the proximal colon. The high luminal concentration of Tofa indicated that flushing of the intestines with saline does not result in complete removal of the drug material from the lumen. This could cause an overestimation of drug concentration in gut tissue homogenates by conventional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods. This study demonstrates the utility of MSI to differentiate between the lumen and intestinal wall layers and enables proper interpretation of tissue distribution data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c03956DOI Listing
February 2021

Substituted Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes as Selective Orexin-1 Antagonists: Discovery of JNJ-54717793.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2020 Oct 27;11(10):2002-2009. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Janssen Research & Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

The orexin system consists of two neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) that exert their mode of action on two receptors (orexin-1 and orexin-2). While the role of the orexin-2 receptor is established as an important modulator of sleep wake states, the role of the orexin-1 receptor is believed to play a role in addiction, panic, or anxiety. In this manuscript, we describe the optimization of a nonselective substituted azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) into orally bioavailable, brain penetrating, selective orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonists. This resulted in the discovery of our first candidate for clinical development, JNJ-54717793.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549262PMC
October 2020

Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Evaluation of 3-Methyl-6-(5-thiophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-ones as Selective GluN2B Negative Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Mood Disorders.

J Med Chem 2020 09 28;63(17):9181-9196. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Selective inhibitors of the GluN2B subunit of -methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the ionotropic glutamate receptor superfamily have been targeted for the treatment of mood disorders. We sought to identify structurally novel, brain penetrant, GluN2B-selective inhibitors suitable for evaluation in a clinical setting in patients with major depressive disorder. We identified a new class of negative allosteric modulators of GluN2B that contain a 1,3-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2-one core. This series of compounds had poor solubility properties and poor permeability, which was addressed utilizing two approaches. First, a series of structural modifications was conducted which included replacing hydrogen bond donor groups. Second, enabling formulation development was undertaken in which a stable nanosuspension was identified for lead compound . Compound was found to have robust target engagement in rat with an ED of 1.4 mg/kg. The nanosuspension enabled sufficient margins in preclinical toleration studies to nominate for progression into advanced good laboratory practice studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02113DOI Listing
September 2020

Discovery of a Gut-Restricted JAK Inhibitor for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Med Chem 2020 03 16;63(6):2915-2929. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Janssen Research and Development, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

To identify Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors that selectively target gastrointestinal tissues with limited systemic exposures, a class of imidazopyrrolopyridines with a range of physical properties was prepared and evaluated. We identified compounds with low intrinsic permeability and determined a correlation between permeability and physicochemical properties, clogP and tPSA, for a subset of compounds. This low intrinsic permeability translated into compounds displaying high colonic exposure and low systemic exposure after oral dosing at 25 mg/kg in mouse. In a mouse PK/PD model, oral dosing of lead compound demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of pSTAT phosphorylation in colonic explants post-oral dose but low systemic exposure and no measurable systemic pharmacodynamic activity. We thus demonstrate the utility of JAK inhibitors with low intrinsic permeability as a feasible approach to develop gut-restricted, pharmacologically active molecules with a potential advantage over systemically available compounds that are limited by systemic on-target adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01439DOI Listing
March 2020

Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

Discovery of Imidazo[1,2-]pyrazines and Pyrazolo[1,5-]pyrimidines as TARP γ-8 Selective AMPAR Negative Modulators.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Mar 26;10(3):267-272. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Janssen Research & Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121 United States.

This report discloses the discovery and characterization of imidazo[1,2-]pyrazines and pyrazolo[1,5-]pyrimidines as selective negative modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) associated with transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein γ-8. Imidazopyrazine was initially identified as a promising γ-8 selective high-throughput screening hit, and subsequent structure-activity relationship optimization yielded subnanomolar, brain penetrant leads. Replacement of the imidazopyrazine core with an isosteric pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold improved microsomal stability and efflux liabilities to provide , JNJ-61432059. Following oral administration, exhibited time- and dose-dependent AMPAR/γ-8 receptor occupancy in mouse hippocampus, which resulted in robust seizure protection in corneal kindling and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) anticonvulsant models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421542PMC
March 2019

1-Pyrrolo[3,2-]pyridine GluN2B-Selective Negative Allosteric Modulators.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Mar 10;10(3):261-266. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121-1126, United States.

Herein, we disclose a series of selective GluN2B negative allosteric modulators containing a 1-pyrrolo[3,2-]pyridine core. Lead optimization efforts included increasing brain penetration as well as decreasing cytochrome P450 inhibition and hERG channel binding. The series was also optimized to reduce metabolic turnover in human and rat. Compounds , , , and have good in vitro GluN2B potency and good predicted absorption, but moderate to high projected clearance. They were assessed in vivo to determine their target engagement. All four compounds achieved >75% receptor occupancy after an oral dose of 10 mg/kg in rat. Compound receptor occupancy was measured in a dose-response experiment, and its ED was found to be 2.0 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421534PMC
March 2019

Lead Optimization of 5-Aryl Benzimidazolone- and Oxindole-Based AMPA Receptor Modulators Selective for TARP γ-8.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2018 Aug 13;9(8):821-826. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Janssen Research & Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

Glutamate mediates fast excitatory neurotransmission via ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. The trafficking and gating properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) can be amplified by transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs), which are often expressed in localized brain regions. Herein, we describe the discovery, lead optimization, and preclinical characterization of 5-arylbenzimidazolone and oxindole-based negative modulators of AMPARs associated with TARP γ-8, the primary TARP found in hippocampus. High-throughput screen lead was optimized for potency and brain penetration to provide benzimidazolone , JNJ-55511118.1 Replacement of the benzimidazolone core in with an oxindole mitigated reactive metabolite formation and led to the identification of (GluA1/γ-8 pIC = 9.7). Following oral dosing in rats, demonstrated robust target engagement in hippocampus as assessed by autoradiography (ED = 0.6 mg/kg, plasma EC = 9 ng/mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088354PMC
August 2018

Discovery of N-arylpyrroles as agonists of GPR120 for the treatment of type II diabetes.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 03 8;28(5):841-846. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Cardiovascular and Metabolism Research, Janssen Research and Development LLC, 1400 McKean Rd., Spring House, PA 19477, USA.

The discovery of a novel series of N-arylpyrroles as agonists of GPR120 (FFAR4) is discussed. One lead compound is a potent GPR120 agonist, has good selectivity for related receptor GPR40 (FFAR1), has acceptable PK properties, and is active in 2 models of Type 2 Diabetes in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.02.013DOI Listing
March 2018

A Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction To Access 6-Methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines Enables the Discovery Synthesis and Preclinical Profiling of a P2X7 Antagonist Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2018 01 20;61(1):207-223. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

A single pot dipolar cycloaddition reaction/Cope elimination sequence was developed to access novel 1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine P2X7 antagonists that contain a synthetically challenging chiral center. The structure-activity relationships of the new compounds are described. Two of these compounds, (S)-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)(1-(5-fluoropyrimidin-2-yl)-6-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methanone (compound 29) and (S)-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1-(5-fluoropyrimidin-2-yl)-6-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methanone (compound 35), were found to have robust P2X7 receptor occupancy at low doses in rat with ED values of 0.06 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Compound 35 had notable solubility compared to 29 and showed good tolerability in preclinical species. Compound 35 was chosen as a clinical candidate for advancement into phase I clinical trials to assess safety and tolerability in healthy human subjects prior to the initiation of proof of concept studies for the treatment of mood disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01279DOI Listing
January 2018

4-Methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-Based P2X7 Receptor Antagonists: Optimization of Pharmacokinetic Properties Leading to the Identification of a Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2017 06 25;60(11):4559-4572. Epub 2017 May 25.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

The synthesis and preclinical characterization of novel 4-(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines that are potent and selective brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists are described. Optimization efforts based on previously disclosed unsubstituted 6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines, methyl substituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines, and several other series lead to the identification of a series of 4-(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-triazolo[4,5-c]pyridines that are selective P2X7 antagonists with potency at the rodent and human P2X7 ion channels. These novel P2X7 antagonists have suitable physicochemical properties, and several analogs have an excellent pharmacokinetic profile, good partitioning into the CNS and show robust in vivo target engagement after oral dosing. Improvements in metabolic stability led to the identification of JNJ-54175446 (14) as a candidate for clinical development. The drug discovery efforts and strategies that resulted in the identification of the clinical candidate are described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00408DOI Listing
June 2017

Identification of (R)-(2-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)(1-(5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-4-methyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl)methanone (JNJ 54166060), a Small Molecule Antagonist of the P2X7 receptor.

J Med Chem 2016 09 8;59(18):8535-48. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121 United States.

The synthesis and SAR of a series of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine P2X7 antagonists are described. Addressing P2X7 affinity and liver microsomal stability issues encountered with this template afforded methyl substituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines ultimately leading to the identification of 1 (JNJ 54166060). 1 is a potent P2X7 antagonist with an ED50 = 2.3 mg/kg in rats, high oral bioavailability and low-moderate clearance in preclinical species, acceptable safety margins in rats, and a predicted human dose of 120 mg of QD. Additionally, 1 possesses a unique CYP profile and was found to be a regioselective inhibitor of midazolam CYP3A metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00989DOI Listing
September 2016

Substituted 5,6-(Dihydropyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-yl)-methanones as P2X7 Antagonists.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 Apr 19;7(4):498-504. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Janssen Research & Development L.L.C. , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

We describe the synthesis of a novel class of brain penetrating P2X7 antagonists with high potency at both the rat and human P2X7 receptors. Disclosed herein are druglike molecules with demonstrated target engagement of the rat P2X7 receptors after an oral dose. Specifically, compound 20 occupied the P2X7 receptors >80% over the 6 h time course as measured by an ex vivo radioligand binding experiment. In a dose-response assay, this molecule has a plasma EC50 of 8 ng/mL. Overall, 20 has suitable druglike properties and pharmacokinetics in rat and dog. This molecule and others disclosed herein will serve as additional tools to elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00304DOI Listing
April 2016

Characterization of JNJ-42847922, a Selective Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, as a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Insomnia.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Sep 15;354(3):471-82. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California

Dual orexin receptor antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in various species, including humans. Emerging research indicates that selective orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonists may offer specificity and a more adequate sleep profile by preserving normal sleep architecture. Here, we characterized JNJ-42847922 ([5-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-hexahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-6-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-phenyl)-methanone), a high-affinity/potent OX2R antagonist. JNJ-42847922 had an approximate 2-log selectivity ratio versus the human orexin-1 receptor. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that JNJ-42847922 quickly occupied OX2R binding sites in the rat brain after oral administration and rapidly cleared from the brain. In rats, single oral administration of JNJ-42847922 (3-30 mg/kg) during the light phase dose dependently reduced the latency to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and prolonged NREM sleep time in the first 2 hours, whereas REM sleep was minimally affected. The reduced sleep onset and increased sleep duration were maintained upon 7-day repeated dosing (30 mg/kg) with JNJ-42847922, then all sleep parameters returned to baseline levels following discontinuation. Although the compound promoted sleep in wild-type mice, it had no effect in OX2R knockout mice, consistent with a specific OX2R-mediated sleep response. JNJ-42847922 did not increase dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens or produce place preference in mice after subchronic conditioning, indicating that the compound lacks intrinsic motivational properties in contrast to zolpidem. In a single ascending dose study conducted in healthy subjects, JNJ-42847922 increased somnolence and displayed a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile for a sedative/hypnotic, thus emerging as a promising candidate for further clinical development for the treatment of insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.115.225466DOI Listing
September 2015

Novel Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles Are Selective Orexin-2 Antagonists: SAR Leading to a Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2015 Jul 8;58(14):5620-36. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

The preclinical characterization of novel octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles that are potent and selective orexin-2 antagonists is described. Optimization of physicochemical and DMPK properties led to the discovery of compounds with tissue distribution and duration of action suitable for evaluation in the treatment of primary insomnia. These selective orexin-2 antagonists are proven to promote sleep in rats, and this work ultimately led to the identification of a compound that progressed into human clinical trials for the treatment of primary insomnia. The synthesis, SAR, and optimization of the pharmacokinetic properties of this series of compounds as well as the identification of the clinical candidate, JNJ-42847922 (34), are described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00742DOI Listing
July 2015

Prediction of oral pharmacokinetics of cMet kinase inhibitors in humans: physiologically based pharmacokinetic model versus traditional one-compartment model.

Drug Metab Dispos 2011 Mar 23;39(3):383-93. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development, San Diego, CA, USA.

The objective of this study was to assess the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting plasma concentration-time profiles of orally available cMet kinase inhibitors, (R)-3-[1-(2,6-dichloro-3-fluoro-phenyl)-ethoxy]-5-(1-piperidin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-pyridin-2-ylamine (PF02341066) and 2-[4-(3-quinolin-6-ylmethyl-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazin-5-yl)-pyrazol-1-yl]-ethanol (PF04217903), in humans. The prediction accuracy of pharmacokinetics (PK) by PBPK modeling was compared with that of a traditional one-compartment PK model based on allometric scaling. The predicted clearance values from allometric scaling with the correction for the interspecies differences in protein binding were used as a representative comparison, which showed more accurate PK prediction in humans than the other methods. Overall PBPK modeling provided better prediction of the area under the plasma concentration-time curves for both PF02341066 (1.2-fold error) and PF04217903 (1.3-fold error) compared with the one-compartment PK model (1.8- and 1.9-fold errors, respectively). Of more importance, the simulated plasma concentration-time profiles of PF02341066 and PF04217903 by PBPK modeling seemed to be consistent with the observed profiles showing multiexponential declines, resulting in more accurate prediction of the apparent half-lives (t(1/2)): the observed and predicted t(1/2) values were, respectively, 10 and 12 h for PF02341066 and 6.6 and 6.3 h for PF04217903. The predicted t(1/2) values by the one-compartment PK model were 17 h for PF02341066 and 1.9 h for PF04217903. Therefore, PBPK modeling has the potential to be more useful and reliable for the PK prediction of PF02341066 and PF04217903 in humans than the traditional one-compartment PK model. In summary, the present study has shown examples to indicate that the PBPK model can be used to predict PK profiles in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.110.035857DOI Listing
March 2011

Pre-clinical characterization of aryloxypyridine amides as histamine H3 receptor antagonists: identification of candidates for clinical development.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Jul 16;20(14):4210-4. Epub 2010 May 16.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The pre-clinical characterization of novel aryloxypyridine amides that are histamine H(3) receptor antagonists is described. These compounds are high affinity histamine H(3) ligands that penetrate the CNS and occupy the histamine H(3) receptor in rat brain. Several compounds were extensively profiled pre-clinically leading to the identification of two compounds suitable for nomination as development candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.05.041DOI Listing
July 2010

Pharmacologic properties of AG-012986, a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with antitumor efficacy.

Mol Cancer Ther 2008 Apr;7(4):818-28

Department of Cancer Biology, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 10724 Science Center Road, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

AG-012986 is a multitargeted cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor active against CDK1, CDK2, CDK4/6, CDK5, and CDK9, with selectivity over a diverse panel of non-CDK kinases. Here, we report the potent antitumor efficacies of AG-012986 against multiple tumor lines in vitro and in vivo. AG-012986 showed antiproliferative activities in vitro with IC(50)s of <100 nmol/L in 14 of 18 tumor cell lines. In vivo, significant antitumor efficacy induced by AG-012986 was seen (tumor growth inhibition, >83.1%) in 10 of 11 human xenograft tumor models when administered at or near the maximum tolerated dose for 8 or 12 days. AG-012986 caused dose-dependent hypophosphorylation at Ser(795) of the retinoblastoma protein, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in vitro. Colony-forming assays indicated that the potency of AG-012986 substantially decreased with treatment time of <24 h. In vivo, AG-012986 also showed dose-dependent retinoblastoma Ser(795) hypophosphorylation, cell cycle arrest, decreased Ki-67 tumor staining, and apoptosis in conjunction with antitumor activity. Studies comparing i.p. bolus with s.c. implanted minipump dosing regimens revealed that in vivo efficacy correlated with the duration of minimally effective plasma levels rather than maximal drug plasma levels. Dosing optimization of AG-012986 provided guidance for selecting a treatment schedule to achieve the best antitumor efficacy while minimizing the risk of adverse side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0440DOI Listing
April 2008

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of biomarker response and tumor growth inhibition to an orally available cMet kinase inhibitor in human tumor xenograft mouse models.

Drug Metab Dispos 2008 Jul 1;36(7):1267-74. Epub 2008 Apr 1.

Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, La Jolla Laboratories, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 10777 Science Center Dr., San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

(R)-3-[1-(2,6-Dichloro-3-fluoro-phenyl)-ethoxy]-5-(1-piperidin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-pyridin-2-ylamine (PF02341066) was identified as an orally available, ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitor of cMet receptor tyrosine kinase. The objectives of the present studies were to characterize 1) the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the plasma concentrations of PF02341066 to cMet phosphorylation in tumor (biomarker) and 2) the relationship of cMet phosphorylation to antitumor efficacy (pharmacological response). Athymic mice implanted with GTL16 gastric carcinoma or U87MG glioblastoma xenografts were treated with PF02341066 once daily at doses selected to encompass ED(50) values. Plasma concentrations of PF02341066 were best described by a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. A time-delay (hysteresis) was observed between the plasma concentrations of PF02341066 and the cMet phosphorylation response. A link model was therefore used to account for this hysteresis. The model fitted the time courses of cMet phosphorylation well, suggesting that the main reason for the hysteresis is a rate-limiting distribution from plasma into tumor. The EC(50) and EC(90) values were estimated to be 19 and 167 ng/ml, respectively. For tumor growth inhibition, the exponential tumor growth model fitted the time courses of individual tumor growth inhibition well. The EC(50) for the GTL16 tumor growth inhibition was estimated to be 213 ng/ml. Thus, the EC(90) for the inhibition of cMet phosphorylation corresponded to the EC(50) for the tumor growth inhibition, suggesting that near-complete inhibition of cMet phosphorylation (>90%) is required to significantly inhibit tumor growth (>50%). The present results will be helpful in determining the appropriate dosing regimen and in guiding dose escalation to rapidly achieve efficacious systemic exposure in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.019711DOI Listing
July 2008

An orally available small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, PF-2341066, exhibits cytoreductive antitumor efficacy through antiproliferative and antiangiogenic mechanisms.

Cancer Res 2007 May;67(9):4408-17

Departments of Cancer Biology, Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla Laboratories, La Jolla, California 92121, USA.

The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), have been implicated in the progression of several human cancers and are attractive therapeutic targets. PF-2341066 was identified as a potent, orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of the catalytic activity of c-Met kinase. PF-2341066 was selective for c-Met (and anaplastic lymphoma kinase) compared with a panel of >120 diverse tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases. PF-2341066 potently inhibited c-Met phosphorylation and c-Met-dependent proliferation, migration, or invasion of human tumor cells in vitro (IC(50) values, 5-20 nmol/L). In addition, PF-2341066 potently inhibited HGF-stimulated endothelial cell survival or invasion and serum-stimulated tubulogenesis in vitro, suggesting that this agent also exhibits antiangiogenic properties. PF-2341066 showed efficacy at well-tolerated doses, including marked cytoreductive antitumor activity, in several tumor models that expressed activated c-Met. The antitumor efficacy of PF-2341066 was dose dependent and showed a strong correlation to inhibition of c-Met phosphorylation in vivo. Near-maximal inhibition of c-Met activity for the full dosing interval was necessary to maximize the efficacy of PF-2341066. Additional mechanism-of-action studies showed dose-dependent inhibition of c-Met-dependent signal transduction, tumor cell proliferation (Ki67), induction of apoptosis (caspase-3), and reduction of microvessel density (CD31). These results indicated that the antitumor activity of PF-2341066 may be mediated by direct effects on tumor cell growth or survival as well as antiangiogenic mechanisms. Collectively, these results show the therapeutic potential of targeting c-Met with selective small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of human cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4443DOI Listing
May 2007

Ocular disposition, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of nanoparticle-formulated ophthalmic drugs.

Curr Drug Metab 2007 Feb;8(2):91-107

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, PGRD, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Ophthalmic drugs are delivered to ocular tissues predominantly via relatively simple formulations, such as topically dosed water-soluble drug solutions and water-insoluble drug suspensions in ointments. An ideal topical drug delivery system should possess certain desirable properties, such as good corneal and conjunctival penetration, prolonged precorneal residence time, easy instillation, non-irritative and comfortable to minimize lachrymation and reflex blinking, and appropriate rheological properties. In general, ocular efficacy is closely related to ocular drug bioavailability, which may be enhanced by increasing corneal drug penetration and prolonging precorneal drug residence time. To improve ocular bioavailability of topically dosed ophthalmic drugs, a variety of ocular drug delivery systems, such as hydrogels, microparticles, nanoparticles, microemulsions, liposomes and collagen shields, have been designed and investigated. These newer systems may, to some extent, control drug release and maintain therapeutic levels in ocular tissues over a prolonged period of time. This review focuses on the in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies of ophthalmic drugs formulated in nanoparticles published over the past two decades. The progress and development issues relating to ocular disposition, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of the nanoparticle-formulated ophthalmic drugs are specifically addressed. Information and discussions summarized in this review are helpful for pharmaceutical scientists to develop better ophthalmic therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920007779815977DOI Listing
February 2007

Peripheral white blood cell toxicity induced by broad spectrum cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

J Appl Toxicol 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):133-42

Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla Laboratories, 10777 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been pursued for more than a decade for the treatment of cancer. CDK inhibitors are expected to slow the rate of cell division and potentially increase the apoptotic fraction of rapidly dividing cells. Although CDK activity is often increased in tumors, normal dividing tissues are also susceptible to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of CDK inhibitor action. Therefore the typical toxicity profile associated with cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy, bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal toxicity, is expected with CDK inhibitors. Bone marrow toxicity and the ensuing delayed peripheral leukocyte suppression often limit the therapeutic application of cytotoxic anticancer drugs. Here we characterize an unusual bone marrow-independent acute toxicity toward leukocytes from broad spectrum CDK inhibitors in monkeys and rodents. The potential combination of both acute and delayed immunosuppression would likely further restrict the application of these particular compounds. Since the cells targeted were non-proliferating, it was assumed that the toxicity was not driven by the intended pharmacological mechanism thereby facilitating the development of a testing strategy to identify compounds with a reduced potential for acute leukocyte toxicity. This testing strategy resulted in a CDK inhibitor void of bone marrow-independent leukocyte toxicity that is currently undergoing clinical testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1177DOI Listing
April 2007