Publications by authors named "Tarun Belwal"

43 Publications

Phytostilbenes as agrochemicals: biosynthesis, bioactivity, metabolic engineering and biotechnology.

Nat Prod Rep 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359-16471, Iran.

Covering: 1976 to 2020.Although constituting a limited chemical family, phytostilbenes represent an emblematic group of molecules among natural compounds. Ever since their discovery as antifungal compounds in plants and their ascribed role in human health and disease, phytostilbenes have never ceased to arouse interest for researchers, leading to a huge development of the literature in this field. Owing to this, the number of references to this class of compounds has reached the tens of thousands. The objective of this article is thus to offer an overview of the different aspects of these compounds through a large bibliography analysis of more than 500 articles. All the aspects regarding phytostilbenes will be covered including their chemistry and biochemistry, regulation of their biosynthesis, biological activities in plants, molecular engineering of stilbene pathways in plants and microbes as well as their biotechnological production by plant cell systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0np00030bDOI Listing
December 2020

Phytosterols and their derivatives: Potential health-promoting uses against lipid metabolism and associated diseases, mechanism, and safety issues.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 07 22;19(4):1243-1267. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China.

Consumption of phytosterols (PSs), the plant-based analogs of cholesterol, can reduce serum cholesterol levels. This review discusses the current state of the art into the research of the structural features and dietary sources of PSs and their derivatives. The effect of PSs on individual lipid metabolites is summarized in the present review. PS-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity, and the alleviation of inflammatory bowel diseases are discussed. PSs reduce the risk of having NAFLD by improving the blood biochemical parameters related to lipid transport and metabolism. However, current research on the circulating PSs indicates its safety concern regarding fatty liver disease induction. In addition, PS oxidation products exhibit pro-atherogenic properties, cytotoxicity oxidative stress, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory properties. Further research is needed to investigate the bioavailability and safety issues of PSs and their derivatives in animal models and clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12560DOI Listing
July 2020

Nanomaterial-based biosensors for sensing key foodborne pathogens: Advances from recent decades.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 07 7;19(4):1465-1487. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Foodborne pathogen contamination has become a severe threat to human health. Traditional methods for foodborne pathogen detection have several disadvantages, including long detection time, low sensitivity, and low selectivity. The emergence of multiple excellent nanomaterials enables the construction of novel biosensors for foodborne pathogen detection. Based on the outstanding properties of nanomaterials, the novel biosensors possess the advantages of sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, accuracy, and simplicity. The present review comprehensively summarizes the advanced biosensors, including electrochemical, colorimetric, fluorescent, and surface enhanced Raman scattering biosensors for sensing key foodborne pathogens in recent decades. Furthermore, several issues are identified for further exploration, and possible directions for the development of biosensors are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12576DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of the status quo of polyphenols analysis: Part I-phytochemistry, bioactivity, interactions, and industrial uses.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 Nov 31;19(6):3191-3218. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, are gaining more attention from both the scientific community and food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries due to their implications in human health. In this line, lately new applications have emerged, and of great importance is the selection of accurate and reliable analytical methods for better evaluation of the quality of the end-products, which depends on diverse process variables as well as on the matrices and on the physicochemical properties of different polyphenols. The first of a two-part review on polyphenols will address the phytochemistry and biological activities of different classes of polyphenols including flavonoids, lignans and flavanolignans, stilbenoids, tannins, curcuminoids, and coumarins. Moreover, the possible interactions of polyphenols and current and potential industrial applications of polyphenols are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12629DOI Listing
November 2020

Flavonoids targeting NRF2 in neurodegenerative disorders.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Dec 16;146:111817. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy Gazi University 06330, Etiler/Ankara Turkey. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by progressive loss of neurons. To date, no efficacious therapies exist for these disorders, and current therapies provide only symptomatic relief. The neuroprotective effects of natural compounds have been reported in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebral ischemia and brain tumors. Flavonoids are the most widely studied natural products for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) represents a complex gene regulated cytoprotective pathway. Several natural compounds have been identified as Nrf2 regulators in various chronic disorders, including carcinogenic, liver ailments, inflammatory conditions, neurodegeneration, diabetes and cardiotoxicities. The current review focuses on Nrf2 targeting by flavonoids in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, addressing the most contemporary information available on this timely subject.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111817DOI Listing
December 2020

High Carbon Dioxide Treatment Modulates Sugar Metabolism and Maintains the Quality of Fresh-Cut Pear Fruit.

Molecules 2020 Sep 17;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of 10% carbon dioxide (CO) on the fruit quality and sugar metabolism of fresh-cut pear during storage. The results indicated that carbon dioxide treatment maintained fruit quality by delaying the decline of firmness and promoting the accumulation of total soluble solids (TSS). Moreover, carbon dioxide enhanced activities of sucrose synthase (SS), and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). The activities of amylase, acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), SS-cleavage, fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH), and NADP-SDH in CO-treated fruit were inhibited. Expression levels of key genes were found to correspond with the related enzyme activities. As a result, the accumulation of glucose, fructose, sorbitol, and sucrose were accelerated by CO, which were 12.58%, 13.86%, 24.7%, and 13.9% higher than those of the control at the end of storage, respectively. The results showed that CO could maintain the quality of fresh-cut pears by regulating the conversion of various sugar components to enhance soluble sugars content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571186PMC
September 2020

Genus Blepharis (Acanthaceae): A review of ethnomedicinally used species, and their phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jan 13;265:113255. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan; Program for Leading Graduate Schools, Health Life Science: Interdisciplinary and Glocal Oriented (HIGO) Program, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Blepharis is an Afro-Asiatic genus belonging to the family Acanthaceae. It comprises about 126 species that occur in arid and semi-arid habitats. Some species of Blepharis are used in traditional medicines in different countries mainly for their anti-inflammatory, wound healing activities along with treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and bone fractures.

Aim Of The Review: The present review aims to collate and analyze the available data and information on distribution, traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Blepharis.

Methods: Scientific information of genus Blepharis was retrieved from the online bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science and Google Scholar and secondary resources including books and proceedings.

Results: Seven species of Blepharis were found to be reported frequently as useful in folklore in African and Asian countries. B. maderaspatensis was found to be widely used in Indian traditional medicines whereas the B. ciliaris and B. edulis were common in folklore of Egypt, Jordan, and Arabia. Active phytochemicals of Blepharis are flavonoids from B. ciliaris, alkaloids from B. sindica, phenolic acid derivatives, and phytosterols, and derivatives of hydroxamic acids from B. edulis resulted in possessing diverse biological properties such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer.

Conclusions: Various species of Blepharis were found to be used in traditional medicine systems in African and Asian countries. Few of these species were studied for their bioactive chemical constituents however the activity guided isolation studies are not performed. Similarly, detailed pharmacological studies in animal models to explore their mechanism of action are also not reported. Future studies should focus on these aspects related to the medicinally used species of Blepharis. The detailed and comprehensive comparative analysis presented here gives valuable information of the currently used Blepharis species and pave the way to investigate other useful species of Blepharis pertaining to ethnobotany, phytochemistry and discovery of new drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113255DOI Listing
January 2021

Anthocyanins, multi-functional natural products of industrial relevance: Recent biotechnological advances.

Biotechnol Adv 2020 11 18;43:107600. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China; National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang R&D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Anthocyanins, the color compounds of plants, are known for their wide applications in food, nutraceuticals and cosmetic industry. The biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins is well established with the identification of potential key regulatory genes, which makes it possible to modulate its production by biotechnological means. Various biotechnological systems, including use of in vitro plant cell or tissue cultures as well as microorganisms have been used for the production of anthocyanins under controlled conditions, however, a wide range of factors affects their production. In addition, metabolic engineering technologies have also used the heterologous production of anthocyanins in recombinant plants and microorganisms. However, these approaches have mostly been tested at the lab- and pilot-scales, while very few up-scaling studies have been undertaken. Various challenges and ways of investigation are proposed here to improve anthocyanin production by using the in vitro plant cell or tissue culture and metabolic engineering of plants and microbial culture systems. All these methods are capable of modulating the production of anthocyanins , which can be further utilized for pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2020.107600DOI Listing
November 2020

Recent advances in polysaccharides stabilized emulsions for encapsulation and delivery of bioactive food ingredients: A review.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Aug 23;242:116388. Epub 2020 May 23.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, People's Republic of China; Fuli Institute of Food Science, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Many bioactive food ingredients were encapsulated in different forms to improve their stability and bioavailability. Emulsions have showed excellent properties in encapsulation, controlled release, and targeted delivery of bioactives. Polysaccharides are widely available and have different structures with different advantages including non-toxic, easily digested, biocompatible and can keep stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. In this review, the most common polysaccharides and polysaccharide based complexes as emulsifiers to stabilize emulsions in recent ten years are described. The close relationships between the types and structures of polysaccharides and their emulsifying capacities are discussed. In addition, the absorption and bioavailability of bioactive food components loaded in polysaccharide stabilized emulsions are summarized. The main goal of the review is to emphasize the important roles of polysaccharides in stabilizing emulsions. Moreover, speculations regarded to some issues for the further exploration and possible onward developments of polysaccharides stabilized emulsions are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116388DOI Listing
August 2020

Natural products, PGC-1 , and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2020 May 8;10(5):734-745. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 5613156491, Iran.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a transcriptional coactivator that binds to a diverse range of transcription factors. PPAR coactivator 1 (PGC-1) coactivators possess an extensive range of biological effects in different tissues, and play a key part in the regulation of the oxidative metabolism, consequently modulating the production of reactive oxygen species, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Owing to these findings, a large body of studies, aiming to establish the role of PGC-1 in the neuromuscular system, has shown that PGC-1 could be a promising target for therapies targeting neuromuscular diseases. Among these, some evidence has shown that various signaling pathways linked to PGC-1 are deregulated in muscular dystrophy, leading to a reduced capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In the light of these results, any intervention aimed at activating PGC-1 could contribute towards ameliorating the progression of muscular dystrophies. PGC-1 is influenced by different patho-physiological/pharmacological stimuli. Natural products have been reported to display modulatory effects on PPAR activation with fewer side effects in comparison to synthetic drugs. Taken together, this review summarizes the current knowledge on Duchenne muscular dystrophy, focusing on the potential effects of natural compounds, acting as regulators of PGC-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276681PMC
May 2020

Targeting epigenetics in cancer: therapeutic potential of flavonoids.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 1:1-24. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Irrespective of sex and age, cancer is the leading cause of mortality around the globe. Therapeutic incompliance, unwanted effects, and economic burdens imparted by cancer treatments, are primary health challenges. The heritable features in gene expression that are propagated through cell division and contribute to cellular identity without a change in DNA sequence are considered epigenetic characteristics and agents that could interfere with these features and are regarded as potential therapeutic targets. The genetic modification accounts for the recurrence and uncontrolled changes in the physiology of cancer cells. This review focuses on plant-derived flavonoids as a therapeutic tool for cancer, attributed to their ability for epigenetic regulation of cancer pathogenesis. The epigenetic mechanisms of various classes of flavonoids including flavonols, flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanidins, such as cyanidin, delphinidin, and pelargonidin, are discussed. The outstanding results of preclinical studies encourage researchers to design several clinical trials on various flavonoids to ascertain their clinical strength in the treatment of different cancers. The results of such studies will define the clinical fate of these agents in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1763910DOI Listing
June 2020

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.: A review on traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 20;34(10):2518-2533. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are widely used as crude drugs in various traditional medicine systems. The aim of this article is to review the available scientific information regarding the traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and the pharmacological activities of T. chebula. Numerous researches conducted on T. chebula have confirmed the presence of wide range of the phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids and other bioactive compounds. T. chebula is also widely studied regarding its pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activities among others. However, more in vivo and clinical studies for mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation should be conducted in future to provide stronger scientific evidences for their traditional uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6702DOI Listing
October 2020

Interaction and binding mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to ovalbumin in varying pH conditions: A spectroscopic and molecular docking study.

Food Chem 2020 Aug 15;320:126616. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, China; National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang R&D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Egg ovalbumin (OVA) as a prevalent dietary protein and has the potential to serve as a carrier for unstable bioactive compounds, however, understanding their interaction mechanism is the preliminary step. In this work, the interactions between cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and OVA in both acidic and neutral pH environment were investigated by spectroscopic methods and molecular docking analysis. The results revealed that fluorescence quenching mechanism of OVA-C3G was predominantly static. The main acting forces were hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces under varying pH conditions. However, the binding affinity of C3G to OVA was higher in neutral environment than that in acidic condition. The binding of C3G slightly increased the diameter of the complex, resulting in increase of α-helix, decrease of β-turn, random coil, and total main secondary structure. Moreover, the thermostability of C3G was significantly improved after OVA addition, suggesting its promising application in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126616DOI Listing
August 2020

Phytopharmacology and Clinical Updates of Species Against Diabetes and Other Metabolic Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:41. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The incidences of diabetic mellitus and other metabolic diseases such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia are increasing worldwide; however, the current treatment is not able to control the rapidly increasing trend in diabetes mortality and morbidity. Studies related to the effectiveness of extracts and pure compounds obtained from plants have shown promising responses in preclinical and clinical studies related to these metabolic diseases. Plants belonging to the genus (Family: Berberidaceae) are widely distributed with nearly 550 species worldwide. Extracts and compounds obtained from species, especially Berberine alkaloid, showed effectiveness in the management of diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Various pharmacological experiments have been performed to evaluate the effects of extracts, berberine, and its natural and chemically synthesized derivatives against various cell and animal disease models with promising results. Various clinical trials conducted so far also showed preventive effects of extracts and berberine against metabolic diseases. The present review focuses on i) research updates on traditional uses, ii) phytopharmacology and clinical studies on species, and iii) active metabolites in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and other metabolic diseases with a detailed mechanism of action. Furthermore, the review critically analyzes current research gaps in the therapeutic use of species and berberine and provides future recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040237PMC
February 2020

Effects of elevated CO on pigment metabolism of postharvest mandarin fruit for degreening.

Food Chem 2020 Jul 22;318:126462. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang R&D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Degreening is widely used in citrus fruit to extend the market season for economic gains and increase the consumer acceptance. Elevated CO was exogenously applied to Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) for degreening and its effect on pigment metabolism was investigated. The results revealed 15% CO treatment accelerated the citrus fruit peel color change along with the chlorophyll degradation, β-cryptoxanthin and flavonoids accumulation. The expression of CitSGR, CitNYC, CitChlase, CitPPH, CitPAO and CitRCCR genes involved in chlorophyll metabolism and a set of genes involved in producing β, β-xanthophylls were up-regulated by elevated CO. For flavonoid metabolism, the up-regulated expressions of CitPAL, CitCHS and CitCHI partly explained the increased total flavonoids content. These results showed that 15% CO treatment improved the visual appearance of citrus fruits due to its impact on pigment metabolism and also maintained their nutritional value, thus could be employed as a potential commercial technique for citrus degreening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126462DOI Listing
July 2020

Chitosan-based melatonin bilayer coating for maintaining quality of fresh-cut products.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 May 11;235:115973. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory for Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100, China. Electronic address:

This work was designed to develop the chitosan-based melatonin layer-by-layer assembly (CMLLA) via the inclusion method. The structural characterizations and interaction present in CMLLA were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The ratio of chitosan (CH) to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) greatly influenced the mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, moisture content and color performance. Results showed that both antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of CMLLA were enhanced with the addition of melatonin (MLT). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the CMLLA with 1.2 % (w/v) CH, 0.8 % (w/v) CMC and 50 mg/L MLT better contributed to the delay of chlorophyll degradation and the maintenance of shelf-life quality. Results from this study might open up new insights into the approaches of quality improvement of postharvest fresh products by incorporating the natural antioxidant compounds into natural polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115973DOI Listing
May 2020

FaMYB9 is involved in the regulation of C6 volatile biosynthesis in strawberry.

Plant Sci 2020 Apr 24;293:110422. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Key Laboratory for Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100, China; National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang Engineering Laboratory of Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The large-scale untargeted proteomic and metabolomic studies were conducted in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cv. Akihime fruit at five developmental stages. We found that some C6 volatiles highly contributed to the enrichment of volatiles at the red stage of strawberry fruit. We found that 12 genes involved in LOX pathway for volatile biosynthesis showed multiple patterns in protein abundance during fruit development and ripening, and 9 out of the 12 genes exhibited a significant increase in their relative expression levels at the red stage of fruit. We also found that the MYB9 gene (FaMYB9) expression level was positively correlated with the content of C6 volatiles (R = 0.989) and with the relative expression level and protein abundance of FaLOX5 at different strawberry fruit developmental stages (R = 0.954). The interaction between FaMYB9 and FaLOX5 was detected by yeast two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and immunofluorescence (IF) analyses. Transient silencing of FaMYB9 delayed the fruit development and ripening, resulting in a significant decrease in the contents of C6 volatiles, while overexpression of FaMYB9 increased the fruit development and ripening and the contents of C6 volatiles in Akihime fruit. Therefore, FaMYB9 is positively involved in C6 volatile biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110422DOI Listing
April 2020

Phytosterols extraction from hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) husk with a green direct citric acid hydrolysis extraction method.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 16;315:126217. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the direct citric acid hydrolysis extraction method to optimize phytosterols extraction from hickory husk. Single factor experiments followed by a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experiments were performed. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as: pH of 2.0, liquid-to-solid ratio of 17.12: 1 mL/g, and temperature of 55.81 °C. Practical experiments were carried out in triplicate, and subsequently yielded phytosterols of 912.452 ± 17.452 μg/g DW, in good consistence with the predicted extraction yield of 902.874 μg/g DW. The conductivity of the extract was also found to play effective role under direct citric acid hydrolysis and recorded 36.30 ± 1.08 μs/cm at optimum extraction condition. β-Sitosterol stigmasterol, campsterol, ergosterol and lupeol were detected as main PSs and triterpenoids in hickory husk using UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS. Finally, the comparison between direct hydrolysis extraction and traditional solvent extraction showed that this new method was more effective and eco-friendlier to extract both free and conjugated phytosterols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126217DOI Listing
June 2020

Optimized microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of alkaloids and polyphenols from Berberis roots using multiple-component analysis.

Sci Rep 2020 01 22;10(1):917. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Kosi Katarmal, Almora, 263643, Uttarakhand, India.

Berberis, one of the major sources of berberine and polyphenols, is widely accepted genus for its medicinal properties. The inclusion of these phytochemicals in different health formulations has widened its scope in pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. In the present study, multi-component analysis (MCA) has been used to extract these nutraceutical compounds from Berberis jaeschkeana roots under microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions. To determine the optimum extraction condition, different factors, including, microwave power, sample to solvent ratio, irradiation time, solvent pH and solvent concentration were tested under 42 experiments. The MCA includes, Plackett-Burmen and Central Composite Design and analyzes model fitness, regression coefficient (β), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 3D response curve. The results showed significant model fitness and involvement of linear, quadratic and interactive effect of different factors. Under optimized MAE condition, [i.e. 1 g of sample extracted through 70 mL of a solution (100% methanol pH 2.0), provided microwave power of 598 W for 2 min of irradiation time], the berberine and palmatine contents were recorded as 46.38 mg g and 20.54 mg g respectively. Under optimized condition, the yield of alkaloids were found closer to the models' predicted value. Similarly, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were also found closer to the models' predicted value. To test the suitability of the optimized MAE condition for other species i.e., Berberis asiatica, extraction of alkaloids and polyphenolics was conducted and recorded higher yield to the previous records. Moreover, under optimum extraction condition, six and seven polyphenolic compounds from B. jaeschkeana and B. asiatica were quantified respectively. The proposed MAE optimization design using MCA contributes towards faster and greener extraction of alkaloids and polyphenolics with higher yield. Moreover these greener approaches could sustainably utilize species during extract preparation and harnessing its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential. This study design could also be replicated on other valuable species or compounds for effective extraction of nutraceutical components and sustainable utilization of natural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57585-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976575PMC
January 2020

Relationship of Wine Consumption with Alzheimer's Disease.

Nutrients 2020 Jan 13;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Deptartment of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, 65100 Chieti, Italy.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space, and other cognitive and physical manifestations. The pathology of AD is characterized by neuronal loss and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in AD is being actively studied, and nutrition is one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest, with varying and often conflicting results. Scope and Approach: With this review, we aimed to critically summarize the main relevant studies to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as how frequency and/or amount of drinking may influence the effects. Key Findings and Conclusions: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, no definitive results highlight if light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, or if alcohol intake could reduce risk of developing AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019227PMC
January 2020

Improved lead removal from aqueous solution using novel porous bentonite - and calcite-biochar composite.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 18;709:136171. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Research Group for Advanced Materials & Sustainable Catalysis (AMSC), State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China; Qing Yang Institute for Industrial Minerals, You Hua, Qing Yang 242804, An Hui, China. Electronic address:

Biochar-mineral (bentonite/calcite) composite (BC-CM) prepared at different temperatures were tested under varied conditions for effective removal of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, increased surface area, pore volume, bentonite decomposition and less or no decomposition of calcite occurred. Bentonite-biochar (BCS) and calcite-biochar (CCS) prepared at 700 °C were found most suitable for efficient removal of Pb (99.9%). Bentonite and calcite acted as catalyst and contributed to changes in yield, pH, texture, functional groups, minerals and carbonization that facilitated efficient Pb removal by BCS 700 and CCS 700. Pb concentration, pH, dose of BCS and CCS, and contact time were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for maximizing removal percentage (R%) of Pb and adsorption capacity (qt). Both BCS 700 and CCS 700 showed similar effects (positive/negative) of factors on R% and qt. Under optimized conditions, 0.21 g of BCS 700 effectively removed 99.2% of 431 mg/L in 3.6 h at solution pH of 4.2, while 0.07 g CCS 700 removed 97.06% of 232 mg/L in 3.5 h at 5.5 pH. Removal of Pb onto both BCS and CCS was by monolayer adsorption with maximum adsorption capacity of 500 mg/g. Rapid Pb removal was observed within 2 h of contact time (CCS 700 > BCS 700) and equilibrium was achieved within 10 h. BCS 700 followed first order and CCS 700 followed second order kinetic model. Electrostatic attraction between Pb ions and mineral groups present in BCS 700 and CCS 700 also played important role in Pb removal. This study clearly demonstrated that composite of biochar with bentonite or calcite under optimized conditions significantly improved Pb removal and adsorption capacity that can be further utilized for larger scale applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136171DOI Listing
March 2020

Exogenous Melatonin and Abscisic Acid Expedite the Flavonoids Biosynthesis in Grape Berry of cv. Kyoho.

Molecules 2019 Dec 18;25(1). Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory for Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Grape polyphenols contributing to more than half of the global polyphenol market were well studied; however, how melatonin (MLT), a potential plant hormone, and abscisic acid (ABA) affects polyphenols profile is still poorly understood. To explore whether these hormones are involved in polyphenolic biosynthesis, grape ( cv. Kyoho) was exposed to MLT, ABA, and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) treatments, and 16 polyphenols were identified from grape extracts by high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Both exogenous MLT and ABA significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of each flavonol and flavanol component, especially catechin, which was almost increased double by 200 µM of MLT treatment. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including 4-coumaroyl-CoA synthase, chalcone synthase, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, anthocyanin 3'-methyltransferase, flavonol synthase, flavonoid-3--glucosyltransferase, and flavonoid 3',5'-methyltransferase were highly up-regulated as well but were down-regulated by NDGA. The present study provided new insights for improving flavonoids accumulation in agricultural production and its underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983125PMC
December 2019

Effect of Nano-SiOx/Chitosan Complex Coating on the Physicochemical Characteristics and Preservation Performance of Green Tomato.

Molecules 2019 Dec 12;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Agro-Food Processing, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

A novel nano-silicon oxides (SiOx)/chitosan complex film was prepared using ultrasonic assistant in the process of dissolving chitosan and silicon oxides (SiOx), and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Its effect on quality preservation of tomatoes ( L. cv. Zheza 205) was investigated under ambient temperature. The results revealed that the nano-SiOx/chitosan complex (NSCC) film retarded weight loss and softness, delayed the titratable acids and total soluble solids loss, and thus markedly extended shelf life of green tomatoes. The antimicrobial activity of tomatoes coated with NSCC film was also recorded higher compared to chitosan (Ch) films and control. In addition, the NSCC film-coated tomatoes prevent the increase of malondialdehyde content and total polyphenol content. Moreover, the peroxidase activity, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, and polyphenoloxidase activity of tomatoes coated with NSCC film were found lower than that in other treatments. These data indicated that the beneficial effects of nano-SiOx/chitosan complex coating on postharvest quality were possibly associated with the lower rate of O/CO transmission coefficient, limiting food-borne pathogenic bacterial growth, higher antioxidant activities, and also higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and anti-browning activities of related enzymes in the tomatoes. Further, the results of the study could be used to successfully develop a novel nano-SiOx/chitosan complex film for improving the postharvested quality of tomatoes and thus effectively utilized by the food packaging industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943560PMC
December 2019

Ultrasonic-assisted modifications of macroporous resin to improve anthocyanin purification from a Pyrus communis var. Starkrimson extract.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 Apr 3;62:104853. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The present study presents an attempt to modify the surface properties of macroporous resins (MRs) in order to improve anthocyanin adsorption and desorption from Pyrus communis var Starkrimson fruit peel extract. A number of MRs were tested to optimise the ultrasonic-assisted adsorption (UAA) conditions; including ultrasonic power (100-400 W), resin-to-extract ratio (1-3 g/50 mL) and temperature (20-40 °C). Similarly, varying ultrasonic-assisted desorption (UAD) conditions were optimised; including ultrasonic power (200-600 W), resin-to-solvent ratio (1-4 g/50 mL), ethanol concentration (60-90% v/v) and temperature (20-40 °C). The Amberlyst 15 (H) cationic resin was found to be superior to the other tested resins. The maximum adsorption capacity (659 µg/g) of cyanidin 3-galactoside (Cy 3-gal) was achieved under the optimised UAA conditions (400 W, 20 °C and 1 g/50 mL), while 616 µg/g of Cy 3-gal was recovered under the optimised UAD conditions (582 W, 1 g/50 mL, 60% and 20 °C). Moreover, titratable-acid and total-sugar contents were found to be significantly lower under UAA than under conventional-assisted adsorption (CAA). ANOVA revealed that process factors had significant effects on the Cy 3-gal purification, as depicted by their linear, quadratic and interactive effects. While anthocyanin adsorption was found to be significantly improved at lower ultrasonic power, higher power promoted the desorption process. Adsorption under optimized UAA conditions followed pseudo second-order kinetics and multilayer adsorption (Freundlich isotherm) onto the Amberlyst 15 (H) resin surface was observed. The particle-size distribution curve and scanning electron microscopic images also revealed higher resin-surface roughness, peeling and the appearance of pores on the surface under ultrasonication.This is the first study to use ultrasonication to modify a cationic exchange resin for the improvement of Cy 3-gal purification from a fruit extract. This study can recommend the use of ultrasonication as a low-cost green technique that can improve macroporous resin characteristics for better purification of compounds from an extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104853DOI Listing
April 2020

Oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease: Do all roads lead to Rome?

Pharmacol Res 2020 01 30;151:104582. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative pathology affecting milions of people worldwide associated with deposition of senile plaques. While the genetic and environmental risk factors associated with the onset and consolidation of late onset AD are heterogeneous and sporadic, growing evidence also suggests a potential link between some infectious diseases caused by oral microbiota and AD. Oral microbiota dysbiosis is purported to contribute either directly to amyloid protein production, or indirectly to neuroinflammation, occurring as a consequence of bacterial invasion. Over the last decade, the development of Human Oral Microbiome database (HOMD) has deepened our understanding of oral microbes and their different roles during the human lifetime. Oral pathogens mostly cause caries, periodontal disease, and edentulism in aged population, and, in particular, alterations of the oral microbiota causing chronic periodontal disease have been associated with the risk of AD. Here we describe how different alterations of the oral microbiota may be linked to AD, highlighting the importance of a good oral hygiene for the prevention of oral microbiota dysbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104582DOI Listing
January 2020

Whole-cell biocatalytic, enzymatic and green chemistry methods for the production of resveratrol and its derivatives.

Biotechnol Adv 2020 Mar - Apr;39:107461. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14359-16471, Iran. Electronic address:

Resveratrol and the biosynthetically related stilbenes are plant secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological effects. The versatile functions of these compounds in plant defense mechanisms as phytoalexins on one hand, and in human health as potential pharmaceutical agents on the other, have attracted lots of interest in recent years to understand their biosynthetic pathways and their biological properties. Because of difficulties in obtaining resveratrol and its glucosylated derivatives as well as oligomeric forms in sufficient amounts for evaluation of their activity by plant sourcing or total synthesis, biotechnology may provide a competitive approach for the large-scale and low cost production of biologically active stilbenes. Additionally, one major limitation in the use of resveratrol and related aglycone derivatives as therapeutic agents is associated with their inherent poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability. This article examines approaches for the synthesis of potential pharmacologically resveratrol derivatives in vivo by exploiting whole microorganisms, enzymatic and biocatalytic approaches allowing their full utilization for medicine, food and cosmetic applications. These methods also have the advantage of enabling the one-step production of stilbene compounds, compared to the time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly procedures used for their total synthesis or their extraction from plants. Increasing the desired products yield and biological activity through glucosylation (β-D-glucosides versus α-D-glucosides) and oligomerization methodologies of resveratrol including green chemistry methods in organic solvent-free media are discussed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2019.107461DOI Listing
May 2020

Sono-physical and sono-chemical effects of ultrasound: Primary applications in extraction and freezing operations and influence on food components.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 Jan 5;60:104726. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ultrasound is an advanced non-thermal food-processing technology that has received increasing amounts of interest as an alternative to, or an adjuvant method for, conventional processing techniques. This review explores the sono-physical and sono-chemical effects of ultrasound on food processing as it reviews two typical food-processing applications that are predominantly driven by sono-physical effects, namely ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF), and the components modifications to food matrices that can be triggered by sono-chemical effects. Efficiency enhancements and quality improvements in products (and extracts) using ultrasound are discussed in terms of mechanism and principles for a range of food-matrix categories, while efforts to improve existing ultrasound-assist patterns was also seen. Furthermore, the progress of experimental ultrasonic equipments for UAE and UAF as food-processing technologies, the core of the development in food-processing techniques is considered. Moreover, sono-chemical reactions that are usually overlooked, such as degradation, oxidation and other particular chemical modifications that occur in common food components under specific conditions, and the influence on bioactivity, which was also affected by food processing to varying degrees, are also summarised. Further trends as well as some challenges for, and limitations of, ultrasound technology for food processing, with UAE and UAF used as examples herein, are also taken into consideration and possible future recommendations were made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104726DOI Listing
January 2020

Flavonoids nanoparticles in cancer: Treatment, prevention and clinical prospects.

Semin Cancer Biol 2019 Jul 30. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Enzymoics, 7 Peterlee Place, Hebersham, NSW, 2770, Australia; Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Australia.

The conventional therapies for cancer have a major concern of poor accessibility to tumor tissues. Furthermore, the requirement of higher doses and non-selective nature of therapeutic are associated with a range of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, flavonoids are documented to be effective against various types of cancer, but they are not evaluated for their safety profile and tumor site-specific action. Low solubility, rapid metabolism and poor absorption of dietary flavonoids in gastrointestinal tract hinder their pharmacological potential. Some studies have also suggested that flavonoids may act as pro-oxidant in some cases and may interact with other therapeutic agents, especially through biotransformation. Nanocarriers can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic profile of incorporating drug. Moreover, nanocarriers are designed for targeted drug delivery, improving the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, delivery of macromolecules to site of action within the cell, combining therapeutic agents with imaging techniques which may visualize the site of drug delivery and co-delivery of two or more drugs. Combining two or more anti-cancer agents can reduce ADRs and nanotechnology played a pivotal role in this regard. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown the potential of flavonoids nano-formulations, especially quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, catechins and fisetin in the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. Similarly, clinical trials have been conducted using flavonoids alone or in combination, however, the nano-formulations effect still needs to be elucidated. This review focuses on the impact of flavonoids nano-formulations on the improvement of their bioavailability, therapeutic and safety profile and will open new insights in the field of drug discovery for cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.07.023DOI Listing
July 2019

Protein-polysaccharide complex coated W/O/W emulsion as secondary microcapsule for hydrophilic arbutin and hydrophobic coumaric acid.

Food Chem 2019 Dec 11;300:125171. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to examine the modification effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC), WPC-gum arabic (WPC-GA) or WPC-high methoxyl pectin (WPC-PEC) complex to tailor-modify W/O/W emulsion for secondary microencapsulation of hydrophilic arbutin and hydrophobic coumaric acid. The stability and rheological properties of coated emulsions, encapsulation yield, release and degradation kinetics of arbutin and coumaric acid were investigated. Results revealed that WPC-PEC complex (at the ratio of 1:3) coating W/O/W emulsion exhibited the highest viscosity and stability, with the highest encapsulation yield of 91.08% for arbutin and 80.92% for coumaric acid, respectively. Tighter coating structure of the WPC-PEC complex (1:3) forming a stronger gel network structure was confirmed, accounting for the larger mean particle size of 569.67 nm. Moreover, the WPC-PEC (1:3) coating W/O/W emulsion also showed controlled release of arbutin and coumaric acid in simulated conditions. The k value of degradation kinetics for arbutin (7.99 × 10 at pH = 1.2, 4.19 × 10 at 90 °C and 7.52 × 10 at UV-C treatment) and coumaric acid (5.18 × 10 at pH = 1.2, 3.24 × 10 at 90 °C and 6.90 × 10 at UV-C treatment) indicated low degradation rate. The present study revealed that the WPC-PEC (1:3) coating W/O/W emulsion could provide a better synergistic effect on higher encapsulation yield and stability of arbutin and coumaric acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125171DOI Listing
December 2019

Optimization model for ultrasonic-assisted and scale-up extraction of anthocyanins from Pyrus communis 'Starkrimson' fruit peel.

Food Chem 2019 Nov 11;297:124993. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Zhejiang University, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agri-Food Processing, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ultrasonic effect on extraction of cyanidin-3-galactoside (Cy3-gal) from pear fruit peel was investigated and compared with conventional extraction (CE) method. Different process factors were tested to determine the optimum conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Results revealed that under optimized UAE conditions (ultrasonic power = 162 W, temperature = 71 °C, trifluoroacetic acid = 3%, ethanol = 57%, ultrasonication time = 11 min, and sample to solvent ratio = 1:30 g/ml), Cy3-gal yield was significantly higher (0.34 3± 0.005 mg/g) than from CE (0.266 ± 0.004 mg/g), whereas the extract viscosity during UAE showed a negative impact. UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS analysis detected a total number of 13 anthocyanin compounds, out of which 8 were identified and that mainly consisted of cyanidin, delphinidin and petunidin compounds. Higher yield of Cy3-gal under UAE compared to CE was also justified by higher deformations in the cell structure. The possible mechanism of ultrasonication effect during the extraction process is also proposed in the present study. During scale-up UAE process, the extraction yield of Cy3-gal was recorded higher under batch scale-up compared to continuous operation. The present study is an attempt to optimize UAE of valuable anthocyanins from Pyrus communis 'Starkrimson' fruit peel and further scaled-up for higher volume extraction which can be utilized for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.124993DOI Listing
November 2019