Publications by authors named "Tarje Onsøien Halvorsen"

5 Publications

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High-dose versus standard-dose twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy for patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 03;22(3):321-331

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Oncology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for limited stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions is considered to be the most effective schedule. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-dose, twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy in 40 fractions improves survival.

Methods: This open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial was done at 22 public hospitals in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment-naive confirmed limited stage SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2, and measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 were eligible. All participants received four courses of intravenous cisplatin 75 mg/m or carboplatin (area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL × min, Calvert's formula) on day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m on days 1-3 every 3 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks (sized between 4 and 10) stratifying for ECOG performance status, disease stage, and presence of pleural effusion to receive thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions or 60 Gy in 40 fractions to the primary lung tumour and PET-CT positive lymph node metastases starting 20-28 days after the first chemotherapy course. Patients in both groups received two fractions per day, ten fractions per week. Responders were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation of 25-30 Gy. The primary endpoint, 2-year overall survival, was assessed after all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. All randomly assigned patients were included in the efficacy analyses, patients commencing thoracic radiotherapy were included in the safety analyses. Follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02041845.

Findings: Between July 8, 2014, and June 6, 2018, 176 patients were enrolled, 170 of whom were randomly assigned to 60 Gy (n=89) or 45 Gy (n=81). Median follow-up for the primary analysis was 49 months (IQR 38-56). At 2 years, 66 (74·2% [95% CI 63·8-82·9]) patients in the 60 Gy group were alive, compared with 39 (48·1% [36·9-59·5]) patients in the 45 Gy group (odds ratio 3·09 [95% CI 1·62-5·89]; p=0·0005). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (72 [81%] of 89 patients in the 60 Gy group vs 62 [81%] of 77 patients in the 45 Gy group), neutropenic infections (24 [27%] vs 30 [39%]), thrombocytopenia (21 [24%] vs 19 [25%]), anaemia (14 [16%] vs 15 [20%]), and oesophagitis (19 [21%] vs 14 [18%]). There were 55 serious adverse events in 38 patients in the 60 Gy group and 56 serious adverse events in 44 patients in the 45 Gy group. There were three treatment-related deaths in each group (one neutropenic fever, one aortic dissection, and one pneumonitis in the 60 Gy group; one thrombocytic bleeding, one cerebral infarction, and one myocardial infarction in the 45 Gy group).

Interpretation: The higher radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy resulted in a substantial survival improvement compared with 45 Gy, without increased toxicity, suggesting that twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy is an alternative to existing schedules.

Funding: The Norwegian Cancer Society, The Liaison Committee for Education, Research and Innovation in Central Norway, the Nordic Cancer Union, and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30742-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations between muscle measures, survival, and toxicity in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 10 28;11(5):1283-1290. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.

Background: Standard treatment for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) is concurrent platinum-etoposide chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT). Up to 30% of patients are cured, but severe toxicity is common, and we are not able to identify those who are cured or those who experience severe toxicity before chemoradiotherapy commences. Studies of other cancer patients show that low muscle mass and muscle radiodensity are associated with inferior survival and that a high drug dose per kilogram lean body mass (LBM) is associated with more toxicity, but this has not been investigated in LS SCLC. We analysed patients from a randomized trial comparing two schedules of TRT (n = 157) to investigate the prognostic and predictive role of these muscle measures in LS SCLC.

Methods: Patients from a trial comparing once daily hypofractionated with twice daily hyperfractionated TRT were analysed. The skeletal muscle index (SMI), skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD), and LBM were assessed from baseline computed tomography scans at the L3 level using the SliceOMatic software.

Results: Images at the L3 level were available for 122 patients (77.7%). Median age was 64 years, 18% had performance status 2, and 38% had stage III. Grade 3-4 toxicity was observed in 89%, and 5% died from treatment-related side effects. Overall, the median overall survival was 23 months, and the 5 year survival was 25%. Median LBM was 45.2 (range: 16-65) kg, the median SMI 44.8 (range: 29-77) cm /m , and the median SMD 39.3 (range 16-62) HU. There were no significant associations between survival and any of the muscle measures in the univariable analyses (SMI: P = 0.906, SMD: P = 0.829) or in multivariable analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics (SMI: P = 0.836, SMD: P = 0.260). A higher cisplatin dose per kilogram LBM in the first course significantly increased the risk of grade 3-4 haematological toxicity (P = 0.011) and neutropenic infections (P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Patients who received a high dose of cisplatin per kilogram LBM had more haematological toxicity and neutropenic infections than other patients. None of the muscle measures were independent prognostic factors for survival in our cohort of LS SCLC patients who underwent standard chemoradiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567150PMC
October 2020

Survival in Limited Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer According to N3 Lymph Node Involvement.

Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):871-876

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background/aim: There are several definitions of limited disease (LD) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), differing with respect to N3 disease accepted. We analyzed patients from a randomized trial comparing two schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in LD SCLC to investigate whether there were survival differences between N3 subcategories (n=144).

Patients And Methods: Patients with a baseline CT scan available were analysed. Patients received four courses of cisplatin/etoposide and TRT of 45 Gy/30 fractions (twice daily) or 42 Gy/15 fractions (once daily).

Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 23.3 months in the whole cohort. N3-patients (n=37) had shorter survival than those with N0-2 (16.7 vs. 33.0 months; p<0.001). There were no significant OS-differences between the N3 subcategories, but patients with metastases to two or more N3 regions had shorter survival than other N3 patients (13.4 vs. 19.9 months; p=0.011).

Conclusion: There were no survival differences between the N3 subcategories, suggesting that all N3 disease should be considered as LD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12296DOI Listing
February 2018

Tumour size reduction after the first chemotherapy-course and outcomes of chemoradiotherapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2016 12 15;102:9-14. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; The Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital-Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Objectives: Concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) is recommended for limited disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). TRT should start as early as possible, often meaning with the second course due to patient referral time and the fact that TRT planning takes time. Early assessment of response to the first course of chemotherapy may be a useful way to individualise treatment. The aims of this study were to assess tumour size reduction after the first chemotherapy-course, and whether this reduction was associated with outcomes in LD SCLC.

Material And Methods: A randomised trial comparing twice-daily (45Gy/30 fractions) with once-daily (42Gy/15 fractions) TRT, given concurrently with four courses of cisplatin/etoposide (n=157) was the basis for this study. Tumour size was assessed on CT scans at baseline and planning scans for TRT according to RECIST 1.0.

Results: CT scans were available for 135 patients (86%). Ninety-four percent had a reduction in tumour size after the first chemotherapy-course. The median reduction in sum of diameters (SOD) of measurable lesions was ÷16mm (÷84 to +10mm), corresponding to ÷18% (÷51 to +12%). Eighty-two percent had stable disease, 18% partial response. Reduction in SOD was significantly associated with complete response at first follow-up (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p=0.013), PFS (HR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99; p=0.001), and overall survival (HR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00; p=0.010).

Conclusion: Response from the first course of chemotherapy had a significant positive association with outcomes from chemoradiotherapy, and might be used to stratify and randomise patients in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2016.10.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Comorbidity and outcomes of concurrent chemo- and radiotherapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer.

Acta Oncol 2016 Nov 23;55(11):1349-1354. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

a Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine , NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology , Trondheim , Norway.

Background: Many patients with limited disease small cell lung cancer (LD SCLC) suffer from comorbidity. Not all patients with comorbidity are offered standard treatment, though there is little evidence for such a policy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with comorbidity had inferior outcomes in a LD SCLC cohort.

Material And Methods: We analyzed patients from a randomized study comparing two three-week schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) plus standard chemotherapy in LD SCLC. Patients were to receive four courses of cisplatin/etoposide and TRT of 45 Gy/30 fractions (twice daily) or 42 Gy/15 fractions (once daily). Responders received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Comorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), which rates conditions with increased one-year mortality.

Results: In total 157 patients were enrolled between May 2005 and January 2011. Median age was 63 years, 52% were men, 16% had performance status 2, and 72% stage III disease. Forty percent had no comorbidity; 34% had CCI-score 1; 15% CCI 2; and 11% CCI 3-5. There were no significant differences in completion rates of chemotherapy, TRT or PCI across CCI-scores; or any significant differences in the frequency of grade 3-5 toxicity (p = 0.49), treatment-related deaths (p = 0.36), response rates (p = 0.20), progression-free survival (p = 0.18) or overall survival (p = 0.09) between the CCI categories.

Conclusion: Patients with comorbidity completed and tolerated chemo-radiotherapy as well as other patients. There were no significant differences in response rates, progression-free survival or overall survival - suggesting that comorbidity alone is not a reason to withhold standard therapy in LD SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2016.1201216DOI Listing
November 2016